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creative 
GOiwpafciRfJ 

the #1 magazine of computer applications and software 



September 1982 
vol 8, no 9 
S2.95 



Database and File Systems: 

• Datafax • Visidex • Cardbox 

• DBMaster • Visifile • PFS 

• T.I.M. Ill • Filemanager 800 

• Versatile • B.P.I. General Ledger 



Interview With Steve Wozniak 



Columns: IBM, Atari, TRS-80 
Pet, New Products, Books, I/O 

New Computers from DEC and NEC 



Game Controls, Part 2 
(Whose hands are these?) 






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INTRODUCING 
MICROBUFFER. 



NOW YOU CAN USE YOUR PRINTER 
WITHOUT WASTING COMPUTER TIME. 



As you know, your computer 
drives your printer. And when it's 
performing this function, you 
can't use it for anything else. 

A program that takes fifteen 
minutes to print makes you wait 
fifteen minutes before you can 
compute again. And if it takes 
two hours to print, you wait two 
hours. 

A waste of valuable time. 

THE NEW MICROBUFFER 
INCREASES YOUR EFFICIENCY. 

Microbuffer allows you to print 
and process simultaneously. No 
waiting! 



ACCEPTS PRINTING DATA 

AS FAST AS YOUR 
COMPUTER CAN SEND IT. 

Microbuffer first stores the data 
in its own memory buffer and 
then takes control of your printer. 
This frees the computer for more 
productive functions. 

Additional output may be 
dumped to the buffer at any time 
and it will be printed in turn. 



MICROBUFFER WILL 
SPEED UP ANY PROGRAM 
THAT REQUIRES PRINTING. 

The full line of Microbuffers is 
designed to accommodate 
virtually any computer/printer 
combination. 

Microbuffers are available in 
Centronics-compatible parallel or 
RS-232C serial versions. 

FOR APPLE II COMPUTERS, 
Microbuffer II features on-board 
firmware for text formatting and 
advanced graphics dump 
routines. Both serial and parallel 
versions have very low power 
consumption. Special functions 
include Basic listing formatter, 
self-test, buffer zap, and 
transparent and maintain modes. 
The 16K model is priced at $259 
and the 32K, at $299. 

FOR EPSON PRINTERS, Microbuffer 
starts at $159 in either an 8K 
serial or a 16K parallel version. 
The serial buffer supports both 
hardware handshaking and XON- 
XOFF/ETX-ACK software hand- 
shaking at baud rates up to 
19,200. Both Epson interfaces are 
compatible with all Epson com- 
mands including GRAFTRAX-80. 
Both are user-expandable to 32K. 

ALL OTHER COMPUTER/PRINTER 
COMBINATIONS are served by the 
in-line, stand-alone Microbuffers. 



Both serial and parallel versions 
are expandable up to 256K. The 
serial stand-alone will support 
different input and output baud 
rates and handshake protocol. 
The 32K model starts at $299, 
64K for $349. 64K add-ons for up 
to a total of 256K are just 
$179.00. 

SIMPLE TO INSTALL 

Microbuffer II, being slot- 
independent, will fit into any slot 
directly inside the Apple except 
zero. 

Microbuffer for your Epson 
mounts easily in the existing 
auxiliary slot directly inside the 
Epson printer. 

The stand-alone Microbuffer is 
installed in-line between virtually 
any computer and any printer. 



When you think of how much 

time Microbuffer will save, 

can you afford to not have one? 

PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS, INC. ~ 
31245 LA BAYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE, CA 91362 
(213) 991-8200 

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The Galaxy Invaders Have 

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^'I^L of Skill and Excitement. 



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PO Box 9078-185 Van Nuys. CA 91409 (213) 782 6861 



Prices per Game TRS 80 1GK Lev2 Modi Mod3 ( 95 All Games 1980,1 

7RS80 32K Lev2 Modi Mod3 Diskette $19 95 Programs are writta 

Optional Joystick lot Moo. $39 9b effects. 

Iiscounl foi . for 3 .>i 'i - 8- other soun 

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Outside USi Call or wrn> 
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All Games 1980, 1981 by Bill Hogue & Jell Konyu 

Programs are written in machine language for high quality graphics & sound 

effects. 

Si other sound effects aie playable through the cassette AUX plug. 
High scores are automatically saved after each game on disk versions. 

Call Ol i catalog 



in this issue 



evaluations & profiles 

1 A Apple Game Controls Ahl 

Paddles and game port extenders 

JO Keyword Database Programs Coffey 

Datafax. Visidex and Cardbox 

43 File Managers Coffey 

DB Master and Visifile 



Coffey 



50 p * r *°nal Filing System 

Elegant, efficient, beautiful 

54 T.I.M. III Goodman 

Database Management for IBM PC 

33 Filemanager BOO Anderson 

69 Versatile , Haarbye 

Versatile file manager for TRS-80 

72 B.P.I. General Ledger Exner 

78 SATN Fastie 

Keeping VisiCalc smooth and silky 

OQ Monkey Wrench Anderson 

Prehensile programming for Atari 800 

82 Starshlp Commander Miller 

85 Lemmings Staples 

86 Hi-Res Golf Archibald 

88 Bl8St ,rom '"• Past Anderson 

Deluxe Invaders and K-razy Shootout 

90 A,ari Games Small & Small 

Dog Daze and Caverns of Mars 

Cover Contest: Playing Our Hands 

The cover photo shows some of the paddles and joysticks in 
our three-part series of evaluations (see page 14). The hands 
on the joysticks and paddles all belong to Creative Computing 
employees. Can you match the names on the masthead with 
the hands on the cover? 

We will award a free subscription (or renewal) to the first 
person who correctly identifies the eight people in the picture 
All entries must be received by midnight, October 31, 1982 
Send to: Hands. Ceative Computing, 39 E Hanover Ave.. Morris 
Plains. NJ 07950. 

Photo by David Ahl. 

September, 1982 
Volume 8, Number 9 

Creative Computing (ISSN 097-0140) is published monthly by Ahl Computing. 
Inc.. a subsidiary ol Zitt-Davis Publishing Company David Ahl. President. Elizabeth 
B Staples. Vice President. Selwyn Taubman. Treasurer. Bertram A Abrams. 
Secretary P O Box 789-M Mornstown. N J 07960 Second Class postage paid at 
New York. NY 10001 and at additional mailing offices 
Copyright ©l 982 by Ahl Computing Inc All rights reserved 

Editorial offices located at 39 East Hanover Ave Morris Plains NJ 07950 Phone 
(201 1 540-0445 

Domestic Subscriptions 12 issues S24 97 24 issues $43 97 36 issues S57 97 
POSTMASTER send address changes to Creative Computing. PO Box 5214. 
Boulder. CO 80321 Call 800-631-8112 toll-free (in New Jersey call 201-540- 
0445) to order a subscription 



V?PA fig 



articles 



96 

100 

101 
102 

112 

118 



Woz and Us Ahl& Staples 

An interview with Steve Wozniak 

All Hands on DEC 

Digital announces personal computer 

NEC Announces 16 Bit Machine 

Basic vs. Database Meyer 

Implementing a business application using Condor 20 



Comparing Prices 

A simple VisiCalc application 

The Graph Paper 

Part 3: moving experience 



1 26 Loo ° |dM * 
130 



How to Solve It 

Programming contest problems 



Ahl 

Lubar 

Lawler 
Piele 



applications & scft wane 

"| 46 A Modular Data Base 



-1 fiQ Searching Techniques 
' wv How to find it 

1 72 A,ari Diskf lie Tutorial 



1 78 Ge,,in Along without TAB 

An Atari translation 

1 80 Form » nin Lister 

Creating tidy Basic listings 



Pelczarski 
Mitchell 

White 
Pinho 



Doering 



departments 

8 Input/Output Readers 

1 Notices Fee 

1 2 7 Year * A B° Ah/ 

1 86 EWectlve Writing Archibald 

The electronic saltcellar 

1 88 ° ut P° ,t: Atarl Small & Small 

More on DOS menu options 

1 92 'BM Images 

208 TRS-80 Strings 



Fastie 

Gray 

Yob 



212 P8rsonal Electronic Transactions 

Epson commands and Petspeed 

218 New Products Hecht 

225 Computer Store of the Month Gibbons 

226 Boofc "••views Gray, etal. 

230 «•«■'< Ro»t«r 

233 Classified 

234 Index to Advertisers 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 























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advertising sales 




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Editor-in-Chief 


David H.Ahl 












Editor 


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Managing Editor 


Peter Fee 




Advertising Director 
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All subscriptions orders and other corre- 
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Creative Computing 




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Creative Computing 
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September 1982 e Creative Computing 





«!>«>«** 






TASC. The Applesoft Compiler. 

It turns your Apple into 

a power tool* 



Step up to speed. TASC. the Applesoft Compiler, 
converts a standard Applesoft BASIC program 
into super-fast machine code. By 
increasing program execution speed 
up to 20 times. Microsoft gives 
you a power tool for Applesoft 
BASIC programming. 
Highest capacity available. 
TASC will compile and run 
larger programs than any other 
Applesoft Compiler. As a 
disk-based system, it doesn't 
require the simultaneous pres- 
ence of compiler and program 
in memory. The memory you save 
allows you to compile significantly 
bigger programs. 

Power without bulk. Code expansion of up to 100% 
severely restricts other compilers. TASC's special 
code compression schemes typically limit code 
expansion to only 25%. You'll really appreciate that 
with complex programs or programs that utilize 
Apple's hires graphic pages. 
More BASIC power. TASC's powerful new 
commands increase Applesoft BASIC programming 
capability. Chain with COMMON allows compiled 
programs to share variables, so a main menu 

"Applesoft is a trademark of Apple Computer. Inc 

CIRCLE 190 ON READER 




supports several programs in a 
single runtime environment. 
TASC's True Integer Arithmetic 
and Integer FOR... NEXT 
capabilities maximize the execu- 
tion speed of compiled programs. 
TASC's near total compatibility 

with Applesoft speeds compil- 
ation of existing programs 
with little or no modification. 
What about mistakes? You 
perfect your programs inter- 
actively with Applesoft. If some- 
thing does slip by, TASC recovers 
from errors discovered in compilation 
and traps all runtime errors. It even permits 
graceful interruptions during compilation. 
See for yourself. Ask for a demonstration of 
TASC at your Microsoft dealer. Discover the software 
package that turns your Apple into a power tool. 

/MCftpSOfT 

V CONSUMER^ PRODUCTS f 

A Division of Microsoft Inc. 
10700 Northup Way • Bellevue. WA 98004 

SERVICE CARD 



jtput . . . input /output . . . input 



Obfuscation Obdurancy 

Dear Editor: 

Damn! Jack Nevison has let the cat out of the bag! Everyone 
else follows the rules when they put a Basic program listing 
into a popular computer magazine: 

1. Leave out REMs. They just take up space and slow down 
the computer. 

2. A space character is a waste character: Never hit the 
spacebar unless you absolutely have to. 

3. Don't forget the right side of the TV screen: You can 
probably get eight or ten statemments strung out before you 
have to hit Return. 

4. Be tricky. Use clever arithmetic. Use lots of GOTOs. 
People will think you're smart. 

Along comes Nevison with all that indentation and all those 
blank lines and all those short lines and all those REM 
statements. My God! You can even read his programs and 
figure them out. There's not a single trick there. It's a disgrace. 
Are then no standards? 

Someone has to take Nevison in tow. If you editors don't 

watch out, the whole world is going to find out they can write 

readable, well-structured, top-down programs in Basic. And 

then, what's going to happen to us poor Pascal authors? 

Without Basic to kick around, it could mean the soup lines. 

Damn! 

Arthur Luehrmann 

1466 Grizzly Peak Boulevard 

Berkeley, CA 94708 



Microsoft Basic + RAM Disk 
Does Not Compute 

Dear Editor: 

I would like to bring to the attention of your readership a 
matter of great importance concerning the Atari 800 computer 
system. I have a colleague who has purchased Microsoft 
Basic for the Atari 800. However, to his and my great 
disappointment and frustration, it does not support the Axlon 
RAMDisk (disk simulator) operating system. 

I'm sure that there really is no reason why the RAMDisk 
could not be supported, but Atari has chosen to use two 
protection scemes which make it impossible to load Microsoft 
Basic as a binary load file. 

I want to develop computer software and Atari's decision is 
hampering my ability to do so. I urge all interested parties to 
contact Atari. 

Dennis Baer 

868 Main Street 

Farmingdale, NY 11735 



VIC Keeps Its Cool 



Dear Editor: 

I am a high school student who does considerable work on 
my VIC-20. especially for science fairs and world history 
projects. Sometimes these take as much as 10K-12K of 
memory, which means long hours of programming. This 
causes overheating, which is quite dangerous for the 
computer. 

So I decided to do something. I inspected the bottom of (he 
VIC and found that at the right-hand side there are some 
openings. So 1 drilled a 3 1/2" hole in my desk with a jig-saw. 
and installed a "spider fan" (which cost about $7). That was 
the end of my problem. 

Now. even though my brother uses the VIC for long sessions 
of "Super Alien" and I use it for super-long programs, the 
VIC-20 remains quite cool. 

Roberto Morales, Jr. 

655 Hernandez St. 

Miramar. PR 00907 



No Codes Barred 

Dear Editor: 

I read with interest your reply to Frank Lambert's question 
"Could Creative Computing print its programs in bar code as 
well as typed form?" in the May, 1982 issue. 

Like Frank, I would like to find a quick way of putting 
Creative Computing's programs into my computer without 
typing hundreds of lines of code. 

I agree with your response that it just wouldn't be possible 
(economically) to make bar code available. Would it be 
possible to make your programs available on MicroNet or 
The Source''. Many of your readers already subscribe to one 
or the other. The programs could be made available in the 
public access area and just for the cost of connect time, a 
subscriber could download your programs and have them up 
and running in a matter of minutes. There are already several 
magazines on MicroNet (including Popular Electronics) but 
there aren't any computer magazines. I think this would be a 
great service to your readers. 

Bill Rosen 

4334 McKee St. 

Covington, KY 41015 

We would like to hear from readers about this. If you think 
it is a good idea and would use such a service, please let us 
know— a note on a postcard would be sufficient. —EBS 



September 1982 ' Creative Computing 



First, the IBM Personal Computer, 

The Next Step . . . 

Tecmar 




The TECMAR Expansion series is the first 
and only, complete line of expansion options 
available for the IBM Personal Computer. 

Now totaling over twenty-five separate 
options, the TECMAR series gives you the 
broadest range of expansion available for 
your IBM Personal Computer. 



SYSTEM EXPANSION with a comp- 
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additional system slots, a separate 
power supply and styling that com- 
plements the IBM system. 

MEMORY EXPANSION in 64K 
128K, 192K and 256K Byte incre- 
ments of Dynamic RAM with parity. 
32K Bytes of Static RAM, 32K Bytes 
of CMOS RAM with battery backup, or 
up to 128K Bytes of Read Only 
Memory. 

PRACTICAL EXPANSION with two 
Serial ports and one Parallel port on a 
single board, or a Time of Day 
calendar with battery backup, a Voice 
Synthesizer with vocabulary in ROM 
and phoneme speech generation, 
even a BSR X10" device controller 
for lights and appliances. 

DISK EXPANSION through the addition of a five or ten megabyte 
Winchester disk. The disk options come enclosed in the TECMAR 
Expansion Chassis, providing additional expansion slots as well as 
Winchester disk storage. This approach assures you of unmatched 
system expandability for nearly any application. 

FUNCTIONAL EXPANSION is also available with TECMAR 
Speed Disk'" and print Spooling Software that give new 
functionality to memory options. 

UNMATCHED EXPANSION for the serious IBM Personal Computer 
user through these and the many other TECMAR Expansion products 
available through participating COMPUTERLAND stores, and other 
fine computer retailers nationwide. 




LABORATORY/INDUSTRIAL EX- 
PANSION through an IEEE 488 
interface, the Lab Tender with an 8 bit 
A/D and D/A, or the Lab Master for 
12 bit A/D and D/A, a two axis 
Stepper Motor Controller, or the Parallel 
Digital-ln/Digital-Out Base 
Board ".Video Digitization 
with Video VanGogh". 

DEVELOPMENT EXPANSION using 
an E+EEPROM programmer, Proto- 
zoa prototyping boards or a TECMAR 
Extender card. 

NEW PRODUCTS are currently un 
der development with many soon to 
be announced. At present shipping 
26 unique IBM add-on products, we 
are still looking for needs to meet. If 
you have an need for a new product 
for the IBM Personal Computer, and 
would like to ask us about it. give a 
call on our Product Input Hotline at 
(216)464-8317. 




For IBM Personal Computer Expansion, TAKE THE NEXT STEP . 



Tecmar Inc. 



PERSONAL COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISION 
23600 Mercantile Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44122 
Telephone: (216)464-7410 Telex: 241735 



CIRCLE 249 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Jtput . . • input /output . . . input 



Loose Lips Sink Tips 



Dear Editor: 

The advice given in "I Don't Understand..." (June 1982) 
seems sincere, and may help a few windy or pompous writers. 
But, for the most part, it should be taken about as seriously as 
the insights offered by Sunday magazine section articles called 
Ten Ways to Improve Your Love Life, or Five Tips for 
Getting Along With Your Boss. 

Unfortunately, there's just no easy way to present technical 
information. The English language is too versatile and too 
complex to accept mastery by a few cut-and-dried rules; 
that's both its difficulty and its virtue. Would you tell a Basic 
programmer to avoid Functions, Subroutines, Matrices, and 
String-Handling Statements to mask his proficiency, or to 
make his programs more readable? 

The main, and most difficult, job of a technical writer is the 
judicious handling of numerous details. These must be 
organized intelligently, and presented in a manner that helps 
the reader follow the logic of that organization. 

Then, what whould a popular technical magazine suggest 
to potential writers? How about: "Have something worth 
saying, and say it as clearly as you can. Use some sort of an 
outline. It also doesn't hurt to give some examples." This 
presupposes some consideration for the reader, a good 
knowledge of the subject, and a lifetime of reading and 
writing. 

Jay Pastor 

Technical Writer 

Utica, NY 

Sound advice. Unfortunately many people writing today 
score well on your first two qualifications (presuppositions) 
and fall woefully short on the last. —EBS 




Clarifying GraForth 



Dear Editor: 

In reference to Michael Coffey's review of GraForth II, I 
think some points of clarification are necessary. As a 
programmer who started from scratch with the GraForth 
package when it first came out in March and who has written 
exclusively in that language since, I offer some important 
considerations. 

It is misleading to say that GraForth is machine language. 
Though it is true that the working version of any developed 
program or module is compiled, programming itself is done in 
a Forth-like language far simpler than machine code. At the 
same time, GraForth supports calls to other machine language 
routines and allows the programmer to view his Basic-like 
program listing at any time. 

I strongly disagree that "for 2-D animation all the languages 
are equally good." Try, for example, moving 15 to 25 objects 
at once through Basic. If the name of the game you are 
developing is "Snail Pace," then yes, they are equal. 

Also, it is important to recognize the differences in the 
manner in which 2-D character sets are created. With most 
tools this is a painstaking job during the creation process and 
a very wordy recall to print large character set designs. With 
GraForth the design process is simple, fast, and clear. The 
recall process involves two' or three simple commands to 
print small or large blocks. 

GraForth is also accompanied by excellent documentation 
and superb customer technical support. I am an end user who 
has just completed a marketable product using GraForth, 
and there is no question in my mind that it is a superior 
product for any graphics enthusiast. 

M. Max McKee, President 

Multi Data Service 

Pear Software Division 

407 Terrace 

Ashland, OR 97520 



"Today's computer weather forecast calls for a high in the seventies, and 
showers this evening followed by an attack of alien spaceships. " 



Don't Debug In The Bathtub, Either 

Dear Editor: 

The suggestion from Mr. Press in the May "Input/Output" 
to eliminate static electricity problems with the TRS-80 Model 
I (a metal clamp around the wrist wired to ground) is very 
dangerous and should not be used. 

Never ground your body through a low impedance path 
when working near electrical equipment. 

The method suggested is particlarly hazardous, since if the 
free hand touches an electrically "hot" potential, current will 
flow across (or through) the heart; an area where a few 
milliamps can be fatal. 

N. Edward Walker 

President 

Ampli-Tek 

4341 W. Kennedy Blvd. 

Tampa, FL 33609 

Use a I megohm resistor between the radiator clamp and 
ground, and all will be well Otherwise, purchase a commercial 
grounding bracelet. —MC 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 




by Peter Fokos 




You havenl lived until youve died in space. 




And here's your chance. 

Software author Peter Fokos has created Alien 
Ambush, a space age nightmare. This hi-res, full-color 
arcade game is written completely in assembly 
language to give those nasty aliens every advantage. 

So if you have access to a 48K Apple* with DOS 
3.3, and you're hot for some new thrills, Alien Ambush 
was written for you. But be warned: It just got a lot 
tougher to survive in space. 



Available at finer computer stores everywhere. "Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
Distributed exclusively by Micro D, 17406 Mt. Cliffwood Circle, Fountain Valley, CA 92708 (714) 540-4781 

CIRCLE 185 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



I ices . . . notices . . . notic 



Reward Increased 

Level-10 has increased the reward for 
the return of the Alkemstone from $5,000 
to $7,500. 

Alkemstone is a computer adventure 
which now offers a $7,500 cash reward to 
the first person who can find the missing 
Alkemstone. which is hidden "somewhere 
on the planet." 

Alkemstone is written in machine lan- 
guage for any Apple Computer with 48K. 
one 16-sector disk drive and Applesoft or 
language card. 



Timex Sinclair 1000 

The Timex Computer Corporation will 
enter the personal computer market with 
the Timex Sinclair 1000. Sales will begin 
in July through the more than 100,000 
Timex retail outlets, including computer 
stores, department stores and chains, 
consumer electronics, jewelry, and drug 
stores. This step is the result of an agree- 
ment between Timex and Sinclair 
Research Ltd. for Timex to market com- 



puters using Sinclair's technical expertise. 
Sinclair's mail order sales of the ZX81 
will be phased out as Timex begins its 
marketing program. The announcement 
of the Timex entry into this new field and 
of the agreement with Sinclair was made 
by Daniel D. Ross. Vice President of 
Timex Computer Corporation, and affili- 
ate of Timex Corporation, in New York 
on April 20. 

The Timex Sinclair 1000 is basically 
the Sinclair ZX81, which Timex has 
already been manufacturing in Dundee. 
Scotland, but with two major differences. 
First, the new machine will have 2K RAM 
instead of the current IK on the ZX81. 
Second, the new machine will sell for a 
suggested retail price of $99.95 instead of 
the $149.95 for the ZX81. Also featured 
will be an instruction manual especially 
written for the first time computer user 
with step by step instruction and a course 
in fundamental programming. 

Peripherals for the Timex Sinclair 1000 
will also be sold by Timex along with the 
basic machine. The first one available is 
the 16K RAM expansion module for 



$49.95 (Sinclair's current 16K RAM is 
$99.95). In the fourth quarter of 1982 a 
printer and a telephone modem are 
expected to go on sale for $99.95 each. 
The modem will offer a significant 
enhancement for many users and will 
feature: 300 BAUD, standard Bell Tele- 
phone jack attachments, and auto-dial 
capability. It will give a direct tie-in with 
large computer data services. 

Timex plans to supplement the hard- 
ware offerings with a range of software, 
including business, personal financial 
management, education, and entertain- 
ment. The price range of the programs is 
expected to be from $9.95 to $19.95. 

The marketing program will aim at the 
first-time computer buyer, the educational 
market, and computer buffs. The poten- 
tial market for personal computers is 
estimated at over 90,000,000 customers. 
In addition to instructional displays in the 
retail outlets, Timex plans to support the 
retailers with an extensive service net- 
work, a 90-day guarantee, and a national 
ad campaign beginning in August. 

—Paul Grosjean 




WATCH OUT 

TheOINKSare A 
loose! 




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PROGRAMMING AND INTERFACING WITH 
EXPERIMENTS by Andrew C Staugaard, Jr. 
demonstrates the ease with which the 6809 
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Or, check the sets that interest you, fill in the ordering information 

below, and mail us this ad. 



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LeRoy Finkel & Jerald R. Brown 
How to program and maintain data 
files for billings, catalogs and lists, 
numerical and statistical data, and 
much more. Includes one 5 'A" disk 

D THE TRS-80™ MEANS BUSINESS SET 
led G.Lewis 

Covers file merging, data base, 
word processing, payroll, financial 
analysis, and scores of other busi- 
ness applications. Includes one 8" 

FAST BASIC: BEYOND TRS-80™ BASIC SETS 

George A. Gratzer with Thomas G. Gratzer 
Learn a streamlined form of BASIC D 1-89844-9 Model 
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Available in disk or cassette for 
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quires 32K of memory.) 

D GOLDEN DELICIOUS GAMES FOR THE APPLE™ 
COMPUTER SET 

Howard M. Franklin, Joanne Kottnow, & LeRoy Finkel 



for Apple II'". (Requires one 16 sec- 
tor disk drive, 32K of memory.) 
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disk for TRS-80™ Model II. (Re- 
quires two disk drives, 64K of 
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D 1-89845-7 Model III Disk Set (one 

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□ 1-89846-5 Cassette Set for 

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your Apple II™ into a home enter- 
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605 Third Avenue. New York, N. Y 10158 

In Canada 22 Worcester Road. Rexdale. Ontario M9W 1 LI 
Please send the sets indicated for 15-DAY 
FREE EXAMINATION (Restricted to the 
continental U.S. and Canada.) 
MAIL TO: JOHN WILEY & SONS. Inc 
P.O Box 092, Somerset. N.J. 08873 



NAME 



AFFILIATION 



[ l Payment enclosed, plus sales tax. 
Wiley pays postage/handling We 
normally ship within 10 days. It ship- 
ment cannot be made within 90 days, 
payment will be refunded 

D Bill me. D Bill firm or institution. 

For taster service call toll tree 
800-526-5368 In New Jersey, call 
collect (201) 797-7809 Order Code 
* 3-6762 VISA. MasterCard. American 
Express accepted on phone orders 



ADDRESS 



CITY 



STATE /ZIP 

SIGN HERE 

Prices subject to change without notice 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp 

Apple and Apple II are trademarks of 

Apple Computer, inc 3-6762 



7 Years Ago in 

creative 
computing 

The Sept/Oct 1975 issue of Creative 
Computing had a central theme of com- 
puter literacy and user friendliness, timely 
topics even today. Alexander Cannara of 
Stanford compared four languages: Basic. 
Fortran. Algol and Logo and recom- 
mended when each should be used. Logo 
in 1975? Yes. and Smalltalk too! 

Marian Goldeen wrote of her experi- 
ences using Smalltalk at the Xerox Palo 
Alto Research Center. Six years later. 
Xerox finally released Smalltalk commer- 
cially. 



WRITER KTERflCY EEUE 




Building A Computn Ut Youl (>»n 

I ir*.id A Human Ctmputef LAiwjuagr 

'The Campim GanpuWf Cmioaur' 

Piuzlr* & Probittm Without A Compuwr 

(jamn Wumpuft. Sthmoo. Civil War 



CIRCLE 174 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Steve Gray wrote a fascinating article, 
"Building A Computer of Your Own" 
which described two newly announced 
computer kits, the Scelbi-84 and Altair 
8800. He also told where one could obtain 
plans for four totally homebrew machines. 
Steve felt a good follow up article would 
be, "What Are You Going to Do With 
Your Computer?" 

This issue also carried the first MITS 
ad for the Altair. Price for a complete kit 
(no memory) was $439. assembled and 
tested S621. A IK memory board cost an 
additional $97 (kit) and a 4K board $264. 
A serial interface was another $1 19. Want 
to use the computer? Then you'll prob- 
ably want a terminal, say a used Teletype 
ASR-33 for $750 or so. 

The issue carried 22 pages of educa- 
tional activities including a fascinating 
piece on learning with Turtle Geometry 
concepts without computer hardware. We 
also announced the First National Student 
Computer Fair cosponsored by AFIPS 
and Creative Computing. 

Games? Sure. An unsuspecting world 
was introduced to Greg Yob's marvelous 
Wumpus. an enduring classic. Also des- 
tined to become a classic was Civil War. 
an educational simulation game of 14 Civil 
War battles. 

Twenty-three books were reviewed in 
depth including six in the series reviewing 
all 34 books on the Basic language. □ 

September 1982 c Creative Computing 






COMMUNICATE 

— with your APPLE 



Expand your Apple's communications with 
Apple accessories. 

• The Joystick H for the Apple H offers precision X-Y 
coordinate command for exciting and competitive games. 

• The Cursor /// is an equally high quality, self-centering 
joystick for your Apple ///. 

• The Numeric Keypad offers increased data entry and 
calculating speeds. It is a must for the professional and 
VisiCalc® user. 

• The Hand Controllers H for the Apple H are 
game paddles designed for reliability with 
quick response to your commands. 

For additional information on all Apple 
accessories, contact your local authorized 
Apple dealer or 



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10260 Bandley Drive 
Cupertino, California 95014 

CIRCLE 11 1 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Part2of3 



computing 
equipment 
euDluotion 



Apple Paddle Controls and 
Game Port Extenders 



David H.Ahl 



This evaluation of paddle controls 
and game port extenders is the 
second of a three-part series. Last 
month (August) we evaluated Apple 
and Atari joysticks. Next month we 
examine game controllers for the 
TRS-80 and some rather interesting 
arcade-type controls for the Atari. 



A2D Paddles (2002) 

The A2D model 2002 paddle controls 
were physically the largest ones in this 
test. Children or women with small hands 
may find these controls too large for 
handheld use. On the other hand, most of 
our players judged them just fine. 

Since the case is nearly square and the 
firing button is located in the center of 
one side (or end), it is equally easy to use 
with practically any finger of either hand. 
All of our players liked the large size 
(0.6" square), short throw, and positive 
click of the A2D firing button. 

The knob is just under 1" in diameter, 
a size preferred by most players. Rotation 
is easy and provides precise adjustment 
to any point on the screen. 




A diode isolation circuit prevented us 
from measuring the resistance of the 
potentiometers in the A2D paddles. How- 
ever, as mentioned above, they provide 
precise control to any point on the 
screen. 

The ribbon cables are a generous 8' 
long. Unfortunately, there is no indication 
which is paddle and which is I (out 
comes the trusty masking tape). Each 
paddle has an internal trim adjustment, 
however, no instructions are given for 
using this and we assume, that once 
adjusted at the factory, there should be 
no further need for user adjustment. 



Apple Paddles 

Early Apple owners will remember the 
flimsy plastic paddles with miniscule firing 
buttons that came with the original Apple 
computers. Over the years, the design has 
changed several times; we tested one of 
the common types for comparative pur- 
poses. The paddles currently sold by 
Apple are described below. 

The Apple Paddle is a small rectangular 
unit designed for handheld operation. The 
knob is just over 1-1/4" in diameter which 
most of our panelists deemed to be the 
"right" size. Not so for the firing button. 
It is minute (3/16" diameter) and leaves a 
nasty indentation in the finger pressing it. 

The placement of the firing button on 
the left top of the case is less than optimal. 
In this position, it almost requires that 
the paddle be held with the left hand and 
the firing button operated with the thumb 
while the right hand attends to the knob. 
Left handed players will find that they 
must hold the case in their palm, reaching 
around to the top with the index or middle 



finger of the right hand to operate the 
firing button while turning the knob with 
the left hand. This sounds a bit awkward, 
but at least it allows one to alternate 
between two fingers doing the firing when 
the indentation in one becomes unbear- 
able. 

All in all. the Apple Paddle makes it 
obvious why a replacement market has 
sprung up to produce more user-friendly 
devices. 




Incidentally, it is possible to improve 
the old Apple Paddle controllers dra- 
matically for about $3.00 and one-half 
hour of time. The impovement comes 
about by replacing the firing button and 
the control knob. 

There are many momentary-contact 
SPST switches that will fit in place of the 
existing one in the Apple paddle. Find 
one that has a large surface for your finger 
(3/8" diameter or more), short throw, and 
positive feel. I found some at the Trenton 
Computer Festival Flea Market for $0.50 
each. 

The other thing you will want is a new 
pair of knobs. Look for ones about 1" in 
diameter that are held on with a setscrew 
rather than the knurled friction fit of the 
existing Apple paddle knobs. 



14 



September 1982 ' Creative Computing 



VALPARV" 
INTERIM ATiaiMAL_\ 

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valFORTH is an improved version ol Atari s APX Forth and is upwardly 
compatible with it valFORTH was written by Steve Maguire and Evan Rosen ot 
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■ Specific improvements are 

■ Many important existing and new routines have been coded in 6502 tor the 
high speed so necessary in graphics applications 

• Improved versions ot selected routines such as 'TERMINAL. S. and many 
more have been provided 

■ All known bugs have been tixed 



I As Dave & Sandy Small have said. We plan to write our 

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GENERAL 
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prompts, many words supporting string and number input from the keyboard 
SEC and MSEC d. 
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DISPLAY FORMATTER 

Allows simple generation of any possible combination ot screen lormats (DIS- 
PLAY LISTS) It combines character and graphics modes on one screen in sec- 
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Also provided is simple formatting of DISPLAY LISTS for vertical and horizontal 
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these features (Requires valFORTH) 

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package includes standard 
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s advanced valFORTH com- 
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CIRCLE 251 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Gam* Ports, continued.. 



Pop open the case of the Apple paddle 
control (some have one screw, some 
don't), unsolder the old switch and re- 
move it, and install your new switch. If 
your new switch requires a larger hole 
than the existing one, you'll have to 
enlarge the hole with a rattail file. Solder 
on the wires. Be sure to use the set of 
normally open (NO) contacts if you have 
an SPDT switch. Reassemble the case. 
Pry off the old knob and put on your new 
one. You'll be amazed at the difference! 



Hand Controller 

These attractive, wedge-shaped con- 
trollers from the Keyboard Company 
(now owned by Apple Computer) are 
obviously designed for handheld use, 
though they may be used on the tabletop 
as well. 

Departing from the design of other 
manufacturers, the firing button is located 
on the right rear side of the controller. It 
is a large rectangular controller which 
pushes down a microswitch, thus it pro- 
vides both tactile and aural feedback. 
While extremely easy to press, some 
players felt that the large size of the 
button tempted them to hold their finger 
on it thus preventing the quick release 
required in games needing fast firing. In 
other words, these players felt they had 
to consciously both press and release the 
switch. On the other hand, some other 
players (right handed) liked being able to 
control the firing button with their left 
index finger instead of a thumb. 

The knob is a two-tiered design, the 
center of which is about 1" in diameter 
and the outside just over 2". We found 
this design was quite satisfactory for 
players who liked a small knob as well as 
those who liked a larger one. Detracting 
from the pleasing knob design, potentio- 
meter rotation was rather stiff which some 
players felt hampered game play. On the 
other hand, I achieved my all time high 
score in Tsunami with this set of paddles. 



Manufacturer 



Model/Name Price 



A2D 2002 

Apple Computer Paddles (original) 

The Keyboard Company Hand Controller 

Computer Works Pro Paddles 

Kra " Paddles 

Tech Designs Adam and Eve 

TG Products Super Paddles 

Zlrcon Alpha Command 




A thoughtful touch is the molded "0" 
and "1" on the center of each paddle 
knob. Also thoughtful is the strain relief 
on the cable which goes in the notch of 
the Apple computer behind the game I/O 
port. In addition, a grounding clip is 
provided which is connected to the cable 
shield to minimize RF interference. These 
were the only paddles with an external 
cable ground. 

Pro Paddles 

These paddles were by far the most 
diminutive of those tested. They measure 
a scant 1-1/2" x 2-1/2" and have a 1" 
diameter knob. A 3/8" square firebutton 
is mounted on the back of the paddle. A 
thoughtful touch is the numbers and 1 
inscribed on each knob. This is a far 
tidier way of identifying paddles than the 
strips of masking tape I have on the backs 
of other paddles. 

The small size of the Pro Paddles was 
praised by some members of our panel 
along with the placement of the firing 
button which makes it very easy to hold 
the paddle in one hand using first or middle 
finger to fire while the other hand controls 
the rotation. The fire buttons have a very 




short throw and a definite tactile feel 
when contact has been completed which 
some players found to be an advantage. 
Having the firing button squarely in the 
back also does not unduly favor right or 
left handed people. On the other hand, 
some people felt that the size of the Pro 
Paddles was just too small. However, this 
seemed to be a matter of preference 
because others liked the size very much. 

In place of the flat cables found on 
many paddles and joysticks. Pro Paddles 
use a round, 3-1/2' cable for each paddle. 
While 6" to 12" shorter than most others, 
the round cables seem to be more flexible 
than flat ones and the difference in length 
was not noticed. Indeed, if a game extender 
is used, there is no reason for joystick and 
paddle cables to be over 2' or 3' long. 

The potentiometers in the Pro Paddles 
seem to be suffer than others, i.e., more 
difficult to turn and adjust. One player 
felt that this was an illusion as a result of 
the small size. As we did not measure this 
variable, stiffness remains a subjective 
observation. 

Apparently there are two different 
designs of the Pro Paddle; please see the 
photograph which shows the one that we 
tested. 

In summary, the reaction to the Pro 
Paddle had more subjective factors than 
most others— small size, button placement, 
and stiff rotation. Some people liked the 
Pro Paddles very much while others were 
lukewarm. The best bet is to look at a 
pair in your local computer store or at a 
show before you buy. 



Adam and Eve 

The Adam and Eve Paddles are an 
attractive, hand-fitting trapezoidal shape. 
The firing button is on the left rear side 
of the case, thus making it easy for both 
right and left handed players to control. 
Curiously, paddle is labeled Eve and 
paddle 1 is labeled Adam. 

The knob is just under 1" in diameter 
which most players found convenient 
particularly for fast movement from one 
end of the rotation to the other. Move- 



Apple Paddle Controls 



Size 
WxOxH 



Table Top/ 
Hand Held 



Potentiometer 
Resistance Trim 



34 95 
39 95 
29 95 
4995 
4995 
39 95 
3995 
1995 



3.0x35x20 
25x3.2x0 8 
2.0x4. 5x 1.0(1) 
1 5x25x1.3 
(2) 

20x3.5x 1.0(1) 
20x40x 1.0 
2.0x4.3x 1.0(1) 



Both 
Hand 
Both 
Both 

Both 
Both 
Hand 



n/a 
150K 
150K 
150K 

150K 
135K 
150K 



No 
No 
No 
No 

Yes 

No 
No 



Knob Size 

(in dial 

09 
13 

1.0/2.0 
10 

0.9 
14 
1.0/1.7 



Button Size 
I india ) 

6sq 
02 

10x06 
4 sq 

4 sq 

06 

04 



Button Tactile 

Placement Feedback 

Rear side yes 

Left top rear No 

Right side rear Yes 

Rear side Yes 

Left side rear Yes 

Left side rear No 

Right side No 



( 1 1 Shape is not rectangular (2) Not available in time for this test 



16 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



aaiany op 

feawiRes 



A GALAXY of features makes the LN>V8b a 
remarkable computer. As you explore the 
LNW80. you will find the most complete, 
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QUALITY CONSTRUCTION - Instrumenta- 
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puters apart from all the rest Integrated into 
the sieek solid steel case of the LNW80 is a 
"professional 74-key expanded keyboard that 
includes a twelve key numeric keypad. 

HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS& COLOR- 

The stunning 480 X 1 92 resolution gives you 
total display control - in color or black and 
white. The choice of display formats is yours: 
80.64, 40 and 32 columns by 24 or 1 6 lines 
any combination of eight colors. 

PERFORMANCE- Lift-off with- a 4 MHz Z80A 
CPU for twice the performance. The LNW80 
outperforms all computers m its class. 



MODEL I COMPATIBILITY - The LNW80 is 

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the Model I. Select from a universe of hardware 
accessories and software - from VisiCalc" to 
space games, your LNW80 will launch you 
into a new world of computing. 

FULLY LOADED - A full payload includes an 
on-board single and double density disk 
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port, cassette and parallel printer interfaces 
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memory is fully installed - 48K RAM.' 16K 
graphics RAM and 12K ROM complete with 
Microsoft BASIC. 




Our down to earth p r ice won't send you into 



LNW Research Corp. 

i 



CIRCLE 178 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Only Super-Text 
Lets You Choose 



...40 character screen display 

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CIRCLE 194 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Game Ports, continued... 




ment of the potentiometers was easy and 
precise. 

The 3/8" square firing button has a 
very short throw and a positive click when 
pressed, thus providing both tactile and 
aural feedback. 

Each potentiometer has a trimmer 
control which allows the paddle to be 
matched precisely to your computer or 
particular games. These were the only 
paddles with an adjustment of this type. 
This trimmer is also said by the manu- 
facturer to be able to compensate for 
excessive wear, a useful feature. 

The five-foot cables to the paddles are 
more flexible than most and Tech Designs 
has thoughtfully provided a stress relief 
at the DIP connector end to prevent the 
cable from being pulled out of the back 
of the Apple. 

In summary, we felt the Adam and Eve 
paddles were exemplary in all regards. 



TG Super Paddles 

The TG paddles are rectangular in 
shape with the firing button on the left 
rear side of the case. This position is 
suitable for either left or right handed 
players. The size lends itself to either 
handheld or table top use. 

The firing button is a large 0.6" in 
diameter but. unfortunately, has a fairly 
long throw and no positive feedback when 
contact is made. Some players felt that 
this button provided less-than-precise 
control of firing and also contributed to 
finger fatigue. Other players barely 
noticed. 

The knob was the largest of any paddles 
tested, 1-1/4" in diameter. Since most 
games use only a portion of the potentio- 
meter rotation, theoretically a large knob 
can be adjusted more precisely. Indeed. 




with our playing panel, the size led to 
sharply divided feelings: some players 
liked the large knob very much and others 
did not. On the other hand, all players 
agreed that the TG paddle could be 
adjusted very precisely and that the 
potentiometer was exceptionally easy to 
rotate. 

Older TG paddles used a round cable, 
while new ones are coming through with 
ribbon cables and improved DIP connect- 
ors. There are no cable strain reliefs. 
Paddle is designated by a red TG logo 
and paddle 1 by a black logo, a thoughtful 
touch (assuming you can remember which 
is which). 



Zircon Alpha Command 

Under pressure from the FCC because 
of excessive RF radiation, Apple Com- 
puter stopped shipping paddles with their 
computers about 1-1/2 years ago. Did you 
ever wonder what happened to all of those 
paddles in stock? Well we can't be sure, 
but indications are that the latest models 
were bought up by Zircon and are now 
being offered as the Alpha Command 
paddles. If they are not the exact Apple 
paddles, they are an awfully good' 
imitation. 




September 1982 e Creative Computing 



Designed for handheld use. the Alpha 
Command paddles have a firing button 
on the right side of the unit. The paddle is 
shaped so that either left or right handed 
players will be able to hold it and press 
the fire button with either thumb, index 
finger or middle finger. The firing button 
has a relatively long throw and is concave 
in shape (outer lip higher than inner part 
of the button), hence it is somewhat 
uncomfortable for sustained firing. Also, 
some of our panelists were not pleased 
that the button did not provide either 
tactile or aural feedback. 

On the other hand, the two-tiered knob 
was judged easy to move and met the 
needs of both those players who like a 
smaller knob (1" in diameter) and those 
who like a larger knob (1-3/4" in 
diameter). Adjustment of the potentio- 
meter was accurate and precise on all 
games tested. 

The cables are round and flexible and 
just over 4' long. They do not have a 
strain relief or shielding. 

If you are looking for a bare bones, but 
adequate set of paddles, the price is right 
on the Alpha Command from Zircon. 

19 



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CIRCLE 135 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Extension and Auxilliary Game Port Devices 






Retail 


Cable 


Number and Type of 


Name 


Manufacturer 


Price 


Length 


Input Sockets 


Applexpander + S 


CJM 


$54.95 


18 


2 Jones 


Expandaport 


Datamost 


69 95 


33 


6DIP(3switchable) 


EX Port 


Versa Computing 


24.95 


24 


1 DIP (Zero insertion pressure) 


Game Socket Extender 


Happ Electronics 


14.95 


24 


1 DIP (Zero insertion pressure) 


Joy port 


Sirius 


7495 


24 


2 DIP (2 switchable) 
2 DE-9(2switchablel 


Octa Stick II 


Astar International 


22.95 


6 


1 DE-9 


Paddle-Adapple 


So. Calif. Research Group 


29.95 


14" 


2 DIP (2 switchable) 


Paradise Ports 


Tech Designs 


39.95 


18 


4 DIP (3 switchable) 


Select A Port 


TG 


59.95 


18 


5 DIP (4 switchable) 



EZPort 

E Z Port from Versa Computing is a 
simple, straightforward extension I/O port 
for the Apple. It comes with a long 24" 
ribbon cable which probably makes for 
lots of RF interference but permits E Z 
Port to be mounted practically any place 
you desire: top. bottom, right, left, etc. 




The device itself measures a dimunitive 
1-1/2" x 2". just large enough for the 
cable connector and a zero insertion 
pressure DIP socket. Using this ZIP socket, 
you merely plug in the DIP connector 
from your joystick, paddle, etc. and throw 
a small switch which engages the con- 
nections within the socket. Mounted on 
the right side of the Apple, pin 1 is up and 
toward the front, a convenient position 
since the notched part of DlP plugs 
corresponds to pin 1. All in all, E Z Port 
is a simple, handy device. 



Happ Game 
Socket Extender 

This simple, functional device consists 
of a small PC board on which is mounted 
a zero insertion pressure 16-pin DIP socket 
with a sticky back designed to be mounted 
on the right side of the Apple case. 

It has a 24" flat ribbon cable which can 
be snaked through the bottom or top of 
the Apple terminating in a DIP plug which 
goes into the game I/O port on the 
motherboard. To connect paddles or 




joysticks, the DIP connector is simply 
plugged into the ZIP socket and the small 
lever switch thrown to the up or down 
position depending on how the board has 
been mounted. 

Although Happ recommends that the 
board be mounted with the switch in the 
down position, we found it far more 
convenient to mount it so it was facing up 
and toward the front of the Apple case. 
In this position, pins 1 and 16 are toward 
the top which conforms to our recom- 
mendation identifying the end of the DIP 
connector with a small dab of liquid paper 
or white paint. Futhermore, in this position 
the cable leads to the back of the Apple 
case and can be neatly snaked out of the 
way. 

The device works well and is a bargain 
at the suggested $14.95 retail price. 

A second version. Model GS-2, is the 
same as the GS-1 with the addition of an 
extra female socket on the male plug end 
(inside the Apple case). This is useful for 
certain decoder chips and other devices 
which must always be plugged in and 
work in parallel with paddles, joysticks, 
etc. 



Paradise Ports 

On the 2-1/2" x 3-1/2" surface of this 
game extender device are mounted two 
switches and a jack to the 18" cable that 
plugs into the Apple game port. In addition, 
four sockets are provided to plug in paddles, 
joysticks, etc. The design is unusual in 
that the sockets are actually a part of the 
printed circuit board itself. Sockets A, B 
and C are switchable. while socket D is 



20 



permanently wired in parallel with the 
Apple game port. Socket A always goes 
into paddle port and I , while socket C 
always goes into paddle ports 2 and 3. 
Socket B may be switch selected for either 
one or both. 

The entire back of the blue printed 
circuit board is covered by a rubber cushion 
pad. Together, the PC board and pad are 



1 


POL O £ 1 POL 2C 3 
TO. \. \m'/ J 




1 TOI A B C O 




p . qI r\ til i . 

PARADISE PORTS 



only 5/16" thick. While the instructions 
state that Paradise Ports is "mountable 
on Apple case," short of using Contact 
cement or drilling screw holes, we could 
not figure out an easy way to mount it on 
the case. Nevertheless, its compact size 
means it does not take up much space on 
a desk or table. 



TG Select-A-Port 

Select- A-Port is an extender which allows 
up to five devices to be selected singly or 
simultaneously for input to the Apple. It 
is relatively compact, measuring 6" x 3" x 
1/2" and has five DIP sockets with a switch 
above each one. With four small rubber 
feet, it can be used flat on the surface of a 
table or a desk or even the top of the 
Apple. In addition, two small plastic 
mounting brackets are included which 
permit it to be suspended from the cooling 
fins on the left or right side of the com- 
puter. 

Socket number I is a non-switchable 
socket which directly parallels the game 
I/O port. This is for sensitive devices with 
which diode isolation would interfere. 

Sockets 2-5 are diode-isolated and switch 
selectable. Socket 2 modifies the device 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 244 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Game Ports, continued. 




plugged into to it to operate paddles two 
and three which is useful in applications 
requiring dual joysticks or four game 
paddles. Sockets 3 to 5 parallel the game 
I/O port and are useful for paddles, joystick, 
light pen, etc. 

The instructions provided with Select- 
A-Port are scant but sufficient. 

Select-A-Port is well designed and func- 
tional. We particularly like the individual 
switches on each port which allow eternal 
devices to be used one at a time or several 
simultaneously, something not possible with 
other extension port devices. The compact 
size is also a decided plus. 



Paddle Adapple 

Paddle Adapple goes one step beyond 
a game port extender in that it may be 
used in two modes. First, it may be used 
as a simple switch between two game 
ports; second, it allows for up to four 
paddles or two joysticks to be input to the 
Apple. 

Paddle Adapple consists of a 2" x 3" 
sticky backed PC board on which are 
mounted three DIP sockets (one input, 
two output), a small switch, and a jumper 
socket. 

To use Paddle Adapple as a switch, 
one device is simply plugged into DIP 
socket A and the other into B. The small 
side switch is moved to either position A 
or B thus selecting that device. In this 
mode the six jumpers installed with the 
unit as it is shipped are left in place. 
However, it is possible to change two 
jumpers to reverse paddle and paddle 1 
in case you have worn out your paddle 
from playing too many games. 

The second mode of operation uses the 
jumper socket to provide a wide range of 
input combinations to the Apple. For 
example, two joysticks or four paddle 
controls maybe input simultaneously to 
ports 0, 1, 2 and 3. Unfortunately, although 
the Apple accepts input from four devices, 




it only has three "fire button" inputs. 
However, a fourth input is possible using 
the cassette input jack at the rear of the 
computer. Paddle Adapple includes a plug 
and cable to go between the cassette input 
jack and the jumper socket on the unit. 
For those into it, this will allow four- 
player paddle/fire button games to be 
written. 

The jumpers can also be used to ex- 
change the X and Y axis on joysticks, use 
a light pen and paddles (or joystick) 
simultaneously, or use shift key modifica- 
tions that plug into the game I/O socket. 

The 14" cable on the Paddle Adapple 
permits it to be mounted any place on the 
right side of the computer. Our one minor 
complaint is that the two output sockets 
are not zero insertion pressure sockets. 
Although theoretically one should not be 
changing devices around much with 
Paddle Adapple, we regularly use three, 
and occasionally four, devices which must 
be plugged in through the game I/O port. 
Thus, we prefer zero insertion pressure 
sockets. 

Another minor complaint: when mount- 
ed on the right side of the Apple case, pin 
1 is down to the rear, which is not the 
"natural" way one might expect to plug in 
a device. This is a very minor complaint, 
as the manufacturer obviously did not 
intend that the devices be plugged and 
unplugged from Paddle Adapple with any 
frequency. 

Paddle Adapple comes with six extra 
jumper cables— enough for doing practi- 
cally anything as well as replacing a cable 
or two. It also includes a cassette input 
cable and a comprehensive eight-page 
instruction manual. 



Expandaport 



Measuring 6" x 4" x 2", Expandaport 
was physically one of the largest extension 
port devices that we tested. Its six input 
DIP sockets were also more than found 
on any other device. They are clustered 
in three pairs on the top of the unit along 
with a small three-position toggle switch. 

The instructions recommend that con- 
nector J-l be used for game paddles and 
J-2 for a joystick. J-3 is wired for an 
additional joystick input (or two paddles) 
to ports 2 and 3. It is recommnded that J- 
4 be used for a lightpen. These three 
inputs (J-l, J-2 and J-3 together and J-4) 
are selected with the three-position toggle 
switch. 

Two additional sockets labeled J-5 are 
also available. It was not clear from the 
instructions how these were selected. Trial 
and error proved that they were both 
permanently wired in parallel with the 
input I/O and the position of the switch 
has no effect on them. 

Expandaport also has a small speaker 
mounted in the left side of the unit and a 




cable which plugs into the Apple speaker 
connector on the right front of the mother- 
board. We have long been proponents of 
an external speaker for the Apple and 
found that it has ample power to drive a 
good quality 8 ohm extension unit. Indeed, 
the volume from an inexpensive SIS or 
$20 speaker is five to six times that from 
the internal Apple speaker. Thus, we had 
great expectations for the Expandaport 
extension speaker. Alas, the reality is that 
the sound is of lower volume and quality 
than that provided by the internal Apple 
speaker. The speaker in Expandaport is 
smaller than that in the Apple and has a 
sound reminiscent of the earphones that 
came with early transistor radios. 

Expandaport comes with a generous 
33" cable. Unfortunately, the instructions 
are not equally generous in their expla- 
nation of how to use the device. The best 
part of the instructions is the program 
which tests every function of every device 
that can be plugged into Expandaport. 
On the other hand, the instructions do 
not tell the user what to do about software 
protection devices, and lower case adapt- 
ors, which may require use of the game 
I/O. (They can be plugged into J-5.) 

In summary, for most applications, the 
paucity of instructions will pose no problem. 
Our advice: ignore the speaker and look 
at Expandaport as a versatile, convenient, 
expansion I/O port device. 



CJM Applexpander + S 

The Applexpander is part of the CJM 
Microsystem, a comprehensive input, 
output and control system for the Apple. 
It differs from all the other expanders in 
that the Applexpander uses Cinch Jones 
plugs and sockets, thereby requiring the 
purchaser to use only CJM components. 
A Jones plug to DIP socket converter is 
offered by CJM, but that seems to be 
defeating the purpose of the Microsys- 
tem. 

As mentioned, this is more than just an 
extension port. We will first look at the 
input capabilities and then the output/con- 
trol capabilities. Like other expansion 
devices, the 18" ribbon connector is 
designed to snake through the top of the 
Apple case after it has been plugged into 
the Apple game I/O port. The instructions 
refer to a diagram A for mounting the 



22 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 













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$30 FACTORY REBATE - Receive 
a $30 factory rebate if the warranty 
card is received by us on or before 
August 31, 1982. See participating 
dealer, or call direct. Suggested 
Retail Price: $419.00. 



TAKE YOUR APPLE TO THE LIMIT 
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Right away, 
you can see a difference. 







v 



Stop in a store near you. Take a look. 

\bu'll be instantly taken with some of 
the features that make the IBM Personal 
Computer so different. 

Like the non-glare screen — easy on 
the eyes during those number-crunching 
tasks like payroll and general ledger. 

80 characters a line — with upper and 
lower case letters for a quick and easy read. 

And the flexibility of a system that 
lets you move the components around at will. 
(To get really comfortable, try the keyboard 
on your lap and put your feet up.) 

Go ahead, compare. 

As you progress from casual 
observer to comparison shopper, 
you'll want the inside story of 
the IBM Personal Computer. 
Like user memory 
expandable up to 256KB. And 
40KB of permanent memory. 
(Which not only includes the 
BASIC language, but diagnostic 
instructions that automatically 
check the system every time you 
turn it on.) 

A 16-bit microprocessor that can 
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A mix of crisp text and high- 
resolution color graphics on your own 
TV set — clearly helpful for creating 
charts to target forecasts and trends. 
Or the 10 programmable function 
keys that let you bid goodbye to the 
tedium of repetitious tasks. 

And the list goes on. Which is why 
we've included a box (at right) that tells all. 



Here's more than meets the eye. 

Some of the best things about the 
IBM Personal Computer aren't part of the 
computer. 

Like the instruction manuals that help 
you set up your system and teach you to use 
it with the greatest of ease. 

IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER SPECIFICATIONS 



l.'ser Memory 

16K 2V* bytes* 
Microprocessor 

1(>-I)H.MH8* 

Auxiliary Memory 

2 optional imrrflsj 
diskette drives. 5H" 
160K bytes or 320K 
bites pef diskette 

Keyboard 

83 key*. 6 fl cord 
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lO-kev numeric pad 

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Diagnostics 

Pi Ma* m self testing * 

Kims checking* 



Display Screen 

High resolution* 
Hi) cliaraclcrs x 2S lilies 
I pper and l< ift er case 
Green phosphor screen* 



DOS.LICSDpS^em. 
CP/M-86* 



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MA( ,K<) Assembler. 
( out* 

Primer 

Bidirectional * 

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12 «. ll.ir.iacr styles, up ii i 

132 char .ict crs/lme* 
9 \ l > cli.ir.kicr matrix * 



Permanent Memory 

(RONU-tOK bytes* 

< nkir Graphics 

k'.\1 IMOaV 

lo c olors * 

2S6 characters and 

symbols in KOM* 
(inapbUs modi 

H-solution 

32<lh v 2WK * 
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tip Hi 9600 bits per second 



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And an expanding library of software 
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Programs for business. Education. 
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Visit an authorized IBM Personal 
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The IBM Personal Computer 
A tool for modern times 



tUCSD p-System its trademark ol the Regents of trie University of California. CP/M-86 is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 

CIRCLE 172 ON READER SERVICE CARD 















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CIRCLE 245 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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For direct orders, add $1.50 and specify UPS or first class mail 
Illinois residents add 5% sales tax. Visa and MasterCard accepted 



Game Ports, continued... 



Applexpander on the case, but there was 
no such diagram in the manual. On the 
other hand, it was not difficult from the 
position of the sticky backed tape on the 
side of Applexpander to determine how it 
should be mounted on the right side of 
the Apple case. 

Applexpander has two input sockets 
which can accept the usual two paddles, 
one joystick, light pen. or other input 
sensor as long as the device terminates in 
a Cinch Jones P-306 CCT plug. A full 
complement of such devices is available 
from CJM or the Jones plug may be 
installed on the cable of existing devices. 
Although a wiring diagram is provided in 
the back of the manual, we don't recom- 
mended doing this if it is your first 
construction project. If you have built at 
least one Heathkit. you'll have no trouble 
installing a Jones plug. 

Input socket 1 is connected to paddle 
port and 1, while input socket 2 goes 
into ports 2 and 3. These are not switched 
sockets; both are permanently connected. 
Five pages in the rather comprehensive 
manual are devoted to describing the 
operation of paddles and joysticks as 
graphics and game input devices. Five 
sample programs are included which 
demonstrate these concepts. 




The "+ S" in the name of the device 
refers to "+ Speaker." Three twisted wires 
from the Applexpander are snaked through 
a cooling slot and are used to connect to 
the internal Apple speaker output and 
the speaker itself. Applexpander has a 
mini phone jack on the left front of the 
unit which provides for an external speaker 
to be plugged in. Additionally. Appleex- 
pander has a volume control which adjusts 
the volume of the internal or external 
speaker. If an external speaker is plugged 
in. the internal one is automatically turned 
off. 

Although the Apple accepts input from 
four potentiometer devices, it only accepts 
three switch inputs through the game port. 
Assuming one has the CJM Microstick. 
switches and 1 are located on it. However, 
for some applications it may be desirable 
to be able to trigger the third switch (SW2) 
without having another joystick or set of 
paddles. Applexpander provides this capa- 
bility in the form of a small pushbutton 
switch on the case of the unit. 



cated adjacent to the pushbutton for 
switch 2 is a mini-jack. The function of 
this jack is to allow an external switch to 
be read into the SW2 input. The switch 
and jack are in series. The jack accepts 
only normally closed switches, but any 
number of these external NC switches 
can be wired in series and plugged into 
the mini-jack. If one of the switches is 
thrown, then the Apple will read SW2 as 
thrown. 

This type of system can be used for 
security. For example, a series of switches 
around the house can be wired in series 
and if any one of them is thrown, the 
Apple would "know" it and could turn on 
an output module through the control 
box described below which, in turn, could 
turn on an alarm. 

Another application might be a "failsafe," 
in which the Apple is used as a controller. 
Tripping a limit switch would halt the 
Apple and the system would shut down 
with the Apple signalling a warning. 

In addition to the input ports on the 
game I/O. the Apple also has four annun- 
ciator outputs. These outputs are controlled 
by "soft switches," which is the term used 
to designate an output which is switched 
on from one memory location and switched 
off from another. For example, for annun- 
ciator 0, memory location -16295 is the 
on switch and -162% is the off. To throw 
the switch on or off, its appropriate memory 
location should be loaded with 00. This is 
accomplished with POKE (address) 00 from 
Basic or. from machine language, a LDA 
$300 then STA (hex address). These 
routines are fully described in the CJM 
Microsystem instruction manual. 

You may be saying, "This is fine, but 
what's it good for?" By itself, not much. 
But with an additional relay control module, 
these output switches can be used to control 
a wide variety of household devices such 
as a video tape recorder, lights, security 
devices, hi-fi system, or anything at all 
that can be turned on or off. In other 
words, with the addition of a relay box. 
the Apple soft switch becomes a real- 
world hardware switch. 

In summary, the Applexpander +S is 
the heart of the comprehensive CJM 
Microsystem. The rugged Jones plugs will 
probably last far longer than the Apple 
itself. Used only as an extender, the unit 
is somewhat pricey. However, considering 
the additional output and control capa- 
bilities, the extension speaker, and the 
access to switch 2 open up many new 
possibilities and put the CJM Microsystem 
into a unique niche in the market. 



LITTLE HUSTLER FAN 

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I23S Whits St.. New York. 




Sirius Joyport 

(Review by RandiJ. Rom. I 

The Joyporl is Sirius Software's first 
entry into the hardware field. It consists 
of a small plastic case about 6"x 4"x I" 
that contains four I () ports. The joyport 
serves as a game socket extension. In 
addition, it is an expansion to allow the 
use of two sets of Apple game paddles 
(with all four pushbuttons operational! as 
well as two Atari-type joysticks. 

The Joyport user's manual is a 20-page 
document that contains several diagrams 
to aid in proper installation. The manual 
also contains instructions on using the 
Joyporl and source listings of two example 
programs, one in Applesoft Basic and the 
other in Pascal. 

Besides extending the game I () socket, 
the Joyport also allows the Apple to 
recognize input from Atari-type joysticks. 
Two switches on top of the Joyport allow 
you to select which device lor devices) 
plugged into the Joyport will be active." 
One switch allows you to choose between 
activating the two Atari ports l front I and 
the two Apple ports I back). A second 
switch allows you to choose whether the 
left, right, or both ports are activated. 

Before going any further let's set the 
record straight about some of the things 
that the Joyport cannot do. Most important, 
existing programs that use Apple game 
paddles will not work automatically with 
Atari joysticks once the Joyporl is install- 
ed. 

Oames that use game paddles will be 
completely compatible with the Joyport 
when you use game paddles plugged into 
the Joyport. If you want to use Atari 
joysticks you must either modify your 
games yourself, or buy software written 
expressly for use with the Joyport and 
Atari joysticks. 

Why hasn't someone come out with an 
adapter for the Atari joystick before now 7 
Simple: the Atari joystick works on a 
completely different principle than Apple 
game paddles or joysticks. The Atari 
joystick consists of five switches, that's 
all. No potentiometer, just five switches. 
One of these switches is for the fire button, 
the other four represent the four cardinal 
points of the compass. If you push the 
joystick left, the "west" button will be 
depressed internally. If you push the 
joystick down and to (he right, both the 
"south" and "east" buttons will be de- 
pressed. Diagonal movement is detected 
when two buttons are depressed simulta- 
neously (e.g., up and left equals north- 
west.) 

In order to obtain values for all five 
switches, the Joyport must be accessed 
twice. The first time, annunciator I is 
"off", (accessing location SC05A will turn 
it offi and the Joyport returns values for 
the fire, "east" and "west" buttons in the 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



27 



Game Ports, continued. 



locations for pushbuttons 0. I, anil 2 
respectively. Accessing location SC05B 
(turning annunciator I 'on") will signal 
the Joyport to return values for the fire, 
'north." and "south" buttons in the same 
three locations. 

Thus, to obtain values for all five buttons, 
first look at locations SC06I-SC063 with 
annunciator I "off" to read values for the 
fire, "east" anil "west" buttons. Then access 
locations 3C062 and SC063 again with 
annunciator I "on" to get values for the 
"north" and "south" buttons. 

As you can see. the Atari joysticks will 
behave much differently from Apple game 
paddles. They have absolutely no effect 
on the game controller locations (SC064- 
SC067) that are used to interpret the current 
paddle position. It is for this reason that 
existing software will not automatically 
run using Atari joysticks instead of Apple 
paddles. 

Despite the incompatibility, the Atari 
joystick provides another distinct advan- 
tage: input can be obtained much more 
rapidly. This is because of the way the 
Apple paddle works. To read the paddle, 
the timing circuit is reset and all game 
controller locations are set high (they 
contain values greater than 127). The time 
it takes for each location to drop below 
1 2H is proportional to the setting of the 
game paddle. Button inputs can be read 
with virtually no time delay. 

Another difference is that the Apple 
paddle pushbutton locations will contain 
a value greater than 127 if the button is 
being pressed. The Atari joystick buttons 

Atari Mode Function Selection 




cause just the opposite to take place: a 
value less than or equal to 127 signifies 
the button has just been pressed. This is a 
function of the Joyport. It ensures com- 
patibility with the shift-key to pushbutton 
input two (pin 4) modification many users 
have made. 

How does the Joyport work when the 
back switch is set to "both"? This position 
indicates pushbutton input should be 
accepted from both devices on the active 
side of the Joyport. 

With the back switch set to "both." 
paddles and I are obtained from the left 
side of the Joyport and paddles 2 and 3 
are obtained from the right side. Turning 
annunciator "off" i accessing location- 
SC058) will allow pushbutton inputs on 
the left side to be read normally. Switchiing 
it "on" (referencing location SC059) allows 
pushbuttons on the right to be read. 

The Atari inputs are obtained a little 
differently. A second annunciator (number 
0) must be "on" when input is to be read 
from the left side and "off" when input is 
to he read from the right side. The table 
shows all the combinations of this switch. 



Controller Select 
Switch Setting 


Annunciator 
#1 


Button 
SC061 
-16287 


Button 1 
$C062 
-16286 


Button 2 
SC063 
-16285 


Left 


On 


Fire-1 


Up-1 


Down-1 




Off 


Fire- 1 


Left-1 


Right- 1 


Right 


On 


Fire-2 


Up-2 


Down-2 


Off 


Fire-2 


Left-2 


Right-2 


Controller Select In Middle 


Annunciator 
#0 


Annunciator 
#1 


Button 
$C061 
-16287 


Button 1 
$C062 
- 16286 


Button 2 
SC063 
- 16285 


On 


On 


Fire-1 


Up-1 


Down-1 




Off 


Fire-1 


Left-1 


Right- 1 


Off 


On 


Fire-2 


Up-2 


Down-2 




Off 


Fire-2 


Left-2 


Right-2 



Atari mode function selection. With the annunciators and the controller select 
switch of the Joyport set as shown, locations SC06I-SC063 will indicate a movement 
in the specified direction. 

28 



JBLOrD INVADER. MACH 

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*168E|90 

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*6001<AD 5A CO AD 62 CO 10 OA 

• lAD 63 CO 10 08 A4 1A A9 

*|7F 60 A9 00 60 A9 FF 60 

•3DOG 

3 HOME 

JBSAVE INVADER. MACH (JOYPORT) ,AS12,L2410O 

Listing I. Patch that will let you play 
Creative Computing 's Super Invader with 
an Atari joystick using Sirius Joyport. 

Software Compatibly 

As you can see. a program must be 
written specifically to take advantage of 
the Joyport. or it must be modified to do 
so. I have succeeded in modifying a few 
of my shoot-'em-up games to accept input 
from the Atari joystick, and am quite 
pleased with the results. 

Listing I shows the steps necessary to 
convert Creative Computing's Super 
Invader. You may wish to check the 
starting address of your version by tvping: 
PRINT PEEK(-2I902) + 256 * PEEKl- 
21901) after you have BLOADed the 
program. If the result is 512. you can 
follow the steps as shown in the table. If 
the address is 768. save the modified version 
by typing BSAVE INVADERS (JOY- 
PORT).A768.L24KX). 

Sirius is currently marketing several 
games that may be played with an Atari 
joystick connected to the Joyport. These 
include Gorgon, Copts ami Robbers, 
Outpost. Hadron. Snake Byte. Twerps and 
Borg. Gebelli's Horizon V may also be 
played with an Atari joystick by typing 
control-shift-p at the beginning of the game. 
Sirius has sent free Joyports to some of 
the major game publishers, including On- 
Line and Broderbund. in order to encour- 
age development of compatible software. 

The Joyport has a suggested retail price 
of $74.95 and includes a copy of ( omputer 
Fooshall ( 1-4 players). 

It should be emphasized that although 
the Sirius Joyport and Astar Octa Stick 
both accept input from a switch-type (Atari I 
joystick, they are not interchangable. (See 
Octa Stick review below). 



Astar Octa Stick - II 

The Octa Stick II is an interface for 
using an Atari-type joystick with an Apple. 
As mentioned above, this type of joystick 
is either completely on or off in a direction 
and. if pushed diagonally, can activate 
two switches. 

The heart of the mechanism is a small 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



BBBBi 



interface consisting of a 16-pin DIP plug, 
a male receptacle for a DE-9 Atari joystick 
plug, some resistors and relays and two 
trim potentiometers. 




Since this type of joystick returns only 
three values in each of two directions 
(center, up, down or center, left, right). 
the center value may have to be adjusted 
so it does not look to the program as 
though the joystick has been pressed. 
"Normally" the three values returned are 
0, 127, and 255. However, a program 
written for both continuously variable as 
well as switch-type joysticks may be 
written to accept the values 100. 120 and 
140 indicating directional movement. For 
a program of this sort, it may be necessary 
to adjust the center (off) value of Octa 
Stick. 

It should be emphasized that although 
the Octa Stick interface and Sirius Joyport 
both accept input from a switch-type 
joystick, the output to the computer is 
quite different. Octa Stick puts out three 
resistance values which can be thought of 
as simulating the left, middle and right 
position of a potentiometer-type joystick. 
Games written for the Sirius Joyport cannot 
be used with Octa Stick while games like 
Thief and Snack Attack work well with 
Octa Stick but not the Joyport. 

The Octa Stick-II interface has a sticky 
back permitting it to be mounted on the 
side of the Apple. Unfortunately, the cable 
is only six inches long which means that if 
Octa Stick is one's only interface, it must 
be mounted well to the back of the Apple 
case. However, if it is used in conjunction 
with an extension port it can be mounted 
toward the front right of the case. 

In summary, we found the Octa Stick 
interface with a Newport or Atari joystick 
considerably better than potentiometer- 
type joysticks for playing the Pac-Man 
and Berzerk families of games. 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



Time Is Runnim 



Can you succeed at 
a test of fire? Guide your 
mechanical Firebug 
through an increasingly 
complicated five-level 
maze using your Apple" 
keyboard or joystick. 
Make it pick up and drop 
"gas cans" to destroy 
the maze for bonus 
points as it heads for the 
exitl A fuse is burning 
behind your Firebug, so 
your time is short. If 
you're good enough to 
destroy all the walls on 
your race through the 
mazes, you can add your 
initials to the Firebug 
Great Scores Listl 

Firebug ' — a chal- 
lenge for the Apple II" 
with 48K, disk drive, 
retail price 24.95. Avail- 
able at computer stores 
everywhere and from 
MUSE, innovators in fun 
and fantasy for the 
Apple computer. 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple 
Computer Corp. 



A 



A 



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SOFTWARE 

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Baltimore, MD 21201 
301 659-7212 



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For use with Apple 
Computer Systems 



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Leaat Squares Polynomial Curve! It Generation* 
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User Tutorial* Automatic Graphics Disk Storage 
and Recall* Data File Editor* Automatic Disk 
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Modes* Graphics Screen Text Editor 

Data may be input directly or from previously 
generated data files Comprehensive documen 
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created by other programs Requires Applesoft 
and one DOS 3 3 disk drive 

$69.95 

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CIRCLE 154 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



J 





Manufacturers of Joysticks, Paddles 






and Game Port Extenders 




A2D Company 


Datamost 


Newport Machine Design 


Tech Designs 


P.O. Box 6471 


9748 Cozycroft Ave. 


East coast distributor: 


3638 Grosvenor Dr. 


Greenville, SC 29606 


Chatsworth. CA 91324 


Game-Tech 


Ellicott City, MD 21403 


(803) 297-0552 


(213)701-5161 


283 Broadway 








Arlington. MA 02174 


TG Products* 


Astar International Co. 


Happ Electronics. Inc. 


(617)648-3230 


P.O. Box 2931 


5676 Francis Ave. 


4640 Island View 




Richardson, TX 75080 


Chino, CA 91710 


Oshkosh. WI 54901 


West coast distributor: 




(714)627-9887 


(414)231-5128 


G.A.M.E.S. 


Versa Computing, Inc.* 






6626 Valjean St. 


3541 Old Conejo Rd., Suite 104 


BMP Enterprises 


The Keyboard Company 


VanNuys,CA91406 


Newbury Park. CA 91320 


(address not available) 


Company name changed to: 
Apple Computer Accessory 


(213)781-1300 


(805) 499-4800 


CJM Industries 


Products Division 


Sirius Software, Inc. 


Zircon International, Inc. 


P.O. Box 2367 


7151 Patterson Dr. 


10364 Rockingham Dr. 


475 Vanell Way 


Reston. VA 22090 


Garden Grove. CA 92641 


Sacramento, CA 95827 


Campbell. CA 95008 


(703) 435-2991 


(714)891-5831 


(916)920-1195 


(408) 866-8600 


Computer Works 


Kraft Systems, Inc. 


Southern Calif. Research Group 




Distributor: 


450 W. California Ave. 


P.O. Box 2231 


* TG and Versa products are 


Rainbow Computing 


Vista. CA 92083 


Goleta. CA 9318 


available mail order from: 


19517 Business Center Dr. 


(714)724-7146 


(805)685-1931 


Peripherals Plus 


Northridge. CA 91324 






39 E. Hanover Ave. 


(213)349-5560 




Syntronics. Inc. 


Morris Plains. NJ 07950 






P.O. Box 601 


(800)631-8112 






St. Clair Shores, MI 48080 








(313) 773-9583 





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The Book 

That's an Open Door to the Computer Future 



KIDS & THE.APPLE is its name, and its game is 
to prepare your child, or any child, to take 
his or her place as a member of the com- 
puter generation by teaching them the 
mysteries of the Apple" computer in ways 
they'll love and enjoy. Don't be surprised if 
you will also learn along with your child. 

The kids of today are fascinated by com- 
puters to start with. And thafs great, be- 
cause it means they're eager to learn. But, 
until this book by Edward H. Carlson, learn- 
ing about the Apple was a fumbling, 
bumbling effort for a child. 

KIDS & THE APPLE was designed in every 
aspect to lead them gently, interestingly 
yet guickly into the computer world. First, ifs 
a large 8V2 by 11 book which can be 
opened flat for ease of use. Second, there 
are 35 chapters, each one building upon 
the knowledge of the prior chapter - and 
ifs loaded with dozens and dozens of car- 
toons which make a point as they amuse. 



^M 




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1 **J 




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WW 


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m 



At computer stores, or from: 

The educational/book division of 

fflDATAMOSl 

9748 Cozycroft Ave. 

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Then, there are special sections for a parent 
or teacher to use so they can work along 
with the kids, if they wish, and help them 
over any rough spots. 

Perhaps the major reasons the kids will love 
this book is that it is truly written so they can 
easily understand it (without a lot of confus- 
ing technical language) . . . and that they 
see on-screen-results almost immediately! 
Right away they realize they'll soon be pro- 
gramming their Apple, making their own 
games! ... or creating other programs for 
school or work or to play. 

The computer world is roaring toward us. To 
be successful at work, school or even play, a 
child will have to be knowledgeable about 
computers. Make sure your favorite child is 
prepared for the challenge. With KIDS & THE 
APPLE at his side, he'll enjoy learning and 
you'll know you've prepared him or her for a 
successful future. Only $19.95. 

'Apple is a trademark ol Apple Computer. Inc. 



Datafax, Visidex, Cardbo 




Keys to Success 



How would you like to type whatever 
you want and have a machine remember 
it? Would you like to type any word and 
have that machine tell you everything it 
knows about it? 

Imagine underlining the most important 
words in a letter and asking a secretary to 
file it. If you underline more than one 
word, the secretary may file a copy of the 
letter under each word, or may file the 
original in one place and a note, referring 
to the letter, under each of the other 
underlined words. 

A keyword database program can play 
the role of the secretary in the above 
scenario. You type anything at all into 
the computer and, instead of underlining, 
you stroke a control key to indicate which 
words are key words. The computer will 
save your text on disk and will enter your 
key words into an index, enabling it to 
retrieve the text quickly at your com- 
mand. 

We reviewed three keyword database 
programs and found them all quite inter- 
esting. They all allow free-form text entry 
with full cursor movement. They all can 
very quickly retrieve information based 
on a key and they all are fairly easy to 
learn and use. They all work on Apple II 
computers and two of them also work on 
other computers. 

The differences among the programs 

September 1982 e Creative Computing 



Mike Coffey 



have to do with their operating environ- 
ment (what you need to have to use 
them), their relationship to other pro- 
grams you may use and the degree to 
which they support or encourage Prefor- 
matting of data. 



Datafax 

Data/ax by Link Systems, of Santa 
Monica, California, is designed for the 
USCD Pascal environment. You can use 
Data/ax on any Apple II with 64K of 
memory. The program is designed to use 
two floppy disks, but can be used with 
just one drive. 

The program can make full use of a 
hard disk, disk emulator in RAM and 
almost any other peripheral that works 
with Apple Pascal. Link Systems has 
promised versions of this program in IBM 
PC and Apple III formats, though we 
have not seen either of those. 

33 



With Datafax, you organize your infor- 
mation into folders, storing or recalling a 
folder's worth of information in each 
operation. You can type anything at all 
into a folder, filling as many pages as you 
like. 

Datafax generally uses a one-line menu 
to tell you which commands you can use. 
Most commands are invoked by stroking 
a single key. The main menu lets you 
move from folder to folder using com- 
mands like E to examine folders, S to 
scan through several folders, P to print 
the contents of folders. D to delete fold- 
ers, and N to create new folders. 

Let's look at some of these operations 
in more detail. If you have stored infor- 
mation about all your favorite trees, you 
could press "S" for scan and then type the 
word "oak" to scan through all the folders 
that are filed under the word "oak." 
Datafax will now consult its index and 
show you a list of all the first lines of all 
the folders it found. 

This list of first lines now acts as a 
menu. By stroking a single key, you can 
bring any of the chosen folders into full 
view. Also by stroking a single key, you 
may copy, print or delete any of the 
chosen folders. Best of all, you can alter- 
nate between the menu and the viewing 
of folders, deleting and printing things 
after taking one last look at them. 



Keys to Success, contini 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Datafax 

Type: Keyword filer 

System: Apple II 64K, Disk drive 
Apple III 128K 

Format: Disk II ( 16 sector) or Disk 

III (for Apple III) 
Language: Pascal 

Summary: Best bet for free form filing 
Price: $199 (Apple II) $249 (Apple III) 

Manufacturer: 
Link Systems 
1640 19th St. 
Santa Monica. CA 90404 



If you choose to read the folder, you 
may add text to it or change anything in it 
and send it back to the disk either replac- 
ing or coexisting with the old folder. 

Editing Folders 

Datafax includes one of the best screen 
editors available today. Like those in the 
other two programs, it can insert and 
delete characters and lines and it does so 
with single-key commands. Unlike the 
other programs, the Datafax editor can 
be redesigned by the person using it. If 
you don't like typing ctrl-P to move the 
cursor up and ctrl-L to move the cursor 
down, you can change those commands 
to suit your taste. 

There are just a few unfortunate draw- 
backs in the Datafax editor. The "insert 

Datafax Scan command. 



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character" and "insert line" commands 
can cause characters to be lost from the 
end of the line or screen. To mitigate this 
effect, Datafax warns you when you are 
about to lose a line, forcing you to confirm 
your intention before completing the 
operation. 

Datafax allows a folder to contain more 
than one screen full of text and its editor 
includes commands for inserting, deleting 
and copying screens. The major limitation 
is that, unlike a word processor, Datafax 
does not carry you automatically from 
the bottom of one screen to the beginning 
of the next. The other big problem is that 
you can not incorporate screens from 
several different folders into one folder. 

Here's The Key 

When typing your text you can establish 
a word as a key by pressing one control 
key after typing the word. You can also 
back up and turn any previously typed 
word into a key word using the same 
control key. If the desired word does not 
actually appear within your text, you can 
summon the key-menu which lets you 
review your key selections for a folder 
and add or delete keys. You may establish 
as many keys as you like for each folder. 

Summary of Datafax 

Datafax fits my design of a key word 
database perfectly. All I want is a full- 
screen editor and a keyword retrieval 
method. 1 want a program that is easy to 
use and that can cooperate with other 
programs. Datafax performs the assign- 
ment elegantly. 



Visidex 

Visidex, published by Visicorp, is 
designed for the standard Apple II Plus 
with a disk drive. You can use a printer 
with Visidex, but forget about hard disks, 
80-column cards and other high perfor- 
mance peripherals. 

Visidex offers a few enhancements to 
the basic idea of a key word database. It 
includes a calendar that allows you to file 
data under a key date instead of (or in 
addition to) key words. The Visi people 
also provide the means for designing and 




c&Mupd$L, 



using templates which are outlines for 
data that you fill in later. 

With Visidex, you organize your infor- 
mation into screens; there is no analog to 
the idea of a folder. The operation of 
Visidex is divided into several modes, 
each of which is characterized by the set 
of operations which appear in its menu. 
Most of the time, you will find yourself in 
edit mode, two keystrokes away from any 
other mode. 

In Edit mode, you may type any text 
you like and move the cursor all over the 



creative GOiRpatiitg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Visidex 

Type: Keyword filer 

System: Apple II 48K, Disk drive 

Format: Disk II ( 16 sector) 

Language: 6502 

Summary: Extremely versatile 

Price: $250 

Manufacturer: 

Visicorp 

2895 Zanker Road 

San Jose, CA 95134 



place. You may insert and delete charac- 
ters and lines but you must be careful 
with the insert commands. Visidex will 
push the last line off the screen whenever 
you insert a new line. Any text on that 
last line is gone forever. 

The editor can also erase the whole 
screen, move to tab stops, invert or flash 
letters, rearrange lines and establish key 
words. Finally, you can read lines from 
text files, but we found this feature 
awkward and difficult to use. 

To create a key word, just press ctrl-K 
after typing the word. You can also 
summon the key word mode and enter 
the key word without actually typing it 
into the text. 

To rearrange lines of text you must 
delete the lines one-by-one, then undelete 
them. This scheme is very convenient for 

Visidex Command Mode. 




34 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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Keys to Success, continued... 

moving a single line, but fur moving 
arbitrary blocks of text, it drags. 

You can read a line from a standard 
text file by pressing ctrl-R. However, if 
you try to read more lines than the text 
file contains. Visidex makes a non-recov- 
erable error. Since there is no way to 
know when you have reached the end of 
a file, we found this feature useless. 

Templates 

If you get tired of the freedom of full- 
screen data entry and yearn for the 
structure of business forms, design some 
templates. Just type a sample form and 
use black-on-white format to type the 
permanent parts of the form. ( Visidex has 
control keys to switch between black-on- 
white and normal typing.) Save the form 
with a name that begins with a number 
sign (#) and Visidex will remember the 
form. 

When you want to use the template, 
simply retrieve it from disk and fill it in. 
When you have finished filling it in. 
Visidex will save it without the number 
sign (thus distinguishing the blank form 
from the filled in ones) and provide a 
fresh, blank form for you to complete. 

Heavy Dates 

If you file a screen under a date. 
Visidex will automatically show you that 
screen if you boot the program on that 
date or within six days after it. You can 
also ask for advance warning of up to 15 
days. Finally. Visidex can remind you of 
daily, weekly or monthly tasks. 

Summary of Visidex 

If you want to keep track of a floppy 
disk worth of short notes and forms. 
Visidex can do the job. For multi-page 
forms and documents, look elsewhere. 
We especially like the fact that the pro- 
gram supports but does not mandate 
templates. Our primary complaint: The 
command structure is somewhat difficult 
to master. 



Cardbox 

Cardbox is published by Caxton Soft- 
ware, of faraway England. Cardbox 
requires the CP/M operating system and 
an 80-column screen. You may use a 
standard video terminal or one of the 
popular 80-column cards for the Apple. 

Cardbox works best with two disk 
drives, though one will suffice. The more 
storage you have per disk, the better off 
you are, since Cardbox can handle very 
large files. Cardbox will use any disk drive 
or printer that is properly connected to 
your CP/M system. 

With Cardbox. you organize your data 
into records, which resemble pre-printed 
index cards. You fill in the blanks on the 

September 1982 c Creative Computing 



cards, file them and flip through them, 
much as you would in real life. 

Cardbox uses a split-screen technique 
for operator interaction. In the bottom 
section of each screen, you find instruc- 
tions, on what to do next. Usually, you 
have the choice of two-letter commands. 
Each two-letter command stands for a 
longer English word, e.g. ADd, DEIete, 
INclude. EXclude. 

Designing Cards 

Before storing any information, you 
must tell Cardbox the format of your pre- 
printed index cards. Beginners will find 
the card design process somewhat inti- 
mated. This is partly due to the wide 
variety of options available. 



With Cardbox, you 
organize your data into 

records, which 

resemble pre-printed 

index cards. 



Each card is divided into rectangular 
areas called fields. You must tell Cardbox 
five facts about each field: the start 
position, end position, name, caption and 
index mode. When you are finished defin- 
ing one field, press the escape key and 
repeat the process for another field. 

To establish the start position, move 
the cursor to the desired location and 
press S. For the end position, move the 
cursor and press E. To set the field name 
press N and type the name. The caption 
(which, unlike the field name, will be 
displayed during most operations) is 
entered by pressing C and typing your 
caption. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Cardbox 

Type: Keyword filer 

System: 48K CP/M. version 2 or later 
Disk drive, 24 x 80 video 
display. 

Format: 8" single density, Apple 

CP/M, Osborne, etc. 
Language: 8080 

Summary: Best bet for templates 
Price: $245 
Manufacturer: 

Caxton Software 

10-14 Bedford St. Covent Garden 

London WC2E 9HE England 



You use the index mode option to help 
Cardbox determine which words should 
be key words. To force all words within a 
field to be key words, use All. To prevent 
any words from becoming key words, use 
None. To leave it up to the operator, use 
Man or Auto. The difference between 
Man and Auto is that Auto assumes that 
each word is a key word until told other- 
wise, while Man assumes the opposite. 

Editing Cards 

Editing text with Cardbox goes as 
smoothly as it does with the other pro- 
grams. You are restricted to a single page 
per form. Cardbox. unlike the other two 
programs reviewed here, never threatens 
to lose a character at the end of the line 
or page when inserting. It is also the only 
one that does not move a whole word 
from the end of a line to the beginning of 
the next line when it gets to the right 
margin. 

In addition to four-way cursor controls, 
Cardbox includes keys for moving to the 
beginning or end of a field, next word. 




37 







RAM* THE EXPANSION MEMORY 



WITH A BUILT-IN RS-232 SERIAL PORT. 



Seattle Computer has a winning card for owners of 
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memory that can make your Personal Computer 
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And RAM+ cards can put money on the table. 
Each comes with a built-in RS-232 serial port— which 
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Available in 64K, 128K, 192K or 256K, RAM 't- 
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Keys to Success, continued... 

previous word, and next field. While 
typing, you may insert or delete charac- 
ters but not whole lines. You can establish 
or disestablish a key word with a single 
stroke. 

Flipping Through Cards 

When you are not editing a card, you 
can scan through your cards using the 
Move To Next Card and Move to Pre- 
vious Card keys. You can also use the 
Move to Last Card and Move to First 
Card keys. 

If you have many cards in your file, a 
one-by-one scan takes a long time. To 
help speed things up. Cardbox provides 
the Select, Include and Exclude com- 
mands. Let us use another example from 
the world of trees. 

If you want to look at only those cards 
that contain the key word "oak" just type 
SE /OAK and press the return key. Now 
you can scan forward and back among 
only the cards in which Cardbox found 
the key word "oak." 

You can further restrict the cards to be 
scanned by giving another Select com- 
mand or by giving an Exclude command. 
If you want to concentrate on oak trees 
other than American Oak, you might type 
EX /American, for example. 

The Include command serves to 
expand the collection of selected cards. 



After saying SE /Oak, as above, and IN 
/Maple we can scan through all cards 
having either oak or maple as key words. 

For those occasions when you forget to 
make key words where you should, 
Cardbox has special versions of Select 
and Exclude (but not Include) which 
search all text in your cards, not just the 
key words. 

To help the sophisticated searcher, 
Cardbox offers commands called Back 
and Clear which undo your selection 
commands one at a time or in one big 
gulp. Also helpful are the History com- 
mand, which tells you how you managed 
to select your current set of cards, and 
the Listindex command, which helps 
predict the effect of a Select command. 

Deciding 

Ask yourself the following questions: 
Do I consistently use data in fixed for- 
mats? What else am I using the computer 
for? What kind of memory devices do I 
use? 

Cardbox forces you to predefine your 
data formats. Data/ax provides no support 
for preformatting. Visidex can go either 
way. 

Cardbox can create data files for use 
with many standard CP/M word pro- 
cessors and other programs. With Datafax 
you can make Pascal editor and program 



compatible files. Visidex has limited 
capabilities of this type, but can make 
Apple DOS text files. 

Datafax and Cardbox can both make 
full use of hard disks. 8" floppies and disk 
emulators in RAM when such peripherals 
are correctly installed. Visidex has no 
such capability. 

Final Words 

I can't close without mentioning docu- 
mentation and on-screen help. Each pro- 
gram comes with a very good manual, 
although the Cardbox manual is a bit 
difficult for beginners. Visidex includes a 
superb reference card and the Datafax 
manual, though good, is labeled "prelimi- 
nary." 

Each program displays help in a differ- 
ent way. Cardbox is very talkative. 
Visidex is terse and Datafax is profession- 
al sounding. 

I prefer the Datafax style of spelling 
out each available command at the top of 
the screen. The Cardbox screen seemed 
a bit too busy, with messages changing 
between keystrokes so often I was some- 
times distracted. Visidex is a bit too terse 
for me, providing only single-letter clues 
as to what I could do next. 

Don't be afraid to try any of these 
programs. Remember: If you can't deal 
with it, file it. □ 



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For information and prices on disks, duplication, and 
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Introducing the 
Sinclair ZX81. 

If you 're ever 
going to buy a personal 
computer, now is the time 
to do it. 

The Sinclair ZX81 
is the most powerful, yet 
easy-to-use computer 
ever offered for any- 
where near the price: 
only $99.95* completely assembled. 

Don't let the price fool you. The ZX81 has 
just about everything you could ask for in a per- 
sonal computer. 

A breakthrough in personal computers. 

The ZX81 is a major advance over the origi- 
nal Sinclair ZX80- the first personal computer to 
break the price barrier at $200. 

In fact, the ZX81 's 8K extended BASIC offers 
features found only on computers costing two or 
three times as much. 

Just look at what you get: 
■ Continuous display, including moving graphics 

Sinclair technology is also available in Timex/Sinclair computers 
under a license from Sinclair Research Ltd. 



THE $99.95 





■ Multi-dimensional 
string and numerical arrays 

■ Mathematical and scien- 
tific functions accurate to 
8 decimal places 
■ Unique one-touch entry 
of key words like PRINT, 
RUN and LIST 

■ Automatic syntax error 
■ detection and easy editing 

■ Randomize function 
useful for both games and serious applications 

■ 1 K of memory expandable to 16K 

■ A comprehensive programming guide and 
operating manual 

The ZX81 is also very convenient to use. It 
hooks up to any television set to produce a clear 
32-column by 24-line display. It comes with a 
comprehensive programming guide and oper- 
ating manual designed for both beginners and 
experienced computer users. And you can use 
a regular cassette recorder to store and 
recall programs by name. 






Order at no risk.* * 

We'll give you 10 days to try out the ZX81 . If 
you're not completely satisfied, just return it to 
Sinclair Research and we'll give you a full refund. 

And if you have a problem with your ZX81, 
send it to Sinclair Research within 90 days and 
we'll repair or replace it at no charge. 
Introducing the ZX81 kit. 

If you really want to save money, and you 
enjoy building electronic kits, you can order the 
ZX81 in kit form for the incredible price of just 
$79.95.* It's the same, full-featured computer, 
only you put it together yourself. We'll send com- 
plete, easy-to-follow instructions on how you can 
assemble your ZX81 in just a few hours. All you 
have to supply is the soldering iron. 
A leader in microelectronics. 

The ZX81 represents the latest technology in 
microelectronics. More than 10,000 are sold 
every week. In fact, the ZX81 is the fastest selling 
personal computer in the world. 

We urge you to place your order for the 
ZX81 today. 
To order. 

To order, simply call toll 
free. Or use the coupon below. 
Remember, you can try it for 
10 days at no risk.** The sooner 
you order, the sooner you can 
start enjoying your own 
computer. 
Call toll free 800-543-3000. 

Ask for operator #509. 
In Ohio call: 800-582-1 364; 
in Canada call: 513-729-4300. 
Ask for operator #509. Phones 
open 24 hours a day, 7 days 
a week. Have your MasterCard 
or VISA ready. 



These numbers are for orders only. If you just 
want information, please write: Sinclair Research 
Ltd., 2 Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 03061. 

* Plus shipping and handling Price includes connectors for TV and cassette. AC adaptor, and 
FREE manual 

• • Does not apply to ZX81 kits 




NEW SOFTWARE: Sinclair has 
published pre-recorded pro- 
grams on cassettes for your 
ZX81 . We're constantly coming 
out with new programs, so we'll 
send you our latest software 
catalog with your computer. 



16K MEMORY MODULE: Like 
any powerful, full fledged com- 
puter, the ZX81 is expandable. 
Sinclair's 16K memory module 
plugs right onto the back of 
your ZX81 . Cost is $49.95, plus 
shipping and handling. 




To order call toll free: 800-543-3000 







Price* 








Ad Code 09CC 


Qty. Amount 




ZX81 


$99.95 








ZX81 Kit 


79.95 








16K Memory Module 


49.95 








Shipping and Handling 


4.95 




$4.95 




MAIL TO: Sinclair Research Ltd., 
One Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 03061 

Name 




TOTAL 








Address 








State. 



Zip. 



& & & & 

& 49 & & 
r & & & 



•!• 



THE $549. 
SMART TERMINAL 



The Heath 19 Smart Video Terminal gives you all the 
important professional features you want in a ter- 
minal, all for under $600." You get the flexibility you 
need for high-speed data entry, editing, inquiry and 
transaction processing. It's designed to be the back- 
bone ot your system with heavy-duty features that 
withstand the rigors of daily use. 
Standard RS-232C interfacing makes the 19 com- 
patible with DEC VT-52 and most computer systems. 
And with the 19, you get the friendly advice and 
expert service that makes Heath/Zenith a strong 
partner for you. 



Sold through Heathkit Electronic Centers* nationwide 
(see your white pages for locations). Stop in today 
for a demonstration of the Heath 19 Smart Video Termi- 
nal. If you can't get to a store, send for the latest 
Heathkit* Catalog. Write Heath Co., Dept. 355-934 
Benton Harbor, Ml 49022. 



HEATH/ZENITH 



Your strong partner 



Completely ad- 
dressable blinking 
cursor lets you 
edit anywhere on 
screen. 



Reverse video by 
character lets you 
emphasize words, 
phrases or paragraphs. 



High resolution CRT 
gives you sharp, easy- 
to-read image, reduces 
eye-strain. 



Complete ASCII 
character set includ 
ing upper case, 
tower case with 
descenders, and 
special graphic 
symbols. 



80 character by 24 
line format, plus 25th 
line for operator mes- 
sages and prompts. 



Professional 
quality keyboard, 
standard type- 
writer layout, 72 
keys, including 
12 special function 
keys. 



Z-80 microprocessor- 
control makes the 19 
capable of multitude of 
high-speed functions. 
It's the only terminal 
with ROM source code 
readily available. 




Insert and delete 
character or line plus 
erase to end of line 
and end of screen 
make the 19 ideal 
for sophisticated 
editors like WORD- 
STAR. 

Cursor and 
special functions 
are accessible 
by keyboard or 
computer, using 
either DEC VT-52 
or ANSI Standard 
protocols. 



Keypad in 
calculator format 
permits fast, 
easy entry of 
numeric data. 



'In kit form. FOB. Benton Harbor. Ml. Also available the completely assembled Zenith Z-19 
at $895. Prices and specifications are subject to change without notice. 



t Heath Company and Ver itechnology Electronics 
Corporation are wholly-owned subsidiaries of Zenith 
Radio Corporation. The Heathkit Electronic Centers 
are operated by verrtechnotogy Electronics Corporation. 

CP-202C 



DB Master and Visifile 




Record Players 



Mike Coffey 



When you buy a file manager, you are 
really buying several programs, to wit: 

• Record designer 

• Record editor 

• File printer 

• File sorter 

Each program within a file manager 
can be evaluated separately for ease-of- 
use, generality, speed, error protection, 
documentation and whatever else you 
think is important. To summarize these 
into an overall evaluation would be a 
difficult, enemy-making and otherwise 
meaningless task. 

Thorough analysis of all the worthwhile 
file managers on the market would fill a 
book with as many pages as any two issues 
of Creative Computing. This article will 
analyze the functions of each program 
within a complete file manager and cite 
examples from two popular systems. 

Both DBMaster, from Stoneware 
Microcomputer Products, and Visifile, 
from VisiCorp, are complete file man- 
agers that you can buy from almost any 
Apple dealer. They are generally well 
documented and carefully debugged. We 
do not mean to imply that they are 
necessarily the best file managers. You 
must analyze your needs and choose the 
system that best fits you. 

Record Designers 

Building a file begins with designing 
the layout of the data to be stored in the 

September 1982 c Creative Computing 



If some parts of the 

design puzzle you, 

you have been 

effectively introduced 

to the world of 

record design. 



file. We will use a simple mailing list file 
as an example. 

For each person or organization, we 
may need to keep track of the following 
things: name, address, phone numbers, 
and birth date. 

Figure I. 



For the sake of the program we must 
state our design more specifically than 
we did in the previous paragraph. We 
must specify the record design as a col- 
lection of fields, each of which can hold a 
simple sequence of characters, often 
restricted in number and type of 
character. 

Figure 1 shows our refined record 
design for the simple mailing list. 

If some parts of the design puzzle you, 
you have been effectively introduced to 
the world of record design. Many books 
have been written on the topic. 

Any decent file manager will let you 
specify the length of fields and whether 
each should hold letters and numbers 
(alphanumerics) or numbers only. Many 
file managers, including DBMaster, also 



Name of Field 


Type of Characters 


Number of Characters 


Last name 


any 


up to 20 


First name 


any 


up to 20 


Street address 


any 


up to 40 


City or town 


any 


up to 20 


State 


letters 


2 


Zip code 


numbers 


5 


Day phone 


(xxx)yyy-zzzz 


8-13 


Night phone 


(xxx)yyy-zzzz 


8-13 


Birth date 


mm/dd/yy 


8 



43 



I 



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CIRCLE 175 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



DBMaster/Visifile, contini 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: DBMaster 
Type: File Manager 

System: Apple II 48K, 2 Disk Drives 

(or more) 
Format: Disk II (16-sectur) 
Language: Basic & 6502 
Summary: Maximum Power 
Price: $229 
Manufacturer: 

Stoneware 

50 Belvedere St. 

San Rafael, CA 94901 



can handle specially formatted fields, such 
as dates. 

When you tell DBMaster that a field 
should contain a date, it creates an eight- 
character field with hyphens to separate 
month, day and year. The operator will 
be able to type only numbers into the 
field, however, DBMaster will not reject 
dates like 99-32-82. 

Visifile recognizes numeric and alpha- 
numeric fields. For a date, you would 
specify an eight-character alphanumeric 
field. The operator(s) might have to learn 
to be careful about how they type dates. 

DBMaster knows about numeric, alpha- 
numeric and several kinds of fields. Here 
is a list: 

• Counting numbers (0-255) 

• General Integers (+/- 32767) 

• Decimal numbers (9-digit precision) 
o Dollars and Cents (up to 

$9,999,999.99) 

• Social security number (xxx-xx-xxxx) 

• Telephone number (xxx-xxx-xxxx) 

• Yes or No 

Record Capacity 

Next on our list of considerations are 
record length and field length. Figure 2 
shows how our two programs compare. 



Figure 2. 



You can see that DBMaster enjoys 
greater record capacity, but that Visifile 
would be preferable for people with a few 
long fields. Either program works fine for 
our mailing list. 



With a little practice, 

you could probably 

make money setting 

up people's files 

for them. 



The Record Design Process 

The record design program should 
make your job easy, keeping you 
informed of your options along the way 
and allowing you to back up, correct 
mistakes or change your mind. Most 
programs fail to do this. 

DBMaster puts the designer through a 
long, confusing and, therefore, error 
prone dialogue. Beginners should seek 
help from an experienced friend the first 
time they design records. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Visifile 

Type: File manager 

System: Apple II 48K, Disk Drive 
(2 recommended) 

Format: Disk II (16-sector) 

Language: Basic and 6502 

Summary: Good menus 

Price: $250 

Manufacturer 

Visicorp 

2895 Zanker Rd. 

San Jose, CA 95134 





Maximum 


Maximum 


Maximum 


Maximum 




Record 


Number 


Character 


Numeric 




Length 


of Fields 


Field Length 


Field Length 


DBMaster 


1020 


100 


30 


11 


Visifile 


232 


24 


128 


38 



44 



September A 982 c Creative Computing 






Turn your Apple* IE into an 

Orchard 




With software from Quark™ Engineering 



Quark Engineering brings you software specially 
designed for your Apple III. Easy-to-use products 
that dramatically increase your system's capabilities. 
And your productivity. 

You start with Word luggler™. the most easy-to-use 
word processor available for the Apple III. Word 
Juggler is written in assembly language. And comes 
with special keyboard templates to label important 
functions. 

Word juggler retails for $295. Form letter and simple 
mailing list capabilities are included free. If you want 
even more capacity, you can interface with Apple's 
Mail List Manager for an additional $35. 

Need to check your spelling? Add Lexicheck™ . A 
high-performance spelling checker with a 
25,000-word dictionary. You can add your own 
words. And get more accurate documents, without a 
lot of proofreading. The price? Less than a penny a 
word. Only $195. 



You can even send text from Word juggler to 
computerized typesetting equipment. All you need 
is Typeface™. Interface software which cuts your 
typesetting costs and eliminates re-keying errors. 
$175. 

Finally, there's Transcribe ™. A spooler designed 
especially for hard disk drives. Transcribe lets you 
use other computer functions while you're printing. 
And it's compatible with most Apple III software. 
$125. 

There's much more to tell you about Word juggler, 
Lexicheck, TypeFace and Transcribe. See them 
at your local dealer. Or contact us 
today. We'll help you turn your 
Apple III into an orchard. And from 
then on, you'll find easy picking. 

Quark Engineering 
1433 Williams. Suite I 102 
Denver, CO 80218 
(303) 399-1096 



'Apple is A registered trademark 
ol Apple Computer. Inc. 




Engineering 

CIRCLE 214 ON READER SERVICE CARD 








Reading, Writing, and TRS-80 




The biggest name in little computers is also the biggest 
name in classroom computing. There are more TRS-80s 
in use in schools than any other computer — and for 
some very good reasons. We're not just a hardware 
company. Our education division has produced more 
courseware than any other microcomputer manufac- 
turer, even more than most major educational pub- 
lishers. We're serious about education. No reputable 
educational publisher would place a new and untested 
program on the market — and neither would we. We 
maintain an extensive field test program for all our 
classroom products. If they don't measure up. we don't 

put our name and our reputation on them. And they don't make it into your classroom. Our service 
and support organizations are second to none. And they're company-owned and company-operated 
— nationwide. If you're serious about computers in your classroom, ask a school that owns a TRS-80. 
And then visit a Radio Shack Computer Center or one of our stores near you. Or call 817-390-3302 for 
the name of our full-time educational sales coordinator in your area. 



Radio /hack 

The biggest name in little computers™ 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 
CIRCLE 264 ON READER SERVICE CARD 









■ 






DBMaster/Visifile, continued... 



Visifile employs a very easy to follow 
design procedure. You will seldom 
wonder what to do next, especially if you 
read the manual. The program always 
displays a not-too-cryptic list of options 
and your work in progress is fully visible. 

As for redesigning old records, Visifile 
lets you start again from scratch and then 
copy data from the old type records to 
new ones. DBMaster will not do that 
unless you purchase the optional Utility 
Pak m. 

Summary of Record Editors 

DBMaster has one of the most powerful 
and complex designers you can buy. With 
a little practice, you could probably make 
money setting up peoples files for them. 

The Visifile record editor, while simple 
to operate, offers fewer options. We 
recommend this type of record designer 
to beginners and to people whose files 
will be used by only one person. 

Record Editors 

Most people spend most of their file 
management time editing records. There- 
fore, consider carefully the qualities of 
the record editor of each system. 

Under record editing we include both 
generating new records and altering old 
records. Some systems treat these as 
separate tasks but we have a hard time 
keeping them very far apart in our mind. 

We think of record editing as a special- 
ized form of text editing. We wish that 
the designers of file management systems 
felt the same way. Commands to insert 
and delete characters, words and lines 
are just as useful in record processing as 
they are in word processing. Unfortunate- 
ly, most of these commands are missing 
from many file managers, including both 
DBMaster and Visifile. 

Complete cursor controls can also add 
much to the convenience of a system. 
Most file managers, including DBMaster 
and Visifile, fail to satisfy this wish. 

Record editing, like text editing, 
involves very subjective concerns about 
what feels right to an individual. Be sure 
to try out each system before buying. 



Visifile Main Menu. 



■> DB MASTER MUM HEHU <■ 

FILE HAKE' NAILLIST 

CHOOSE FROM' 

(1> OISPLAY/EDIT/OELETE RECCR3S 

<2> 003 RECORDS 

<3> LIST RECORDS TO PRINTER 

(4) LOAD OR CREATE SHORT FORK 

<5> SET UP OR PRINT REPORT 

<6> FILE MAINTENANCE 

<7> LOAD OR CREATE HEU FILE 

<8) CLOSE FILES I EXIT 

ENTER YOUR CHOICE (t TO 8) ■ 



DBMaster Main Menu. 

DBMaster Record Editing 

In DBMaster, you reach for the record 
editing functions from the main menu by 
selecting "add new records" or "search/ 
print/update." When you have searched 
out the record you wish to edit, pressing 
the escape key alows you to change its 
contents. 

Whether you are adding or modifying a 
record, DBMaster lets you move sequen- 
tially from field to field and from page to 
page (if the record has more than one 
page) and retype any field. 

If you suddenly decide you don't need 
a record, you may delete it. 



Visifile is built around 

several cursor driven 

menus. 



Visifile Record Editing 

Visifile is built around several cursor 
driven menus. At the bottom or top of 
the screen you see several choices. 
Touching the cursor keys causes each 
choice in turn to be highlighted. When 
you have highlighted your choice, just 
press return and it's yours. 

Adding records is as simple as can be: 
just select Add and fill in the fields. 



Visifile Record Editor with fields filled in. 



Utf»to 




I 



iSKU 



ri . -. m m 



DBMaster Record Editor. 

Correcting mistakes is no problem, just 
back up and retype. 

Changing records can be a bit weird, 
though. When you select Change from 
the menu, the program asks which record 
to change. Normally, it asks you to tell it 
the record number of the one you want 
to change. In the index mode, however, it 
asks for the key value of the one you wish 
to change. 

We would prefer a Visifile with only 
one mode. The record number method of 
record selection should have been dis- 
carded before the product was released. 
It does little to enhance the utility and 
much to complicate its use. 

Because of the availability of two dif- 
ferent modes, the operator must remem- 
ber to throw the system into "search index 
mode" whenever starting the record 
editor. 

Now, back to our editor. Choose 
"Change" from the menu and enter the 
key value of the record you wish to 
change. Oops, we're stuck again. What's 
a key valuel 

Before you can use the search index 
mode on a file for the first time, you must 
sort the file. In its simplest form, sorting 
involves choosing one field as the key 
field. The program then creates a special 
file, called an index, that tells where each 
record would be if the data file were 
arranged in alphabetical order according 
to the contents of the key field. Simple, 
right? 

Now more about our editor. You have 
typed a key value. Visifile shows you a 
record that matches your key. You can 
retype any field, inserting and deleting 
characters at will. Finally, you press a 
control key signalling that you are done 
editing, and Visifile returns you to the 
maintain menu. 

You delete records in similar fashion. 
Choose Delete from the menu and enter 
the key value. Visifile will display the 
corresponding record and ask for confir- 
mation before deleting it. 

Try It Out 

Let's emphasize once again that the 
record editing program is the most impor- 
tant component in the file manager sys- 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



47 







DBMaster /Visif ile, continued 



The record editing 

program is the most 

important component 

in the file manager 
system. 



tem. Make sure that the program feels 
right to the person who will use it most 
often. 

Printing 

File printing can be divided into two 
steps: designing report formats and print- 
ing reports. Generally, you can design a 
format once and use it many times. 

DBMaster can print without having you 
create a report format. Just choose "List 
records to printer" from the main menu. 
You will then be able to specify which 
records should be printed. You will not 
be able to specify which fields should be 
printed, DBMaster will print them all. 

You can get basic reports from Visifile 
very easily also. The first time you print a 
report from a given file, you must design 
a report format for that file. For sub- 
sequent reports you may reuse the same 
format or you may design and use addi- 
tional ones. 

Visifile Report Design 

When designing a Visifile report you 
specify: 

• Report name. 

• Printed title (up to three lines). 

• Length of a page. 

• Whether to print in key order. 

• Whether to print deleted records. 

• Whether to print the names of fields. 

• Which fields to include and where to 
place them. 

All except the last of these are shown 
on the first screen of the Report design 
dialogue. You can easily back up and 
change your mind, and you can always 
see what you have done so far. 

The second screen of the dialogue 
covers the details of the choice, place- 
ment and appearance of fields. Again, 
because of the menu orientation and the 
ease of correcting mistakes, this process 
is simple to master. 

With all these specifications tucked 
away in the print format, there are still 
two options that can be selected at print 
time: which records to print and in what 
order. 

The easiest thing to do is to print all 
records. Otherwise, you can use yet 
another specialized menu to weed out 
certain records. Just select the fields you 
want to consider and the characters you 




n each field. 
The order of printing is determined by 
the sort command, described in its own 
section, below. 

DBMaster Report Design 

DBMaster also has a Report Design 
program. It has many options, is difficult 
to use (especially the first time) and its 
explanation requires 35 pages in the 
DBMaster manual. Features include page 
number placement, date of report, num- 
ber of lines between records, comment 
lines, column titles, computed fields, row 
totals, column totals, sort fields, subtotals, 
and which records to include. 

File Sorters 

Sorting a file usually means arranging 
its records in alphabetical order so that a 
human can find one quickly. Computers 
sometimes sort files so that they can find 
records quickly, but they also have other 
quick search methods. 

DBMaster, for example, uses keys and 
indexes to find records quickly and only 
sorts when you ask for a sorted report. 
Visifile also uses keys and indexes and, if 
you are careful, can keep everything in 
order as you add new records. 

Sort of DBMaster 

DBMaster can consider up to six fields 
in one sorting operation. Examples are 
fun to imagine. You can print a list of 
people according to country and, within 
country, according to state, and within 
state, by county or parish, city or town, 
postal code, or street. This is very useful 
for statistical researchers, especially since 
DBMaster can add up columns of num- 
bers within each of the sort levels. 

For quick retrieval of records (within 
about five seconds for even full-disk sized 
files), DBMaster uses secondary keys. 
When you tell the program that you want 
a particular field to be a secondary key, 
DBMaster quietly creates an index file 
for that field. 

The secondary keys of DBMaster 
obviate the need for a separate sorting 
step (except for printing.) Instead, the 



storing of each record takes a bit longer. 
In many cases, the difference will not be 
noticeable. The DBMaster manual sug- 
gests using no more than three secondary 
indexes at the same time. 

Sort of Visifile 

Visifile can consider up to ten fields in 
one sorting operation. When you sort with 
Visifile, the program builds an index file, 
to which you give a name. 

Visifile uses this index both to print 
sorted reports and to help find records 
quickly for editing. You can build more 
than one index file (each using a different 
set of fields), but switching among them 
requires re-sorting using the Sort menu. 

Capacity and Overhead 

Visifile, like most file managers you 
can buy for the Apple II, can manage 
files as large as the capacity of one Disk 
II (approximately 120K). DBMaster can 
handle files as large as a million bytes. 
However, as soon as your file exceeds 
140 kilobytes, you will have to begin 
swapping disks as DBMaster commands 
you, unless you have the hard-disk 
version. 

Each program requires 48K RAM and 
a disk drive. Both publishers state that 
their programs work with a single disk 
drive. Only a masochist would use either 
program with a single drive. DBMaster 
works best with three drives (one for 
records, one for indexes, and one for the 
program), though two are adequate for 
most users. Visifile works best with two 
disk drives and will ignore any additional 
drives. 

Both systems handle printers of most 
types. Neither supports 80-column boards 
nor other non-printer peripherals. Hard 
disk compatibility is another desirable, 
hard to find, feature. Special versions of 
DBMaster have it, most others do not. 

Summary 

As I said at the beginning of this article, 
there is no way to summarize this topic. 
So get going, analyze your needs and try 
a couple of systems yourself. D 




48 



Dear Diary..." 

September 1982 c Creative Computing 



a^afl 



The experts are excited about QR AMMATlK 

Seldom does a new software product receive the universal praise from the 
experts of major microcomputer magazines that Grammatik has. Read for yourself: 



Alan R. Miller, Interface Aye. May 1982: 

"Tin rutin- manuscript of »/// Fortran Imok was given to 
Grammatik. Grammatik flagged many locations throughout 
the Ixxik. Several doubled words were correctly flagged. Other 
flagyil passages truly nmlnl attention, ""drum mat ikfou ml a 
very important pattern; the expr e ssi on in this ease' appeared 
hh times. This pkrast expressed four different co nc epts, ami 
most of the examples m re reworded,'' "Profile can be used to 
determine the frequency <>/ word usage in a document" 
"Gr amm atik is a useful aid for professional writers. It is the 
perfect complement to a spelling checker." 

A. A. Wicks, Computronics . June 1982: 
"The innii mil fur Grammatik is better than average. The gen- 
eral text and explanations are thorough detailed, and cmi- 

dse." "When the linn/ruin nils 'test rnn'iin sunn ulil articles nf 
mini still an ilisk. I tens i nihil rrnsscil by smile 11/ tin over- 
worked, wordy, or trite phrases that I hail used. Nevertheless, I 
hail tn agree with what Grammatik was saying, ami vow to 

11 n 1 ill these pitfalls ill the J'nt 11 re. " "Til is is one of the must inter- 

esting ami useful programs that I hare had tin pleasure to re- 
view. All functions operated as elated with m problems, or 
even a hint of a problem. And iw guessing was required about 
exactly what someofthe directions implied. Anyone involved 
with word processing in ana way, whether writing manuals, 
letters, brochures, newscopy, reports, etc is encouraged to get 

this excellent linn/rani." 

Stephen Kimmel, Creative Computing, June 1982: 
"/ ilnn't get excited about many programs. I am < xcited almnt 
Gr amm atik.'' "It is difficult to imagine the program being any 

easier tu use. " "/ hail decided that the program Would he useful 

tn a professional writer if mil a because it cheeks far double 

iciirils." "I hare a hit/her enthusiasm threshold than that. 

Grammatik can also In- expanded to include phrases <tf parti- 



cular significance to you. It can become your personal editor 

anil English coach I luce to start sentences with ami'. That's 

not a particularly good idea. So I added the phrase '. And' with 

the note tn !»■ careful not tn an ruse it. ,\mc I get a reminder 
i very timt I do it. Then an other words that I use too often. My 
copy of Grammatik clucks for them, too, and gently tells me tu 
watch out. " "I like Grammatik a great deal. It is a worthy ami 
useful addition to your word processing software." 
Bob Louden. InfoWorld. December 7. 1981: 
"Grammatik is the next step beyond spelling checking for seri- 
ous word processors. Grammatik a unitizes writing style at the 
word ami si ntenci level while, at the sunn time, it checks for 
subtle spelling and typographical errors that ij<> beyond tin 
capabilities of conventional spelling-checking programs. If 

ifuii use a iron! processor ami a spelling clinker, then you 

should in vest igau tin ununu capabilities of this p rogr a m." 

"Althnuijli skeptical at first. I proceeded In run sec, nil i if mil 

published articles through Grammatik. None were fret of 
errors. " "Grammatik is a surprisingly fast ami easy tool for 
analyzing writing style ami punctuation." 

Dona Z. Meilach, Interface Age, May 1982: 
"The programs together {Aspen Software's spelling checker 
Proofreader and Grammatik) offer a dynamic tool for compn 
In nsice editing beyond spelling corrections. It can begin where 
your college English teacher left off ami help you analyse your 
documents in a way ;/<»» may never have thought possible." 

Eric Balkan. The Computer Consultant, Vol 2 No 9: 
"Asa reviewer, I'm impressed tin most with tin imagination 
that went into this product. With all the me-too software on the 
market, it's ijihh! tn see something original come nut. It's also 

gixiil to si e that tin program author nllnici il the usi r as much 

freedom as he iliil you can use your men imagination tn ex- 
tern! the uses of the p r og ram," 



GKAMMATJR » pg W%/\PEffV= no errors 

Together. Grammatik and the Aspen Software Company spelling checker Proofreader form an unequalled document proof- 
reading system. Proofreader features an official version of the RANDOM HOUSE" Dictionary for a word list that you can trust! It 
also features immediate on-line access to the dictionary for spelling help while making corrections interactively. Proofreader is the 
best spelling checker available. Write or call for more details. (On-line dictionary not available on TRS-80 version ) 



CPM and IBM PC DOS Grammal.k $150 00 Proofreader - $12900 Both - $25000 TRS-80 Model U Grammatik - $9900 Proofreader $99 00 Both $179 00 TRS-80 Model l III Grammatik 



$59 00, Proofreader $89 00 Both - $139 00 Manuals only $6 00 each. $15 00 both 

IMPORTANT ORDERING INFORMATION Vou MUST specify computer model operating system memory we and tormal 

and number of disk drives when ordering either software or manual* atone AH u S Canada and M«kico orders include first 

class shipping m price We accept cash check money order VISA and Masler Card Cost on manual only orders can he 

credited to fmai purchase NM residents add 4% sales laa 

(Dealer and OEM inquiries welcome) 

Random House ■» > registered trademark of Random House Inc Owe* registered trademarks CPM Digital Research, TRS-80 

Tandy Corp MS-DOS Microsoft IBM IBM Proofreader Grammatik Aspen Software Co 



Distributed By: 

SOFM^RE 

DIGITAL /MARKETING 





P.O. Box 339-C Tijeras, NM 87059 - (505) 281-1634 




PFS 




so 



Form Fiddling 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Nam* PFS: The personal filing system 

Type: Forms Filer 

System: Apple II 4KK. Disk Drive (2 
recommended) or Apple III 
128K, extra drive (Disk III or 
hard disk) 

Format: Disk 11(16 sector) 

Language: Pascal 

Summary: Elegant, efficient, beautiful 

Price: $125 (Apple II). $175 (Apple III) 

Manufacturer: 

Software Publishing Corp. 
1901 Landings Drive 
Mountain View. CA 94043 



Mike Coffey 



I have used many programs and man- 
uals that load me down with jargon, 
promise mainframe power and leave rue 
wondering why I bought a computer in 
the first place. The PFS series from 
Software Publishing Corporation does nisi 
the opposite. 

PFS is an ideal database management 
program for a first-time computer user. 
There is no cumbersome command lan- 
guage to master, the menus arc few and 
simple, and the terminology is based on 
simple English. 

Overview 

PFS data is organized as a collection of 
forms. A PFS form works like a preprinted 
business form: you design the form once 
and fill it in many times. 

Once you have designed your form anil 
filled in a few. PFS lets you review. 



remove, change, or print them selectively. 
All these options appear on the main PFS 
menu. 

Form Design 

PFS incorporates the simplest form 
design process we have seen. Just move 
the cursor to the spot where you want the 
name of the item to appear and type the 
name of the item, followed by a colon. 
Repeat that process for each item in your 
form. 

When you are finished, press a single 
control key and PFS does the rest. It will 
initialize your disk and record your file 
name and form design on it. If you change 
your mind about initializing the disk, just 
press the escape key to bail out. 

While typing item names, you can flip 
to the next or previous page of your form 
using a control key. You can also erase a 
whole page if you make such a mistake 
and you want to start over. 

Filling in Forms 

When you want to add or change the 
contents of forms, you use the limited 
function editor that is built into PFS. You 
can move the cursor up. down, left and 
right but you cannot insert or delete 
characters or lines; you must type over 
the information on the form. These func- 
tions are adequate for original data entry 
but leave something to be desired when 
many revisions are necessary. 

The editor employs the right arrow key 
to move to the next item, the eontrol-C 
combination to conclude the editing 
process, and the escape key to bail out 
without saving the changes you have 
made. 

50 



Re-reading Forms 

To re-read forms, choose Search 
Update from the PFS function menu. PFS 
will show you a blank form and ask for a 
Retrieve Specification. Your job is to tell 
the program how to find the forms you 
want to read. 

To do this, simply move to any item 
and type in the information you want PFS 
to find there. For example, if you want to 
find out about oak trees, move to the 
Tree item and type Oak. 

When you hit the continue key PFS 
will show you all forms that have Oak 
in the Tree item. Each time PFS shows 
you a form that it found, it waits so you 
can read and perhaps change the infor- 
mation in the form. While the form is 
displayed, you may print it or delete it. 
Finally, when you give the signal. PFS 
continues searching for more matching 
forms. 

Deeper Searching 

The retrieve specification can be more 
complicated, if you wish. For instance, if 
you just want to learn about all the oak 
trees in Chicago, type Oak in the Tree 
item and Chicago in the City item. 

PFS can even find things that you don't 
spell out completely. If you don't know 
how (or are too lazy I to spell Chicago, 
just type Chi., in the City item. PFS will 
find forms that include a city beginning 
with Chi. 

You could also type ...chi... and PFS 
would find anything that had chi in the 
middle of it. Coffe® would match either 
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the tree item. If you have a numeric item, 
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numbers to specify which forms to look 
at. 

September 1982 ' Creative Computing 






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PFS, continued. 



I EMPLOYEE « 



ITTmTm 



l.'M'U 

r.VMiH4H 



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EHJgg a SALES 

Hmaa>$i»5o| 



1 = = FULL 
FILE STAFF 



RETRIEVE SPEC PAGE 1 



We ask for someone in sales with a salary 
over S 1850... 



Printing Forms 

If reviewing your forms on TV does 
not thrill you. try printing (hem on paper. 
Just select "Print" from the menu anil 
PFS will show you a blank form. 

To show PFS which forms to print, fill 
in the form as if you were searching. 
Next, you must tell PFS which items to 
print from each form. The program again 
displays a blank form and asks for print 
specifications. 

You can ask for each item to be printed 
on a separate line by putting an X next to 
the name of each item to be printed. By 
using plus signs instead of Xs. you can get 
items to share space on the same line. 
Naturally, you can combine these 
options. 

The latest additions to the PFS reper- 
toire of print options are the T and S 
options. By placing a T next to the + or 
X for an item, you prevent words from 
being split at the ends of lines. By includ- 
ing an S next to an item, you tell PFS to 
sort the printed forms in alphabetical 
order according to the item in which the 
S appears. 

Unwanted Forms 

When you want to get rid of forms, 
select Remove from the PFS function 
menu. As so often happens, a blank form 
appears, while PFS asks for a retrieve 
specification. When you have entered a 
pattern to be matched. PFS will search 
through the file and forget any matching 
forms. 

Niceties 

Many programs punish you for making 
mistakes. PFS forgives you. If you belat- 
edly discover that you have left some 
important item out of your design, PFS 
lets you change your design without losing 
any data. 

Another important thing about PFS is 
that it is a completely self-contained 
package. If you have two disk drives. PFS 
will even copy your data disks for you. 
You never have to read another manual 
or run another program to make the most 
of PFS. 

September 1982 c Creative Computing 



ij'Ni.vij n nan cnigjj bo 02/01 

l.'M.'U MIKE COOPER 

»1:I*H 907 S UNSET CT 

rami porti aud hhh or fttj 9720a 

■MiUHIal SALESPERSON- WEST 

Banaa$i9oo 



1S FULL 
FILE STAFF 



..PFS finds a salesperson. 



Limitations 

Lest you think that PFS stands for 
perfect filing system. I must mention some 
of its limitations. There is no was to 
specify what type of information should 
be entered into each item. For example. 
PFS cannot force the user to enter a 
whole number, a date, or a telephone 
number. 



If reviewing your forms 

on TV does not thrill 

you, try printing 

on paper. 



The Apple II version of PFS stores 
exactly one file on each data diskette. 
Consequently, people with small collec- 
tions of data end up wasting diskettes. 
People with very large amounts of data, 
(more than 1000 forms), find that PFS 
cannot handle files larger than one disk's 
worth. 

PFS for the Apple III can place more 
than one file on a disk and can also use a 
hard disk for files as large as 32.000 forms 
(depending on the size of the forms). 

Relatives 

Software Publishing Corporation main- 
tains an impressive line of software prod- 
ucts. Their PFS: Report program can 
make sorted columnar business reports 
from your PFS files. The brand new PFS: 
Graph makes colorful charts based on 
the data in PFS and DIF (Data Inter- 
change Format) files. 

Evaluation 

PFS is phenomenally simple to learn 
and use. When combined with the rest of 
the PFS series, it offers a collection of 
features that compares favorably with 
most of their database managers in the 
field. □ 

53 



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T.I.M. Ill 




Database Management for the IBM PC 



Danny Goodman 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: T.I.M. III. Revision 5 

(December 19811 
Type: Database Management 

System: 64K IBM PC. Disk drive, 
monochrome, display, 
parallel printer 

Format: 3 Program Disks 

Language: Microsoft Basic 

Price: $495 

Manufacturer: 

Innovative Software, Inc. 
9300 W. 1 10th St.. Suite 380 
Overland Park, KS 66210 



To my way of thinking, applications 
software, especially packages intended to 
be "user friendly," should make the com- 
puting machine transparent to the user. 
That is, the user's attention should be 
focused on the application and not the 
computer. Just as in adding two numbers 
on a calculator, you are more interested 
in getting the result than how the unit's 

Danny Goodman. 27.S-B Island View Lane. 
Harrington. IL 60010. 



integrated circuit converts, stores, pro- 
cesses, and drives the display during cal- 
culation. 

With Innovative Software's very flex- 
ible and powerful T.I.M. Ill database 
management program for the IBM 
Personal Computer, however, the user is 
reminded a bit too often that there is, 
indeed, a microcomputer with multiple 
disk drives in use, and that some care 
must be taken in executing commands, or 
keyboard input may be lost at the slip of a 
key. 

The ••TIM" in T.I.M. Ill stands for 
Total Information Management, and in 
that regard the program lives up to its 
name. The menu-driven program assists 
the user in creating electronic files, which 
can be of great benefit to business and 
personal applications. 

Once information is stored in the files, 
the user has the option of adding to or 
updating the file, searching through the 
file for records which meet user-specified 
criteria, printing mailing labels from the 
files, printing or displaying cumulative 
reports in user-specified formats, and 
invoking several maintenence and utility 
services within the program. 

For the first-time database management 
user, some of the terminology may be 
confusing, even though the ideas behind 
them are familiar. The three most impor- 
tant concepts to grasp are: file, record, 
and field. 



In the non-computerized world, a file 
cabinet drawer may be labeled 
"Customers": this is the "file" called 
Customers. Inside the drawer are prob- 
ably file folders, one for each customer, 
all in alphabetical order. Each folder is 
the "record" of that customer. Then, 
inside the folder is information about the 
customer— name, address, phone, person 
to contact, etc. Each of these items is 
called a "field." 

That means that the bulky non-elec- 
tronic file cabinet I just mentioned is 
sorted according to the Customer Name 
field: that's the "key field" of the file. By 
dividing a record into fields, you have the 
ability to search through an entire file for 
specific zip code fields, for example. Try 
doing that with a file drawer of alphabet- 
ized files. 

The other distressing term to watch for 
is "library." When creating the format for 
your records or printed reports (i.e., how 
the fields are to be physically arranged so 
they make sense to the eye), the specifi- 
cations for a given format are stored in a 
"library." 

With these fundamentals out of the 
way, we can jump into T.I.M. Ill, one of 
the first database management programs 
to become available for the IBM PC. The 
package owes its early arrival to the 
existence of earlier TIM editions written 
in Microsoft Basic. And, since the resident 
Basic of the PC is of the Microsoft dialect. 



54 



September 1982 • Creative Computing 



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T.l.M. Ill, continued.. 





/. Main menu on disk ffl through which all subcommand 
menus must be accessed. 



2. Help screen for defining fields in a file record. 



only minor changes in the program were 
necessary to duplicate CTRL-(x) 
sequences on the ten function keys of the 
machine. 

A TIM file can hold up to 32,767 
records; each record can have up to 40 
fields; and each field can have up to 60 
characters— in all, a healthy amount of 
data for a microcomputer to manipulate. 
System requirements are 64K RAM, one 
disk drive (though two will be much 
appreciated by any user), PC-Disk 
Operating System. IBM monochrome 
display, and parallel printer. 

The T.l.M. Ill program is contained 
on three 5-1/4" diskettes, labeled Master 
Disks 1, 2, and 3, plus an Examples disk 
used in conjunction with a tutorial at the 
end of the manual. The disks are shipped 
in a pocket located on the inside front 
cover of the padded, three-ring binder 
manual. 

Documentation 

The documentation is divided into 13 
tabbed chapters, plus appendix and four 
tabbed examples sections. Pages are 
printed from a typewritten — or rather 
word processed— original, which is never- 
theless easy on the eyes, and uses boldface 
type for highlights. All material that 
appears on the monitor is printed in blue, 
with boldface blue used for characters 
which are to be input by the user. This 
two-color, two-weight format leaves little 
room for operator error. 

Indicative of the user friendliness of 
the manual is that the operator is carefully 
guided through the process of making a 
backup set of master disks, including the 
basic procedure for formatting blank disks 



with PC-DOS. All subsequent COPY steps 
are clear and thorough. 

After that, the user follows screen 
prompts through configuration of all disks 
for printer width (default is 131 charac- 
ters), available disk drives, number of 
program disks, his name, address, etc.. 
and printer type. Only the last item is not 
fully explained, leaving you to figure out 
what "Optional Printers 1 and 2" might 
be. 



Help screens, menus 
and prompts abound. 



These are all laborious steps for the 
non-computerist, but fortunately, they are 
performed only once, and the directions 
are very easy to follow. 

Just when you think all the disk shuf- 
fling is behind you, you select the "Create 
a new file" sub-menu from the Main 
Menu. You are directed to put disk #2 
into the drive. Then you're told to wait 
while the program is loading. 

Sub-programs are grouped such that 
the most common ones are on Disk 1 , but 
"Create" is on Disk 2, and all file mainte- 
nance and utility sub-programs are on 
Disk 3. To get from Maintenance to 
Utilities, both on Disk 3, you can go only 
via the Main Menu on Disk 1. These 
interruptions break the trance of the 
application. 



Once on the proper program segment, 
however, TIM is very easy to work with. 
Help screens, menus and prompts 
abound. 

File Definition 

When defining a new file, for example, 
you are prompted for a field title (e.g., 
"Last Name"), while the help screen above 
advises that you have a maximum of 15 
characters. For that same field, you must 
then specify the length of the field (the 
maximum number of characters you 
expect to "fill in the blank") up to 60. 

At each prompt, you are also shown 
how many characters you have left from 
a maximum of 2400 per record (but this 
figure can be misleading, as you will see 
below). 

Other parameters to specify are field 
type (eight choices including alpha- 
numeric field, numeric field, calculated 
field that performs arithmetic functions 
on two other fields, inverted name field, 
dollar field), precision of a numeric field 
(0-4 places to the right of the decimal) 
and even data type (American month/ 
day /year or European day/month/year). 
At any time in the new file definition 
stage, you can review the fields you have 
already created or go back through your 
entries to correct an error. 

To signal the end of your file defini- 
tion, simply press Return (null string). 
and you are asked if you are done. My 
tendency was to press "Y" and Enter— 
Oh, NO! You are only supposed to hit 
"Y," after which you are prompted for 
the file name before it is all stored on 
disk. But if you hit "Y" followed by Enter, 
the file name prompt flashes for an 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



50 



T.I.M. Ill, continued... 





3. Sample blank record. Dashed lines indicate number of 
characters that can fill the field. Help screen at bottom 
indicates IBM PC function key actions. 



4. Sample record. 



instant, and you are back to the Create 
sub-menu; all previous field specifications 
are gone. 

The difficulty is that most menu com- 
mands are executed by simply pressing 
one key. while other prompts are not 
consistent— some require Enter, some do 
not. So, after inputting all the fields with 
Enter, and even ending the session with 
Enter. I have Enter on the brain— only to 
lose a great many keystrokes. This is one 
of those reminders to a non-techy that 
you must pay attention to the machine to 
avoid errors. 

Speaking of errors, the program catches 
most of them, tells you what the problem 
is, and lets you continue. That's great. 

I ran into one occasion, however, where 
an error stopped the program and 
returned me to Basic, so I was unable to 
continue. The problem came when I was 
defining a new file, a relatively large one 
at that. The character count on the 
prompt started at the possible maximum 
of 2400— but the default maximum is only 
650. 

Not realizing that I should stop before 
hitting 1750 (i.e., 650 used) I was defining 
away, watching the character count drop 
at each field definition. I then gave the 
file its name and got an error on line 3440 
and a Basic "OK." I couldn't get the 
program going without hitting F2 (RUN). 
and thus losing all my work up to that 
point. There was no clue in the documen- 
tation that I might run across this pro- 
blem. 

It is unfortunate that room for such 
errors comes in the "Create" stage, 
because this is the first place the user 
must go when starting to use TIM. An 
impatient user would be disappointed. 



On a more positive note, though, TIM's 
user friendliness really shines when it 
comes to establishing screen formats for 
records and generating lists or reports. 

Custom screen formats can be created 
with ease thanks to full screen editing. 
Simply move the cursor to the spot on the 
screen, call up the field you want, and 



Custom screen formats 

can be created with 

ease thanks to full 

screen editing. 



press a button: Presto! the field appears 
on the screen in its proper place. 

You can put more than one field on a 
line, provided there is room for all the 
characters, and leave blank lines between 
items.. .really a custom form for each file. 

On the IBM, cursor movement is con- 
trolled by function keys 1-4, which is a bit 
awkward if you are used to the scrolling 
keys on the numeric keypad. The custom 
screen feature is particularly useful if you 
want to keep as much data as possible on 
one screen. Or if an untrained operator is 
accustomed to established, printed forms 
the transition to computer entry would 
be a snap. 

Generating Reports and Lists 

TIM's list generation is well-suited for 
printing mailing labels. Again, the flexi- 

60 



bility of the program allows for a variety 
of options, such as specifying 1-4 lists 
across the page, which and where items 
(fields) are to appear on the label, spacing 
between labels, etc. There is also a test 
print feature which helps you line up the 
labels properly without printing out data. 

In generating reports from data on file, 
the potential power of TIM is evident, 
but its flexibility only partially so. Screen 
prompts make definition of the report 
format fairly easy. Among the "high 
power" functions you have are the ability 
to link two files together in one report, 
and to print subtotals throughout the 
report (as in sales commission reports). 

You are limited, however, in several 
respects. You're stuck with the titles 
originally chosen for fields as headings on 
the report. Secondly, you don't have the 
ability to create a better looking form 
with full screen editing as on record 
formats. This is probably a compromise 
between too complex a program and a 
user-friendly approach designed to elimi- 
nate as much of the human toil from the 
job as possible. 

Aside from the disk switching, which, 
admittedly, becomes more transparent as 
time goes on, the most disheartening 
feature of the program is the slow speed 
at which its most powerful features oper- 
ate. Any shred of hardware transparency 
disappears when you have to wait for the 
machine to churn away. 

In one 57-record file I used as a guinea 
pig, a search for a particular record in the 
pre-sorted key field took 22 seconds, a bit 
longer than it would take me to dig it out 
of a file drawer. But if I hadn't been sure 
of the exact entry as originally input on 
the record (as might be the case if some- 
September 1982 • Creative Computing 






one else had entered the data, adding 
"Co." or leaving off "Inc."). the program 
would have had to "look" at the field in 
every record on file. And when each peek 
at a record takes a hair over three 
seconds, well, that really adds up fast: a 
bit over three minutes for my 57-record 
file. The same goes for a search through 
any non-key field, whether you have the 
exact entry or not. 

Speed 

Creating lists and reports is also pain- 
fully slow. I printed a report of my 57- 
record file to the terminal only (negating 
any delay the printer might cause), with a 
printout of only four fields from the 
record, in sequence of any key field. It 
took almost four minutes! 

When you consider that an IBM disk 
can store up to a minimum of 234 records 
(at the default record length of 650 
characters per record maximum), you are 
still a long way from "information at the 
push of a button" on a good-sized business 
file— unless you want to run the report 
during lunch or overnight. 

Much of the slowness can be attributed 
to the fact that TIM runs in Basic, and 
the Basic in the IBM PC is not particularly 
fast compared to some of its less noble 
competitors. 



Innovative Software surely recognized 
the problem and helped somewhat by 
using a disk drive Speedup routine which 
is automatically invoked after you input 
the date during power up. It's quite an 
experience to watch the screen print A 
SPEEDUP and hear Drive A kick on the 
afterburner. (Editor's Note: Innovative 
Software has promised that the version of 



It becomes difficult to 

separate the faults of 

TIM from the limitations 

of the IBM hardware. 



TIM which will be available when you 
read this will be compiled and will be "20 
to 30 times faster" than the version we 
reviewed.) 

It becomes difficult to separate the 
faults of TIM from the limitations of the 
IBM hardware, for which it is configured. 
Indeed, if the program were on a double- 
sided, double-density disk (with appropri- 



ate disk drives available) or, better yet, 
on a hard disk (a manual addendum offers 
instructions to eliminate the potentially 
hazardous SPEEDUP routine if you use a 
hard disk), part of the speed problem of 
getting to the various parts of the 346.6K 
total program would be eliminated. The 
other problem, on the IBM at least, is 
running the program in Microsoft Basic. 
A compiled version should help step up 
the program. 

Recommendation 

With my experience so far. I would not 
recommend T.I.M. Ill for the IBM PC 
for applications involving a continual, 
high volume of input/output through the 
data files. A word processing interface is 
promised to allow you to merge TIM data 
files with form letters and a global search 
and replace command will be available 
by the time you read this. 

A small business user might also like to 
see TIM files shared with accounting or 
billing programs, too. But for small busi- 
ness or personal applications in which 
self-contained files need be updated only 
periodically, TIM offers a vast amount of 
data manipulation power. Almost too 
much power, as we have seen, for the 
likes of even a heavy-duty micro like the 
IBM PC. D 



Simply the best word processor... anywhere 1 



For the Apple™ 

No hardware additions 
needed — What you 
see is what you get. 
All functions are 
displayed on the 
screen exactly as they 
appear in print 
including: 

• Underlining 
. Bold 



ht 



Superscript 
Even/normal 
justification 
Lower and \ 

upper case 

Block 
movement 
Global replace 
Plus many more 
features 



Word Handler 



Word Handler is simply 
the best word processing 
software I could find 
anywhere by far." 

William R. Moroney 

President 
Electronic Funds 
Transfer Association 



H °\\s\ Handler 

(interlaces *«" e8 

andD ^eV d spe<*«*- 

^.'^soSUtjeW^ 



Once you buy a Word Handler we 
don't forget you; our customer service 
department is available daily. We 
support our products. 



When upgrades are introduced you are 
supplied with a replacement disk FREE! 
Contact your local Apple'™ dealer for a 
demonstration. You'll be glad you did. 



Silicon Valley Systems. Inc. 1625 El Camino Real »4 Belmont. CA 94002 (415) 593-4344 



Silicon Valley Systems 

CIRCLE 226 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SIZZLING 



HOT& 



COMING 



AT VOU! 









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CIRCLE 242 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Filemanager 800 




A Manager For All Seasons 



John Anderson 



But Does It Do Windows? 

You're just finishing an extensive 
demonstration of your Atari system for 
your dinner guests. The swirling, three- 
dimensional graphics display, comparable 
to those running on systems at five times 
the price, fades to black. As you boot 
some Bach on the music cartridge, you 
notice the thumbs of your guests are still 
stiffly akimbo, proof positive that the 
joysticks have once again done their job 
well. And then someone speaks: 

"But what do you really use your 
computer for? What practical purposes 
does it serve?" Your guest smiles, leaning 
back in his chair as he sips your Chateau 
Neuf. His eyebrows arch menacingly, and 
silence fills the room. 

For a frozen moment you are speech- 
less—the timing of the question has 
caught you off balance. Here you were, 
displaying the capabilities of your Atari 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Filemanager 800 
Type: File management system 
System: Atari 40k. Basic cartridge, 
at least one disk drive 

Format: Disk 

Language: Hybrid (Basic and 
machine) 

Summary: Best of its kind currently 
available for the Atari 

Price: $99.95 

Manufacturer: 

Synapse Software 
820 Coventry Rd. 
Kensington. CA 94707 



September 1982 • Creative Computing 



as state-of-the-art entertainment machine, 
running circles around the competition, 
and this nerd has the audacity to ask 
about practical applications! 

Images race through your head — the 
hours you've spent learning Basic instead 
of watching TV; the way word processing 
has improved the quantity and quality of 
your written work: how your three-year 
old has already learned the alphabet. 
Then the thought strikes you, you return 
the smile. You calmly boot Filemanager 
800. 

Though several database management 
programs are available for the Atari. 
Filemanager 800 is the only one to make 
extensive use of color, sound, and 
extended text modes to simplify program 
use. Through menu-oriented operation, it 
provides a clear and easy to understand 
command format. The screens are 
designed to make each function mnemon- 
ically unique and easy to access. 

Before you can boot Filemanager, you 
must insert a small electronic key. called 
a "Data-Lock," into controller port 
number one. Without it. no information 
can be retrieved or altered by the pro- 
gram. More about this feature later. 

Once the program is up and running, 
the main menu prompts for form creation 
or review, or a number of available 
maintenance functions. Form creation is 
integral to the performance of File- 
manager 800. and you should think care- 
fully about the most effective way to 
represent the information you wish to 
store. The manual is very complete con- 
cerning this, and is effective because it 
teaches through example. Let's look at a 
typical case. 

The " Addrcssa' File 

Everyone has use for an address book. 
By choosing number three on the main 
menu, "Create Form " you are prompted 

63 



to input a filename. Let's call the file 
ADDRESS. You are then asked which 
disk drive the file will use. If your system 
is like mine, just hit return, and the 
program will default to drive one. 
Obviously if you have more than one 
drive, you can support multiple form 
access. 

Next, the program prompts for field 
names and lengths. This is the most 
important facet of form creation. It takes 
a while to get used to the idea, but it's 
fundamental to all list processing, and is 
really quite simple. Let's call our fields 
FIRST NAME. SECOND NAME, 
ADDRESS, CITY/STATE. ZIP, and 
PHONE. Field length indicates how far 
you want the alphabetizing routine to 
"reach into" these fields during sorting. 
You then are prompted to input the 
"index" for the file— that is, the field name 
upon which you choose to sort and con- 
struct the file ADDRESS. The logical 
choice in this case is the field SECOND 
NAME. 

And that's all there is to creating the 
file form ADDRESS. By pressing "select" 
from the main menu, you reach the record 
menu, and choose number one — "Enter 
record." You may then enter the names, 
addresses, and phone numbers of about 
500 people, and still have some room on 
your data disk. Filemanager will automat- 
ically alphabetize the file to the index 
SECOND NAME. 

You may specify up to nine pages of 
fields per record: Filemanager will auto- 
matically paginate files to the screen. 
Updating files is simple, as is deleting 
them, and a confirmation prompt keeps 
you from deleting something acci- 
dentally. 

Once you have a datafile on disk, you 
are ready to do some data processing. 
Using the record menu, choose number 
2, "Search." You will see your form 



NEW! 

Advanced Disk Version 

^ J 



TRSFFK 
CONTROLLER 

In Air Traffic Controller you assume 
the responsibility for the safe flow of air 
traffic over a 400 square mile territory 
During your shift in charge of this air- 
space. 26 aircraft come under your con- 
trol Jets and prop planes must be guided 
to and from airports, navigational becons 
and entry/exit fixes The aircraft enter 
your airspace at various altitudes and 
headings whether or not you are ready 

You need the same steady nerves 
under pressure and almost instinctive 
analyses of complex emergencies which 
are demanded of a professional air 
traffic controller But Air Traffic Con- 
troller adds the excitement and well- 
defined goals of a game 

Your goal is to get all of the aircraft to 
their assigned destination before the 
shift is completed At your disposal are 
radar display of the aircraft positions in 
the control area, coded information giving 
aircraft heading, destination and fuel 
supply, navaids enabling you to hold 
aircraft or assign them automatic 
approaches, and commands to alter the 
altitude and heading of the aircraft Work- 
ing against you are altitude and heading 
requirements, and. of course, the 
clock 

No two games, even at the same clock 
setting, are the same 

The advanced disk version allows more 
aircraft, and gives you four additional 
area maps, each with its own special 
challenges 

Air Traffic Controller is now available 
for the 16K TRS-80 (3006). for the 16K 
Apple II and Apple II plus (4008). and 
the 8K Sorcerer (5008) All are on cas- 
sette for $11.95 

Advanced Air Traffic Controller is avail- 
able on diskette for the 16K TRS-80 
(3519). the 16K Atari (7503). and the 
32K Apple II and Apple II plus (4517) 
for $19.95. and on cassette for the 16K 
Atan (7004) and the 24K PET (called 
Sector 3) (1302) for $14.95 

To order send payment* plus $2.00 
postage and handling to Creative Comput- 
ing. Dept C928. 39 E Hanover Avenue. 
Moms Plains, N.J. 07950. Orders may also 
be charged to your Visa. Mastercard or 
American Express account — by mail in- 
clude credit card name, number and ex- 
piration date, or if you prefer, use our toll- 
free number. 800-631-8112 In N.J. only 
201-540-0445 



Filemanager 800, continued... 

displayed with blanks next to each field. 
Input someone's second name on the 
SECOND NAME field, push start, and 
that file will be retrieved. You may also 
search across four other fields simulta- 
neously—for example, you could search 
for all the people with the first name 
Mary, zip code starting with a zero, and 
area code 201. The search function will 
display all relevant files, page-by-page. 

Perhaps the power of this kind of 
progam is only now becoming apparent 
to you. Imagine a file called RECIPE, 
wherein, you could summon recipes 
through the fields CALORIES, COST, 
VEGETARIAN. SEASON, CUISINE, 
and the like. A file called ARTICLES 
might contain cross-referenced entries 
concerning all the magazine and news- 
paper articles you wish to have on file. 
You can search for all occurrences of 
your delimiters, all but the occurrence of 
your delimiters, all files up to or following 
them. 





Filemanager can be used effectively 
even if your system does not include a 
printer, but you will miss out on the ability 
of the program to print out customized 
lists and mailing labels. These functions 
are invaluable to make Filemanager 800 
into a genuinely practical application of 
your Atari. I now keep several business 
and personal files on the system. 

Updating or changing files is made 
simple, as most screen editor movements 
remain enabled from within the program. 
This means you can move the cursor to 
wherever you want it, input the change, 
and resave the file, without muss or fuss. 
Here again the capabilities of the Atari 
are fully exercised to simplify operation. 

Kile M for Murder 

One of the more horrific problems with 
many file management programs is their 
inflexibility. Using our example file 
ADDRESS, we might imagine reaching a 
point where a new field is called for— let's 
call it COMMENTS. With most database 
programs, the only way to add this field 
would involve rekeying the entire file. 
Not so with Filemanager 800: simply boot 
from the master disk another program 
called FILEMAINT. It will allow you not 
only to add fields to existing files, but to 

64 



combine, rename, or delete entire files. 

The program makes it pretty tough to 
kill data by mistake; in fact it makes it 
next to impossible. Don't, however, exit 
Filemanager simply by removing the disk 
and booting something else: rather access 
number seven from the main menu. 
"Save/end." If the index of a file has been 
altered in any way during a filing session, 
this function will save the altered index to 
disk. If the index has not been altered, 
the screen will merely redraw itself. 

It's a good idea to .get in the habit of 
"logging off" Filemanager in this manner 
every time, leaving the responsibility of 
executing this check to the program. If 
you fail to resave an altered file, you will 
not lose any data, but will have to reindex 
the file before you can access it again. In 
the case of a file of a hundred records or 
more, this will entail quite a wait. The 
manual is forthright in its documentation 
of this potential snag, but the user will 
still probably have to reindex a few files 
before the idea sinks in. 

The "Data-Lock" key is another poten- 
tial snag within Filemanager. At first I 
was enchanted with it; it seemed to be a 
very neat way to provide files with a 
modicum of security. As time wore on. 
this enchantment wore off. 

First I misplaced the key, which I admit 
was my own silly fault, but might be a bit 
too easy to do. The key has no slot in it 
allowing it to be attached to a keychain. 
and so must be kept in a pocket, box, or 
desk compartment. 

While the key was missing, the thought 
occurred to me that I might try dumping 
files to Basic. This was a very simple 
matter— no files you create with File- 
manager are, therefore, really very 
secure. 

These problems are trivial alongside 
the potentials of Filemanager 800. Its 
practical applications are limited only by 
the imagination of the user. 

Meanwhile, Back at the Ranch-style 
Tract House 

Expectation fills the air. After the 
program boots, you insert the datadisk 
containing the file WINELIST. You 
choose number two from the record 
menu, "Search," and conduct a search on 
the sub-field "FAVORITE OF," using as 
delimiter the name of the guest who asked 
you about the practical uses of our 
machine. Up pops the listing "Chateau- 
Neuf du Pape, 1974." Among other fields 
appearing with the file is the price, S17 a 
bottle. You then conduct a search using 
the same delimiter, but on the subfield 
"USUALLY BROUGHT BY." Up pops 
the listing for "Swillo," price: $2.99/gal. 
Somehow you find yourself appreciative 
of the fact that one of your guests has just 
spilled fine wine on himself. Laughter 
follows. D 

September 1982 e Creative Computing 



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3 
IO 



Now NRI takes you inside the 

new TRS-80 Model III microcomputer 

to train you at home as the 

new breed of computer specialist! 



NRI teams up with Radio Shack 
advanced technology to teach 
you how to use, program and 
service state-of-the-art 
microcomputers . . . 

It's no longer enough to be just 
a programmer or a technician. 
With microcomputers moving into 
the fabric of our lives (over 
250,000 of the TRS-80™ alone 
have been sold), interdiscipli- 
nary skills are demanded. And 
NRI can prepare you with the 
first course of its kind, cover- 
ing the complete world of 
the microcomputer. 

Learn At Home 
in Your Spare Time 

With NRI training, the program- 
mer gains practical knowledge of 
hardware, enabling him to design sim- 
pler, more effective programs. And, 
with advanced programming skills, the 
technician can test and debug systems 
quickly and easily. 





Training Includes the TRS-80 Model III microcom- 
puter, professional LCD multimeter, the NRI Discov- 
ery Lab, Computer Assisted Instruction programs 
and hundreds of demonstrations and experiments. 

(TKS-M a a mdrmaik ol thr Radio Slack drvWon o< Boil) Cap ) 



Only NRI gives you both kinds of 
training with the convenience of home 
study. No classroom pressures, no night 
school, no gasoline wasted. You learn 
at your convenience, at your own pace. 
Yet you're always backed by the NRI staff 
and your instructor, answering questions 
and giving you guidance. 

You Get Your Own Computer 
to Learn On and Keep 

NRI training is hands-on training 
with practical experiments and demon- 
strations. You don't just program your 
computer, you go inside it. . .watch how 
circuits interact . . . interface with other sys- 
tems. . .gain a real insight into its nature. 

You also work with an advanced 
liquid crystal display hand-held multi- 
meter and the NRI Discovery Lab® per- 
forming over 60 separate experiments. 
Both microcomputer and equipment 
come as part of your training for you 
to use and keep. 

Computer Assisted 
Instruction 

Your TRS-80 even helps train you. 
You receive 8 special lesson tapes in BASIC 



computer language. Using them in your 
microcomputer, you "talk" to it as you 
progress. Errors are explained, graphics 
and animation drive home key points. 
Within a matter of minutes, you'll be able 
to write simple programs yourself. 

Send for Free Catalog. . . 

No Salesman Will Call 

Get all the details on this exciting 
course in NRI's free, 100-page catalog. 
It shows all equipment, lesson outlines, 
and facts on other electronics courses 
such as Electronic Design, Industrial 
Electronics, TV/Audio/Video Servicing... 
11 different career opportunities in all. 
Keep up with the latest technology as you 
learn on the latest model of the world's 
most popular computer. If card has been 
used, write to: 



NRI Schools 

McGraw-Hill Continuing 

Education Center 
3939 Wisconsin Avenue 
Washington. DC. 20016 




We'll give you tomorrow. 



flriW&MiEUU 



THE ATARI 800 DISK-BASED 
FILE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

The only professional database for the Atari 

800 computer. Use it for mailing lists, recipe 

files, business reports, inventory control, or 

any other application that requires fast. 

accurate record keeping. FILEMANAGER 

800+ lets your computer do the work it was 

designed for . . . and allows you more 

time to do the things you enjoy. 

Now compatible with Datasoft s 

TEXTWIZARD" and Axlon's RAMDISK\ 

Ask for details at your local dealer. 





820 Coventry Road, 
Kensington, CA 94707 
(415)527-7751 



< ol Alton. Inc. TEXTWIZARO n 



CIRCLE 246 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

ANAGER M0> i« a trademark ol Synapaa Software. 



Versatile by Radio Shack 



sol 



Versatile File Manager for TRS-80 



Fredrik O. Haarbye 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Versatile 

Type: Database management 

System: TRS-80 Model I Disk 

Format: Disk 

Language: Basic 

Summary: Inexpensive yet versatile 
file manager 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Radio Shack 

1800 One Tandy Center 

Fort Worth, TX 76102 



Fredrik O. Haarbye. $510 Broadmoor Plaza. 
Indianapolis. IN 46208. 

Figure 1. 



If you are looking for something that 
will make your computer more useful. 
Versafile from Radio Shack may be the 
program for you. Enter this program and 
your computer is turned into an informa- 
tion system. 

The program is written entirely in Disk 
Basic and loads in 5952 bytes (Version 
2.2, Model 1 1. At $29.95 it is one of the 
best buys around. It is very nicely pack- 
aged, and includes: 

• An 18-page manual (in a hardcover 
three-ring binder; value $5.95). 

• TRSDOS on the program diskette 
(value $14.95). 

• Versafile Program ($29.95 - $20.90 = 
$9.05). 

If you know of another program as useful 
as this for $9 let me know; I want to buy 
it. 

What makes Versafile score high is its 
versatility — its name is very appropriate. 
Take a look at one example of a Versafile 
Index (Figure 1) and you will recognize 
some useful "personal" applications. And 
its usefulness in business is just as great. 

The manual provided with the program 



suggests as examples a used car inventory, 
an insurance agent's client information 
file, and a foreign word dictionary. Figure 
2 may give you some more ideas. 

The program uses sentence-oriented 
storage and retrieval. File entries are 
stored under eight different keywords 
which may be used or changed at the 
user's option. Any word with seven or 
fewer characters can be used. 

A file entry may or may not contain 
one of these keywords, and there may be 
more than one keyword in the sentence. 
The keyword may be placed anywhere in 
the file entry. Any character on the 
keyboard, except the arrows, may be used 
in the file entry, and 2 to 238 characters 
(spaces included) will be accepted per 
entry. 

The tab key (right arrow) can be used 
to tab eight spaces. A period at the end of 
the file entry serves as delimitor. 

Storage of a file entry is reasonably 
fast. For example after a 238-character 
entry has been typed in, the computer is 
ready for a new entry about seven seconds 
after the Enter key has been pressed. An 

Figure 2. 



II VERSAFILE It VERSION 2.2 HDD 
DISCI U 

-- FILE TITLE — " 

I. ADDRESS LIST 

:. TRAVEL RECORD t REFERENCES 

;. INVENTORY - HOUSEHOLD ITERS TOOLS 

4. MAINTENANCE RECORD - HOUSE, AUTO 

5. INDEI - B 

6. INDEI - SLIDES 

7. REFERENCES - COMPUTER l DATA PR0CESSIN6 

8. REFERENCES - PH0T06RAPHT 
'. REFERENCES - MQ0DH0RKIN6 

10. REFERENCES - HIKING, MOUNTAIN CLIMBIN6 
... END OF LIST 



LOAD DATA DISK l ENTER TITLE I OR HIT (ENTER) FOR INDEI 



TRSDOS 


(NIN. SYSTEM 


— - DATA DISK 


1 


24 


1 


19 


I 


u 


t 


33 


I 


22 


I 


27 


I 


38 


1 


68 


1 


44 


• 


65 



- FILE TITLE DATA BISt: 

. APPOINTMENT CALENDAR 1980/1981 ' 

. CORRESPONDANCE INDEI 1980/1981 t 16 

. RECORD - PERSONNEL • 17 

. RECORD - CUSTOMERS I M 

. RECORD - PRODUCT COMPLAINTS I 39 

. RECORD - VENDOR t 20 

. RECORD - PRODUCTION/NEEK I 37 

. RECORD - MAINTENANCE 1980/81 I 23 

. REFERENCES - OSHA REGULATIONS, DIRECTIVES « 31 

. REFERENCES - MANA6EMENT TECHNIQUES I 14 

. REFERENCES - PLANT OPERATIONS 1 I 

. REFERENCES - PLANT OPERATIONS 2 I 28 

. REFERENCES - CAD/CAM 1 I 24 

. REFERENCES - 6RAPHICS ' 

LOAD DATA DISK I ENTER TITLE I OR HIT 'ENTER FCR ISDEi 



September 1982 • Creative Computing 



69 



Versatile, continued. 



11 . ILE II 

| - i 

DI5) 10038 



KEMCRDS :N USE APE: 






APLCTOH 




REVIEW 


6JS1KES GRAPHIC 


BADE 


HARD* 



I HHEN FRORPU: • « UT FILE BEOUEST C : 

I FOF ' i 

ENTER THE DRIVE « L-SE^ FOR ■■'.- 



II PR06RAH [["WANDS: 

.JH A PERIOC ... 
: ILE - 
END C. - HARK ... 

'FJHCRC FILE ... -3RD ? 

. ... i 

l." 
rPUTi BEGIN REOUi ■ ... p 

: ILE - 

■ • SPACE ... 

... t 
-• 

; ... ; 

- ■■ 

■ | - i 



Figure 3. 



Figure 4. 



improper entry will result in "I don"t 
understand your entry. Please try again." 

Searching 

Searching the file is done by entering 
one or more words (or numbers) followed 
by '".'". If a valid keyword is included in 
the search request, the file for that partic- 
ular keyword is searched for a match. A 
"global search" can also be requested. In 
this case keywords can be omitted, and 
all keyword files will be searched. 



This program packs a 

lot of capability into 

a small amount of 

memory space. 



To shorten the search time, the pro- 
gram has 37 "unnecessary words" which 
can be changed at the user's option. Any 
of these words present in the search 
request will be removed from the request 
line prior to search, as will the keywords. 
The selection of all of these words (key- 
words and unnecessary words) is impor- 
tant and may affect the search time. 

The computer will search for a min- 
imum of five file items before outputting 
any information. Therefore, if there is 
only one match (anywhere) in the file, the 
whole file will be searched before an 
output is made. This is a bit of a nuisance 
but can be corrected with one of the 
program modifications listed at the end 
of this article. 

A search through a 1000-item data file 
(average 50 characters per data item) may 
take about three minutes, while a search 
through 60 of these items may take 14 



seconds. One nice feature of the search 
function is that it does not give up easily. 

If a search request is made with a 
keyword and no match is found in that 
keyword file, the other files will also be 
searched. Output to the printer is 
optional. 

Another (minor) nuisance: an empty 
line plus the request sentence is printed 
for every five file items listed. This can 
also be corrected with a program 
modification. 

There is no facility to edit a file record 
directly, but this may not be a real 
handicap since records can be removed 
from the file with single or multiple kill 
commands. If the information supplied in 
the kill command is inadequate, a dif- 
ferent file may be killed. However, the 
record that has actually been killed is 
listed for verification. 

Another thing that makes this program 
outstanding is its documentation. Author 
William D. Schroeder should be compli- 
mented on this as well as the program 
quality. Twenty-two remark lines scat- 
tered throughout the program nicely 
explain the program statements. 

In addition to an extra copy of the 
Versa/He program, the disk contains all 
of the standard TRSDOS Library Com- 
mands and three utilities: FORMAT. 
BACKUP, and BASICR (renumbering 
Basic). It is not likely that these routines 
(except possibly BACKUP) will be used 
when Versafile is running. The manual 
explains the use of FORMAT and 
BACKUP. 

To sum it up, this program packs a lot 
of capability into a small amount of 
memory space. Although it has no alpha- 
betic or numeric sort ability, this may be 
an advantage since there are no compli- 
cated instructions needed to use it. The 
program has performed reliably for me 
during six months of extensive use. 

70 



Program Modifications 

I have made the following seven modi- 
fications to Versafile. They provide more 
disk space, customize the program, and 
make it easier to use. 

1. Kill all unnecessary files on the disk 
to provide an additional 16 granules of 
disk space. It is not likely that any of the 
following files supplied with the program 
will be used when running Versafile. If 
there is a need, slip in an un-modified 
disk. 



In the DOS READY mode enter: 

KILL FORMAT/CMD.FORMAT (3 grans) 

KILL BACKUP/CMD.BACKUP (3 grans) 

KILL BASICR/MCD.BASIC (5 grans) 

(Do not kill BASIC/CMD) 

KILL VERSA/BU (5 grans) 

2. Removing all remark lines adds about 
1200 bytes of RAM space and one granule 
of disk space. 

Delete the remark parts of lines 70 and 
125. and lines 299. 369, 999, 1199, 1369, 
1399, 1497, 1609, 1654. 1669. 1699, 1999, 
2099. 2999, 3089, 3999. 4999, 5999, 9999, 
and 18999. 

If you have a utility which will remove 
spaces in the program lines (such as 
NEWDOS/80 Ver. 2.0), you can gain 
another 400 bytes. 

3. This modification replaces the "Title 
Page" with one that has information 
pertinent to the file created by the pro- 
gram. In addition to the title of this file, it 
also shows the keywords in use for the 
file. (See Figure 3.) 

Delete all lines to and including line 70 
and add the lines 10 through 90 and 23000 
and 23010 in Listing 1. 

4. It is useful to be able to show the 
keywords any time the program is run- 
September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



Listing I. 

10 CLEAR10O 

15 miE«="l COAPUTEft I DATA PR0CE5SIN6 ARTICLES I 

20 Sla-'PERIOD: JANUARY 1980 - N0VER8ER l'8I 

25 S2»="tATA DISK I00J8 

30 CLS:PRIMT3151,"M VERSAFILE II 

35 PRI«TTABM6»-LEIIiTUn/21TU 

40 PRI»T:PR1NTTAB'(6*-LEII(S1III/2I51I 

45 PRIHTTA6<<64-lE«(S2li;/21S2l 

50 ORIMTJ70,5TRIK6«^51,ni)i:F0RVMT02::SETIUJ,Y):IIE«T 

55 PRI»T951B,STRI»6I(51,131);:F0RV»5T024:SET(12,28-YI:»EJT 

60 PRINT8576, ; : 60SUB23000 

65 PRIMTABWI HHEX PROMPTED KITH 7?! , INPUT FILE REQUEST OR DATA. 

70 PRINTTABIiTi'l FOR "ELP, PRES; 'ENTER 1 I 

75 °R:nTTAB!8) "ENTER DRIVE I USED 'OP FILE DISK (0 - 5) "i:PRINTCHRII95!; 

80 B«--**tfEY»::FDI»-*Mr<E*IBO 

85 :F0»"0'0RD»."3"THEND»=":6CT080 

90 CLS:PRINT'DA*A DISC IS IN [RIVE «"D«:PCl'E16410,ASC'DII 

110 CLEM 12000 

120 OEFSTR A,B,:.C,E,F, k : CEFiNT L t I,Y t ItDHC(!M> ( V(lM) f At2St f K(29l 

125 MHH7000,5lJS» , l , KHM<PKIH1641 

500 B=":I=1:F'INT'" '|ilIKIHnn ll*"' ''B 

315 IFB>'0"ANDB'*9.5-THEN s OlfE27000,«$C'B>-48:llF=; 

320 tFt>'|*THaCUlB0Sam0OOiir<llNT0I33 

325 IFB«*"60T0:*00': 

"0 iFRPMThENPRINTC^r;- >H ;ri ; -.FRI-aCra'CSS lFaRI«lTB23tMEITtmHTCItM(27ITAB(4l 'MEIfi 

JJJ lFKF = i T MENFRINTTAE'a)-SEAPCH REQUEST HILL OUTPUT JTEIS ;l>"PEEt!l2700?) - AT A TINE O'llV'OtMTOSM 

1405 Q=PEEH27000l:iFH2>=••ANDI>QTHENRETM:I=C:60SUB1650:RET=0•.^l:E(I)=• ■ 

1634 IFP»lA»BI)5T)«irr¥»I 

.65! IF °=l THEN IP«TV-I|FOI L»IT0*|IFY(L>«Y1TWI TP=T»«1:LPR:«TUS:nS - «H ';TP; :LF>F IKT E'l':«'T: ELSE KIT 

1656 IF RE'=1 »\D P=0 THEN PRUTTMIMt'-'OK IF PET=; THEN RETURN 

1659 lFH» , » , TKlWIirrCHM(r»)T«l(40f- SEARCH TERNINATED -VPRINTsRCtllOE.SEIFRET^THENRETURN 

166C PRINTSTPINS»:63,45l:IFP=lTHENLPRINTSTRIN6ta9,451:RUNU0tLSERUN110 

4000 IF INSTR(MD«(E<Ll, 2,591,- •i= i i:HENTV=TV*; ! PRINTUSINS - HI ";TVj:PR;nTNIC»(E(LI,2,.EN(E:.' -2>*l 
IFLEN(Ea)l=62"HENRETURNELSEPRINT:RETURN ELSE LT=LEN(E'LH*1:LS=1:LE»60: 
IF LT;250 THEN E:L>=LEFTt(E(Ll ,LEM(E(L) )-l '-♦".*: J=LT»4:Tv=TVt|:PI?IIITl , SII'S'tM "|TVj 

4010 IFLE=ISTHENFRINTTAB(41RI6"H(E!L:,LT-LS):RETUPNELSEIFHID«(E(L),LE,1)>' "THENLE»LE-1:B0T0 4010 

40!I PRINTTAB(4imD«(E>Ll,LS»'.,LE-LS-l':LS=LE:LE=LS»60:IFLS>LT THEN RETLRN ELSE IF LE= LT 
THEN EL=NIDHE(Li,LS«I,LT-LS::IFEL="THENRE-JRNELSEFRINTTAB(4!EL:RETJRN:ELSE60T040:0 



TUT3R 



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BUSINES 



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10000 DATA - APLCTON V UTILITY 

23C00 PRINT-rEYNORDS IN USE ARE: 

23010 REST0RE:FOM»!T04:REACHVY«:PRIN T Kn,m,:i;E»T:REST3R£:PRINT:RETURN 

24000 CLSiPRINT'FILE DATA -■TABI40CPR0SRAP C0H1ANDS: 

24010 PRINTTAB5'"END STATENENT TO BE FILED »!TH A PERIOt . . . 'TftB ;6d " . 

24020 PRINT-SEARCH FILE -':PRINTTAB(5I'ENC BUE?Y REQUEST KITH QUESTION m* ..."TM'Ml*? 

24030 PRINTTAB15l'LIST AN ENTIRE KEfNORO FILE ..."TAB(52' , «Y»0RD 7 

2404C PRINTTABI5) - INTERRUPT THE SEARCH, HIT . ...'T«E'60)'» 

24050 PRINTTAB(5)'6L0BAL SEARCH, ENTER IV3TE SPACE REQUIRED) ...'TAB(59)*I"CHR»(95: 

24060 PRINTTAB(5)'PRINTEP OUTPUT: BE6IN REQUEST WITH P t SPACE ...■TAB(59)'F , CPR»' l: 3l 

24070 PRINT'HLL FILE -':PPINTTAB(51 "SINGLE fILL: BESIN STATENENT KITH K * SPACE ..."TAB<59'"K"CHRt(95> 

24CB0 PRINTTAB(5)"NULTIPLE KILL: BESIN STATENENT KITH UK ♦ SPACE ..."TABlSBl'Hi'CHRlW 

24090 PRINT-OTHER COHHANBS -":PRINTTAB(5I"DI5PLAY KEYNORDS IN USE: ENTER ; ..."TAB'601'i 

24100 PRINTTABI5) "DISPLAY PR06RAN COWHANDS ...'TABISOI "PRESS ENTER>":PP'1:PRINTCPRI("I:60 T C::5 



ning. Adding line 320 of Listing 1 and 
lines 23000 and 23010 of modification 3 
will do it. 

Also, having to hunt through the 
manual to find an explanation of program 
commands is a bit of a chore. To bring all 
of the commands to the screen any time, 
change line 300 and add lines 325, 335 
and 24000-24100 of Listing 1. (See Figure 
4.) 

5. Sometimes it may be desirable to 
change the search to fewer or more than 
five items before an output is made on 
the CRT. In response to the ??» 
prompt, when a number 1-9 is entered, 
this becomes the number of items 

September 1982 c Creative Computing 



searched before an output is made. 
Change lines 125 and 1405, add lines 315, 
330 and 335 as shown in Listing 1. 

6. When several references are listed at 
one time, it is handy to have them num- 
bered. The redundant printing of an 
empty line and the request sentence when 
listing to a printer can also be changed. 
Add line 1654 and change lines 1655, 4000 
and 4010 as in Listing 1. 

7. Some odds and ends: When several 
listings are made for one file request, line 
1656 wastes space and makes the output 
a bit confusing. The same is true for line 
1660. 1 would also suggest changing lines 
1 10 and 120 as in Listing 1. D 

71 



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General Ledger 




Bridging The G.A.A.P. 



Ron Exner 



»"S&(»<«)'$',«»S'; !!!!»',«'; is a com- 
mon expression that is frequently muttered 
under the breath of almost anyone who has 
to deal with "doing the books'* of a small 
business. In fact, rumor has it that the 
Accounting Standards Hoard is going to 
incorporate such expressions into the 
ilmost sacred Generally Accepted Ac- 
counting Principles. II you ha\e ever 
operated a manual accounting system you 
know exactly what l"m talking about. 

I he prime source of frustration and 
error is the Accounting Cycle: that re- 
curring circle of e\ents that makes every- 
thing else happen. Briefly, it is composed 
ot seven parts: I) entering transactions in 
an appropriate journal. 2) posting journal 
entries to the general ledger. ?) making 
up a work sheet. 4) producing financial 
statements from the work sheet. 5) journal- 
izing closing entries. 6) posting closing 
entries to the General ledger and bal- 
ancing each account, and 7) making a post 
closing trial balance. 

Needless to say this procedure, which in 
fad is even more complicated, is almost 
impossible to complete without numerous 
time-consuming and frustrating human 
errors and their numerous verbal counter- 
parts. 

Well. Bunkie. take heart, relief is on 
the way. Between the liberalization of 
investment tax credits and the new 
A.C.R.S. depreciation system on the one 
hand and the increasing number, sophisti- 
cation and user friendliness ol accounting 
packages for computers on the other, you 
would be a «&$•$&#•&#• fool not to let a 



Ron Exner. .109 Potter St.. Bellingham. WA 
98225. 



Converting to a 

computerized 

accounting system 

is more tedious and 

boring than setting 

up a manual system. 



machine take over the drudgery and 
frustration of dealing with the accounting 
cycle and Generally Accepted Accounting 
Principles. 

One of the most popular packages on the 
market today is produced by B.P.I. It is 
not perfect but it is exceptional. 

I wo terms central to the design and use 
of this General ledger package are 
"journal-based" and "automated." Here is 
a sxstem that is truly a journal-based 
double entry accounting system that per- 
forms with single entry simplicity while 
conforming to Generally Accepted 
Accounting Principles. 

The (i I. module is more than a General 
Ledger to which Accounts Receivable and 
Accounts Payable additions can be 
appended. For one thing, it breaks the 
seven-step accounting cycle down to: I) 
input 2) post reports and 3) closing. This 
is accomplished primarily by eliminating 
many ol the repetitious, tedious and error- 
prone human entries through automation. 
For another, it is a General Ledger which 
has A R and A P subsidiary ledgers a long 
with a Payroll Register attached. Although 
these subsidiary systems have limited fea- 

72 



lures, they can be very useful in some 
business situations. 

Structure 

I he General ledger system comes on 
four disks: data input: posting reports: 
maintenance: and sample data. The user 
uses the input and posting reports disks 
primarily, and only occasionally refers to 
the maintenance disk when creating. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: General Ledger 

Type: Accounting package 

System: 48K Apple II Plus, two disk 
drives, DOS 3.3, 80-column 
printer 

Format: Disk 

Summary: Not perfect, but exceptional 

Price: $395 

Capacity: 400 G/L Accounts 
200 Cash Payees 
100 Payroll Accounts 
200 Accounts Payable 
500 Accounts Receivable 

Modules Available: 

Accounts Receivable j 
Accounts Payable V $ 39 5eacn 
Inventory Control I 
Payroll 1 

Job Cost - $595 

Manufacturer: 
B.P.I. 

3423 Guadalupe 
Austin, TX 78731 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






General Ledger, continued. 

editing or listing accounts or schedules. 
The sample data disk is used in conjunc- 
tion with the documentation as tutorial 
data. 

All of the system disks are copy pro- 
tected and not only is no backup provided, 
but no mention is made as to how to go 
about getting one or what the cost might 
be. Watch that coffee cup! 

Despite this and other shortcomings. 
B.P.I, is basically a well conceived and 
well designed user oriented system that 
has incorporated several surprising and 
automated features. One is the inclusion of 
"skeleton" Accounts Receivable and 
Accounts Payable along with a "skeleton" 
pay roll register. 



Each journal is well 
thought out and has 

a simple, but 
effective, operation. 



rhese sub-modules act exactly as their 
manual counterparts except that most ol 
the information generated from or entered 
into them is ai •omatic and 10091 reliable 

except for I iman error. 

Setup 

Converting to a computerized account- 
ing system is .nore tedious and boring 
than setting up a manual system. With the 
B.P.I. General Ledger system this is unnec- 
essarily, painfully apparent. Setup of the 
General ledger requires two separate 
operations and excessive, unnecessary 
repetition. In the first step you input the 
account number and then the account 
name. I his is done lor all the accounts. 
I hen. starting over again, the General 
Journal is entered and each account num- 
ber, that was iiist entered in step one. is 
entered again but this time the opening bal- 
ance is input. 

Another weakness is the tact that the 
account numbering system is only four 
digits, effectively three. That is. the last 
digit is used to total Balance Sheet 
accounts to a control account or to 
designate Income Statement accounts as 
departmental or company. Setting up the 
skeleton ledgers, vendors and employees 
is similarly effective but inefficient. 
Fortunately, this process need be done 
only once for each company. 

Figure I. 



Enter Cash Disbursements 


I ist Cash Disbursements 


Enter Invoice Register 


List Invoice Register 


Enter Cash Receipts 


List Cash Receipts 


Enter Merchandise Purch 


List Merchandise Purch 


Enter Cash Sales 


list Cash Sales 


Enter General Journal 


list General Journal 



Documentation 

The General Ledger system comes 
wrapped in a very impressive, padded 
standard si/ed three ring binder. However, 
upon opening the binder one finds 108 
pages of unindc.xed. paper back bound, 
combined tutorial and reference material. 
Of this 108 pages. 37 are sample reports. 
3 are concerned with error checking and 8 
are a glossary of accounting and B.P.I. 
terminology. The remaining 559< is in the 
form of a mixture of tutorial and reference 
manual. 

Although the tutorial performs well in 
its role of familiarizing the user with the 
intricacies of the system, since it is inter- 
mixed with reference information it makes 
the use of the reference material unneces- 
sarily difficult. Part ol the reason tor 
structuring the material this way may stem 
from the fact that the authors make one 
important assumption about the user: he 
is lamiliar with Generally Accepted 
Accounting Principles and has a working 
knowledge of accounting basics. 

This seems to be a reasonable approach 
since the objective of the system is to per- 
form accounting tasks and not teach 
accounting principles. However, consider- 
ing the effort that apparently went into 
designing the working part of the system it 
is disappointing to find documentation 
that is comparatively so unimaginative. 

Input 

The real strength of the system can easily 
be seen when booting the data input disk. 
I he menu is displayed as in I igure I. 

Each journal is well thought out and has 
a simple, but effective, operation. The 
journals and their functions are as follows: 

Cash Disbursements: Acts as a check 
register. May distribute a check charge to 
as many as twelve different accounts. Can 
be preprogrammed with vendors, employ- 
ees and regular payees and their normal 
charge distribution. There is no provision 
lor printing checks. 

Invoice Register: This is the Sales 
Journal. However, it not only records 
merchandise sold on account but may 
include cash sales as well. May be prepro- 
grammed for as many as ten different 
departments, branches or other divisions. 

Cash Receipts: Used in conjunction with 
the Invoice Register. Makes a chrono- 
logical record of customer payments and 
automatically credits the A R control and 
subsidiary accounts. 

Merchandise Purchases: Used when a 
formal A P system is needed. Each vendor 



Figure 2. 



is given a number and when purchases are 
made, the charge may be distributed to up 
to ten different cost ol sales accounts. 

Cash Sales Journal: Designed for use 
with a cash register. Entries are made 
directly off the register tape into accounts 
determined during setup and company 
configuration. 

Cieneral Journal: Acts as the traditional 
G.J. Requires both credit and debit 
entries but remembers what the current 
G.J. entry number should be. 

Incorporating a high degree of auto- 
mation into these special journals elim- 
inates having to make over half the 
required offsetting entries to the subsidiary 
and general ledgers. 



There are times when 

flexibility 

is notably absent. 



lor example, if your cash account is 
no. 1045 then when setting up the Cash 
Disbursements Journal you simply 
indicate I04S as the account to be credited 
when checks are written. So. when using 
the CD. Journal, you simply enter the 
date, payee, amount of the check and its 
distribution (the system knows what the 
current check number should be). The 
total charge is shown at the bottom of the 
screen and is. when posted, automatically 
credited to 1045 (cash). There is no pos- 
sibility of making an erroneous entry to 
1 145. for example. 

I his automation of special journals not 
only means that each subsidiary account 
will balance to its control and that the 
total amounts entered from the keyboard 
and by the computer will balance but that 
the user can forget about Generally 
Accepted Accounting Principles and just 
enter the data as if he were using a manual 
system. 

The built in structure and automation of 
the system keeps the user from making 
gross mistakes such as forgetting to post 
to a subsidiary account or skipping a check 
in the CD. Journal. The same holds true 
for the other journals. 

Reports 

Once the information is input via the 
proper journals the next step is to run 
"post reports" disk. I he options are listed 
in Figure 2. 



Post 

Trial Balance 
End of Month 
End of 4th Quarter 



Income Statement 
Balance Sheet 
End of Quarter 
End of Fiscal Year 



74 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 






II 



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General Ledger, continued... 

As in the data disk, the user is given the 
option to enter a "queue" a series of opera- 
tions to be run. For example. Post, Income 
Statement, Balance Sheet, and Trial Bal- 
ance could all be entered into the 
"queue." By simply indicating the "run 
queue" option, each of these entries would 
be executed, one after the other, auto- 
matically. 

Of the options on this disk, posting is the 
most highly automated. When posting, 
each journalized entry is recorded in the 
General Ledger along with an audit trial 
that even a non-accountant can easily fol- 
low. When posting is complete, a hard 
copy of the General Ledger and skeleton 
subsidiary ledgers are printed. 

Of course, no system can be all things to 
all people. There is a trade-off for built-in 
structure and automation. Although the 
system is very flexible in its adaptability 
to almost any business configuration there 
are times when flexibility is notably 
absent. This is most evident when pro- 
ducing financial reports. 

On the Income Statement there is, for 
example, no provision for budgeted or cur- 
rent vs. previous period. What is available 
is a B.P.I, preprogrammed, format of 
"current," "current-%-of-sales," "year-to- 
date" and "year-to-date-%-of-sales." 

The Balance Sheet is much like the 
Income Statement in that it is fixed in its 
format but shows only the information for 
the current period. In general. I found the 
reports and report formats for the Balance 
Sheet and Income Statement somewhat 
limited but quite adequate. 

Summary 

From an accounting standpoint, the 
B.P.I. General Ledger system is very 
strong. However, there arc several notable 
weaknesses in what is otherwise a very 
smooth running, efficient user-oriented 
package. For one thing, given the lack of 
reset protection in software, this package 
is obviously designed for newer Apples. 

Secondly, the system fails to store the 
printer configuration to disk. This means 
that each time the printer is turned on and 
a report generated, a tedious, and annoy- 
ing series of questions must be answered. 

Third, in such a highly automated sys- 
tem it is surprising to find that there is no 
provision for repetitive entries such as 
depreciation, rent, etc. 

Lastly, the setup procedure is tedious 
and frustratingly repetitive. Despite these 
detractions, the inherent strength of the 
design of the B.P.I. General Ledger pack- 
age — as it invisibly conforms to Generally 
Accepted Accounting Principles, as it is 
reflected in the use of specialized journals, 
and as automation ties G.A.A.P. and the 
special journals together — can not be 
denied. It is on the basis of these strengths 
that the system should be considered. D 

September 1982 e Creative Computing 




#27 SOFTWARE 



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Basic Compiler $329 

Fortran-SO $349 

M°§°orf !,?! 

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Edit-80 S 84 

MuSimp.'MuMath $224 

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77 



SATN 



Keeping VisiCalc 
Smooth and Silky 



Will Fastie 




It should certainly be no surprise to 
anyone, least of all a regular reader of 
this or other computer magazines, to leam 
that VisiCalc is the Number 1 software 
package ever. Estimates of the number of 
copies sold vary, but by now 250,000 is 
not an unreasonable estimate. 

Dan Fylstra, of VisiCorp (nee Personal 
Software), was quoted as saying that there 
was probably one unauthorized (trans- 
lated: pirated) copy for every sold copy, 
and maybe more. Then, of course, there 
are the spinoffs— SuperCalc, SuperComp, 
Microplan, Multiplan. and others, includ- 
ing versions for all the major minicompu- 
ter timesharing systems. And how many 
people use each copy? The total number 
of users is surely in the millions. 

That's a lot of people using spreadsheet 
programs. For that kind of user popula- 
tion, it seems natural to expect that much 
would be written about how to use the 
programs. What techniques are possible, 
and how are they used? For large models, 
can efficiencies be gained? How do the 
advanced features work, and what are 
they good for? And just what can be done 
with the programs? Are they generally 
applicable, or are they good only for 
accounting and financial applications? 

Well, it turns out that very little has 
been written. There are a few books and 
a few newsletters, but for the most part, 
there is nothing to help one learn how, 
nothing to make one think, nothing to 
stretch one's imagination. 

Until now, that is. About a year ago, 

W. H. Fastie. 7110 Sheffield Road. Baltimore. 
MD 21212. 



Software Arts, Inc., the company that 
created VisiCalc, inaugurated SA TN. It's 
pronounced "satin," and it stands for 
"Software Arts Technical Notes." It's a 
bi-monthly publication chock full of all 
those things: pointers on how to use 
VisiCalc, articles on technique, detailed 
examples, and best of all, mind benders. 
It is the mind benders that make this such 
a creative and valuable publication, one 
really worth having. 

What is a mind bender? Perhaps the 
best example is one of the articles from 



Each article is written 

with painstaking care, 

to be sure each step is 

clear and correct. 



the second issue, November/December 
1981. This article explained how to set up 
a worksheet to solve cryptarithms, and 
used as an example the famous SEND + 
MORE = MONEY problem. (For ye of 
little puzzle knowledge, a cryptarithm is a 
puzzle in which each letter represents a 
number. The object is to deduce the digits 
such that the formula will be correct.) 

Why is this a mind bender? Well, would 
you have thought of using VisiCalc as an 
aid to solving this problem? Seeing this 
from a program which seems to be suited 

78 



for little more than ledger sheets is start- 
ling, unexpected. And challenging. 

This is not to say that traditional ac- 
counting and financial applications have 
been overlooked in favor of more esoteric 
ones. The March/April 1982 issue had 
articles on Individual Retirement Ac- 
counts (IRA), income tax, and internal 
rates of return. The premiere issue dis- 
cussed calculation of withholding tax. 

Unexpected topics included the con- 
struction of a project scheduling form, 
manipulation of dates arithmetically, 
forecasting models for predicting election 
outcomes, and, of course, SEND MORE 
MONEY. 

There are no credits in SA TN, not even 
a masthead. The publishers are Bob 
Frankston and Dan Bricklin, inventors of 
VisiCalc and founders of Software Arts. 
Dena Feldstein, who is the documentation 
manager for Software Arts, is the man- 
aging editor. The rest of the staff works 
full time on SA TN. Jack McGrath is the 
editor, Debbie Ruppert is the copy editor, 
Joyce Hurd is the circulation manager, 
and Lisa Underkoffler is the marketing 
manager. 

So far. Software Arts has provided all 
the material for SATN. In an interview 
with Creative, a tired-sounding but still 
energetic Jack McGrath described how 
time-consuming each article is. Once an 
idea has surfaced, it is carefully con- 
structed in VisiCalc. 

This process is particularly tedious, as 
the resultant model must work in all (or 
almost all) the versions of VisiCalc. That 
means a more recent enhancement might 
have to be ignored in favor of an imple- 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



mentation which is more standard. Then 
the article is written with painstaking care, 
to be sure each step is clear and correct. 
In answer to the question "Is SATN 
considering becoming a monthly publica- 
tion?" Jack only groaned. 

Jack did mention that an external 
submission plan had been put into effect. 
This is good news, because it will mean a 
larger pool of ideas to tap. A writer's 
guide is now available that describes what 
SA TN is looking for and how the article 
should be constructed. 

SA TN will pay for articles accepted for 
publication. Jack suggests that interested 
authors submit a very brief "query" which 
describes the concept. The idea behind 
the query is to save everybody time and 
work by dealing first with a very brief 
description which can be quickly checked 
against previously published material and 
which can be considered without need of 
examining a complex model. Actually, 
this is a good idea because it forces the 
author to present the concept in a simple, 
lucid form. 

If that can't be done, the idea probably 
isn't so great. If an agreement is reached, 
SA TN wants a sample of the model on 
disk, to verify its operation and to avoid 
spending the time required to enter it. 

SATN will pay for accepted articles 
upon publication, and this is the only fault 
I can find. If the idea is good, and SA TN 
wants it, payment should be made upor 
acceptance. This is also a better method 
of inducing people to advance a query. 

In short, SATN is a very professional, 
high quality publication. Although the 
price of $30 for six bi-monthly issues may 
seem high, the ideas presented can be 
stimulating enough to save far more than 
that in time. 

For articles or queries, write: SATN, 
Editorial Department, P.O. Box 494, 
Cambridge. MA 02139. 

For subscriptions, write: SATN Sub- 
scriptions. P. O. Box 815, Quincy. MA 
02169. □ 




September 1982 c Creative Computing 



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Monkey Wrench 




Prehensile Programming 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Monkey Wrench 

Type: Basic Utilities Package 

System: Atari 800 8K 

Format: ROM "Firmware" 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Provides several helpful 
additions to Atari Basic 

Price: $49.95 
Manufacturer: 

Eastern House Software 
3239 Linda Dr. 
Winston-Salem, NC 27106 



Basic programmers, whether profes- 
sionals or struggling novices, stand to 
benefit from any help they can get. Atari 
Basic is a relatively friendly language in 
which to work, thanks to extensive syn- 
tax checking and a versatile editor. It is 
an excellent system for learning— yet it 
has some drawbacks. 

Monkey Wrench attempts to correct 
some of these, and does a very good job 
of it. It provides nine new Basic com- 
mands, as well as a machine language 
monitor with IS commands. It also bears 
the real distinction of being the first (and 
currently only) ROM board for the right 
hand slot of the Atari 800. 



John Anderson 



Installation 

I cannot in good conscience call 
Monkey Wrench a ROM cartridge, as it 
has no case to speak of. The only disad- 
vantage of this is the possibility of install- 
ing it backwards in the computer— a 
potentially devastating disadvantage. 
Atari cartridges will not install any way 
but correctly. Further, the board must be 
installed with the chips facing away from 
the keyboard — perhaps counterintuitive 
to the notions of many users. Needless to 
say, care should be taken on this point. 

My machine has been around for 
nearly two years without ever having any- 
thing stuck in the right-hand slot. Hence, 
when I first plugged in Monkey Wrench, 
I got some rather glitchy results, ranging 
from a blank yellow screen (you may be 
familiar with that one, it's an operating 
system bug), to some spectacular elec- 
tronic "rain" blowing across the screen. 

The manual suggests cleaning the con- 
tacts with alcohol. I used a little contact 
cleaning spray and plugged the board in 
and out several times. When I looked at 
the board contacts, they were filthy. I 
cleaned them with a pencil eraser, 
plugged the board back in, and got the 
title display. I then experimented for over 

80 



an hour without any problems. It is also 
mentioned in the manual that the 850 
interface must be off before booting 
Basic with Monkey Wrench. 

Operation 

Monkey Wrench is "transparent"; that 
is to say, after the title display indicates 
that it is functioning, it will not evidence 
itself again until called. The sole excep- 
tion to this surfaces when the user tries to 
move the cursor with "control arrow" 
keys. The cursor movement arrows are 
now accessed without the need to press 
control, while the plus, minus, equal, and 
asterisk keys are accessed by pressing 
control. 

This option takes a bit of getting used 
to, but is a much more convenient key- 
board configuration for Basic editing. 
Nine times out of ten. you'll want to use 
those keys for cursor movement. If this 
function is for some reason undesirable, 
you can toggle it off with a simple ">E" 
command, reverting to normal keyboard 
operation. 

It's Got Your Number 

Ready for an editing session in Basic? 
Well get set for it, because you won't 
have to worry much about numbering, 
renumbering, or deleting blocks of line 
numbers any more. Automatic line num- 
bering is easy; simply enter ">a", fol- 
lowed by your choice of starting line 
number and the increment value you 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



want. When you press return, those line 
numbers will be displayed automatically. 

This may seem to some to be a minor 
convenience. All 1 can say is once you get 
used to it, you'll never want to be without 
it. 

The same goes for block deletion, 
accessed by ">d" followed by the first 
and last line numbers in the range to be 
deleted. Certainly you could sit and 
patiently delete each line of the block. In 
a substantial modification, however, this 
would become tedious very quickly, and 
the real benefit of this feature would be 
seen. 

Most powerful and beneficial of the 
numbering commands is renumber," >R" 
followed by the starting line value and 
the increment value you select. Monkey 
Wrench will renumber your Basic pro- 
gram in whatever configuration you wish, 
changing not only line numbers but all 
references to line numbers occurring 
within the program. 

I experimented with renumbering 
three of my own Basic programs (of some 
complexity), and it works perfectly each 
time. It should be noted however, that I 
do not use "names" to call subroutines, a 
friendly and helpful capacity of Atari 
Basic, i.e., "GOSUB MAINLOOP." As 
Monkey Wrench is unable to distinguish 
between "name" constants and any 
others in a program, this will cause prob- 
lems in renumbering. This is true of any 
renumbering routine, and may be reason 
enough to steer away from "naming," at 
least when confronted with a choice 
between quick and painless renumbering 
and named subroutines. 

Because the renumber command uses 
screen memory as a buffer, there is a 
limit to the length of a program that can 
be renumbered. By changing the graphics 
mode, the total length can be brought to 
about 1000 lines of code — probably more 
than you'll need for any single program 
file. 

Some More Than Marginal Additions 

By pressing ">M", screen margins can 
be reconfigured without the need for 
cryptic POKEs. Since the Atari screen 
defaults to 38 characters, many program- 
mers (especially those with video moni- 
tors) will want to move the margins out to 
a full 40 characters. 

For those who wish to commune with 
the Atari CPU, the command ">#" will 
convert decimal values to hexadecimal, 
while ">$" will convert hex values to 
decimal. For beginning machine language 
programmers (of which category I am a 
lifetime member) these utilities are indis- 
pensable. 

Typing " >T" followed by hex values 
will perform a memory test. Don't be 

September 1982 e Creative Computing 



shocked if you discover some bad bits of 
RAM in your Atari. I did, in two 
machines. The only disadvantage to this 
function is that testing is very lengthy, 
and looks just like a system lock-up unless 
bad bits are turning up. 



Most powerful and 

beneficial of the 

numbering commands 

is renumber. 



Monitor Does Not Support Disk 

In addition to these commands, a small 
machine language monitor is provided. 
Memory location contents can be dis- 
played between any two addresses, and 
be toggled to display the ATASCII equiv- 
alents of these contents, as well as dis- 
assembled. The 6502 register contents 
can be displayed, memory and registers 
altered, and searches conducted within 
code for ASCII strings or hex characters. 



Memory can be saved and loaded, but 
very unfortunately, only to cassette. 
Thus, this monitor will be of only limited 
utility to all but the most single minded 
hackers. The monitor is handy for devel- 
oping short machine language subrou- 
tines within Basic programs, and while it 
will run without Basic, it will probably 
not be of much use in this mode. 

The utilities offered by Monkey 
Wrench are easier to use than disk -based 
utility programs. They never have to be 
loaded, and are not co-resident with the 
program you are working on. at least as 
far as the screen editor is concerned. All 
commands are available at the touch of a 
button or two, and with the exception of 
the RAM test, are uniformly quick to 
execute. This "transparent" quality will 
be most appreciated by the intermediate 
programmer, at whom the package is 
best aimed. 

You will note that I hedged a bit about 
what Monkey Wrench does in and to 
RAM. The fact is that it does eat up some 
memory, including part of page six, 
which could cause some rare problems. 
Remember also that each cartridge eats 
up 8K when plugged in: Basic and 
Monkey Wrench will bring free memory 
on a 48K machine down to about 30K. D 



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81 







Starship Commander 




More Dilithium Crystals, Captain 



George A. Miller 



creative comparting 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Starship Commander 

Type: Space ship simulation 

System: 48K Apple II 

Format: Disk 

Language: Applesoft and machine 

Summary: Good for patient space 
fans. 

Price: $39.95 

Manufacturer: 

Voyager Software 

P.O. Box 15-518 

San Francisco, CA 941 15 



Starship Commander is a space ship 
simulation game played on a 4HK Apple 
II. You are the commander of the large 
Starship USS Ranger and have the task of 
destroying up to three enemy Vegan 
vessels. 

Each turn is composed of visiting any 
or all of the seven starship stations: Life 
Support. Navigation, Weapons. Science. 
Communications, Defense and Engineer- 
ing. Decisions can be made at each station 
and information can be obtained. Each 
turn ends with a three-dimensional display 
of the starship firing at the Vegans and 
the Vegans firing back. 

The game ends when you have 
destroyed all the Vegans or when they 
have destroyed you. Or the game can end 
with you surrendering or you talking the 

Georue A. Miller. 2426 Bush Street. San 
Francisco. CA. 




Vegans into surrender (done at the Com- 
munications Station). A real chicken way 
for the game to end is for you to hotfoot 
it out of the galaxy and get out of range 
(6500 megameters) of the Vegans. Only a 
party pooper would use the end-of-game 
option. 

After each turn you have the option of 
saving the game, so you can stretch a 
game out over several days or weeks. 

The Life Support Station controls crew 
assignments, team assignments and life 
support power allocations. You, as com- 
mander, must rotate your teams as they 
fatigue. Also, you can reassign personnel 
as they get wounded— or worse. 

The graphics in this part of the game 
are fantastic. The relative efficiency of 
the three teams (Duty, Standby, and 
Sleep) is shown by a bar chart in which 
each "bar" is an outline of a person. 

In the Navigation Station you can 
control all movements of the ship: speed, 
direction and evasive action. The Weap- 
ons Station, which you should visit every 
turn, controls all firing of the weapons 
system (positrons and torpedoes). The 
Science Station displays the enemy's 
status. 

You can communicate with the Vegans 
in the Communications Station. Here you 

82 



can ask for their surrender and will 
receive it only if the Vegans have but one 
badly damaged ship remaining. You can 
surrender or try to bluff the Vegans into 
running away. 

The Defense Station maintains all 
shields. It is important to give the correct 
power to those shields facing the Vegans. 
If one of your shields is damaged you can 
have it fixed by allocating repair 'droids 
to the affected shield. Repair manage- 
ment as well as power redistribution is 
done from the Engineering Station. 

Like most simulation games, Starship 
Commander is slow. It takes about IS 
seconds to move from one station to the 
next. It is designed as a one person 
game— you vs. the computer (Vegans). 
Thus, it may appeal only to shut-ins or 
hopeless Trekkies. 

Simulation games frequently have the 
redeeming grace of being educational. 
However, with Starship Commander you 
become good only at starship manage- 
ment and wanton destruction. It seems 
that a better game might try to simulate a 
real life situation, the well known Starship 
Enterprise, or a situation with a more 
socially acceptable goal. 

Starship Commander has one very 
interesting feature: the only input com- 
munication is via the game paddle. The 
entire game could be (in fact is) played 
without the use or benefit of the key- 
board. The author has employed inge- 
nious methods of communicating deci- 
sions, speeds, personnel selection, etc., 
with only a dial and a button. It took an 
enormous amount of human engineering 
to do this, but it can be a bit tedious. 

Starship Commander is a good game 
for people who prefer long, detailed 
adventures in space to the fast pace of an 
alien invasion. □ 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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better. Animated sports games that pit you head to 
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Arcade Plus games are designed exclusively for the 
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©1982. ARCADE PLUS ALL RIOHTS RESERVED 



OHOST HUNTER." ARCADE PRO FOOTBALL." ARCADE BASERALI • 

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How Can You 
Have Fun With IBM? 

GET SIRIUS! 



AhJUs 



Do you have what it takes to be a really great leader? Are 
you bold enough? Are you clever enough? Can you stand 
up to the pressure of making decisions that affect 
thousands of people and could change the course of 
history forever? 

Your moment of truth has arrived! It's the new game from 
Sirius, CALL TO ARMS, a battle of strategy and wits. 
You, and up to three opponents, will be facing off in an 
effort to conquer Europe in 1942 or, if you choose, 
Scotland in 1750. Just remember, no guts, no glory! 

C»H To Anns it playable with keyboard on an IBM Personal Computet with 
64K memory and a single sided desk drive Color monitor recommended 

Programmed by Michael Fanner Program, packaging and audio visual o 
1902 Sinus Sinus is a trademark of Sinus Software. Inc BM rs a 
trademark of International Business Ma ch i n e ! Corp 



Siriu* Software, Inc. 
Sacramento, California 



|UU 



ATTENTION 
ATARI 800 OWNERS: 
The Fun Is Spreading! 



Sirius Software, Inc. 
Sacramento, California 






Now the games that have made Sirius a 

favorite with Apple computer owners are 

available to you. Sit down in front of your 

Atari 800 and slip in a Cyclod diskette . . . 

YOU become Cyclod, a legendary one-eyed 

stumble bum. You have one mission in life — 

to kill snakes with bricks! You find yourself in a 

room full of sneaky snakes who's only desire 

is to kill the mighty Cyclod. The result? 

Hours of pure fun and challenge. 

Now, try your hand at Snake Byte . . . YOU 

become a slinky snake with a voracious 

appetite for apples. The more you eat, the 

longer and faster you get. Careful, or soon you'll 

be slithering out of control! With 29 progressively 

difficult mazes and 2 Perilous Purple Plums, 

Snake Byte will entertain you for a long, long time. 

Cyclod and Snake Byte are playable on a 4SK Atari 800 with an 
Atari 810 disk dnve using keyboard or joystick controls 

Packaging, program and audio visual ■ 1982 Sinus Software, Inc. Sinus 

is a trademark of Sirius Software. Inc Atari 800 and Atari 810 are 

trademarks of Alan Inc. Apple rs a trademark of Apple Computer Inc 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED (91 6) 366-1 1 95 
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Spay TV 



sol 



Betsy Staples 



creative coiRpatiitg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Lemmings 
Type: Game 

System: 48K Apple II or II + , disk 
drives. Atari-type joystick 
recommended. 

Format: Disk 

Language: Assembly language 

Summary: Maddening fun 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Sinus Software 

10364 Rockingham Dr. 

Sacramento. CA 95827 



Sirius Software has released a game 
called Lemmings. Everyone knows what 
lemmings do: they periodically hurl them- 
selves into the sea. How do you make a 
game out of that? Sound a bit grisly? It 
isn't. 

To understand the point of the game, 
we must understand why they march to 
the sea. We can explain in one word: 
overpopulation. Sound more interesting? 
Let's see. 

Lemmings casts you in the role of an 
SPCA employee whose job is to control 
the lemming population in your town. 
Your town is laid out in a tidy grid, and is 
composed almost entirely of vacant build- 
ings. Male and female lemmings climb 
out of a manhole on the edge of town at 
random intervals. 

To control the population, you must 
incarcerate "pairs of non-breeding lem- 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 




mings" in the empty buildings. Lemmings 
come in five flavors: male, female, neu- 
tered, baby and senile. When a male and 
a female meet, they breed, and the result 
is, of course, a baby lemming which soon 
develops a gender of its own. Neutering 
occurs at the SPCA to which the rodents 
are taken by the SPCA truck. 

Each building has four doors, all of 
which must be closed before you can 
claim 50 points for locking up a pair. A 
door closes each time you exit a building. 
You can deposit a lemming in a building 
before all doors are locked, but until the 
last one is closed, the critter can escape. 

Door closing is actually one of the 
trickiest parts of the game. The worst 
thing you can do, for example, is acciden- 
tally close all four doors of an empty 
building. This renders it useless as a 
lemming cage, and condemns you to the 
first level of play, since you must fill all 
the buildings on the first level with lem- 
mings before you can proceed to the 
second level. 

To corral the critters, you must move 
the little white square which represents 
you over a lemming. To maneuver your 

85 



player, you can use the keyboard, Apple- 
compatible paddles or joystick, or an 
Atari-type joystick with the Sirius 
Joy port. 

We found the game impossible with a 
potentiometer-type joystick or paddles, 
very difficult with the keyboard, and only 
mildly frustrating with the Atari-type 
joystick. 

To pick up or drop a lemming, you 
press either the button on your joystick 
or the spacebar. 

You must avoid the senile lemmings, 
which cause death on contact, and it is a 
good idea to avoid the SPCA truck when 
carrying a lemming to its new home, since 
the truck will cart it off to be neutered, 
whether you want it to or not. The truck 
is, however, your only defense against 
senile lemmings, which are too slow to 
escape its wheels. 

If you allow more than 15 lemmings to 
roam the streets at one time, overpopula- 
tion triggers their instinctive need to keep 
their numbers under control, they make 
"a frantic suicide dive into the sea at the 
edge of town," and the game is over. 

Lemmings requires an unusual blend of 
strategy and skill. It takes some practice 
to be able to manipulate the joystick 
reliably so that you don't accidentally 
close too many doors, and you must 
develop a system for dealing with the 
prolific little creatures in order to succeed. 

The game is cute and entertaining, and 
even the most inept members of the Clod 
Squad were able to accumulate a few 
hundred points. More skillful players will 
undoubtedly enjoy the higher levels, at 
which there are more empty buildings 
and more, faster-breeding lemmings. □ 



HiRes Golf 



Teed Off 



Dale Archibald 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: HiRes Computer Golf 

Type: Real-time strategy 

System: 48K Apple II with Applesoft 
in ROM or II Plus and one 
disk drive. DOS 3.2 or 3.3, 
paddles 

Format: Disk 

Language: Applesoft, some machine 

Summary: An early whiff of spring 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Avant-Garde Creations. 

P.O. Box 30160, 

Eugene. OR 97403 



One member of my regular golf four- 
some is habitually late. Doug. Mark, and 
I all arrive on the tee at least two minutes 
early. At times we even get there early 
enough to take a few practice swings 
before it's time to tee off. 

Not Lowell. Invariably, we allow first 
one party, then another and another to 
tee off while we wait because Mr. Lowell 
still hasn't arrived. 

About the time we're ready to go 



Dale Archibald. 1817 Third Ave. N.. Minneapolis. 
NM 55405. 



without him. he roars into the parking 
lot. leaps out. and wrestles his lime-green 
bag out of his car with one hand while he 
struggles into his spiked shoes with the 
other. 

When he does rush up. he jams the tee 
and ball into the ground, takes one prac- 
tice swing and drives the ball 240 yards 
straight down the fairway. It just isn't fair. 




So when I called Doug and Lowell to 
see if they'd like to try HiRes Golf, it was 
only natural that Lowell would be late. 
He got a chance to practice a few shots 
before we began the game, but only a 
few. 

Doug and I had our golf caps on and 
practiced putting on the carpet while 
Lowell got ready. 

Then, as we stood and watched, he 
sank a hole-in-one on the first hole. I tell 
you, it just isn't fair. 

That gives you an idea how realistic 
this game is. Programmer Stuart Aronoff 

86 



has done an outstanding job of blending 
the strategy of golf with the difficulty of 
hitting that little white ball. (Although he 
admits he's not a golfer.) 

Aronoff says he wanted to write a game 
that wasn't an arcade type or an adven- 
ture, but "one that would be a challenge 
and have very little repetition." 

He has succeeded. The program is an 
amalgam of the things that make golf 
interesting (and maddening). If your swing 
is flawless each time, you will finish in 
good shape. Make a mistake, or gamble 
and lose, and you're in trouble. 

There are five courses on HiRes Golf, 
from a beginner's to a world class. As 
many as four players can go around at 
one time. 

Let's step through a hole. First you can 
look at the fairway graphic. This could 
include up to three screens, and might 
have such obstacles as trees, water, sand, 
rough, or out-of-bounds. You can flip 
from screen to screen, or call up the view 
of the screen to see where the hole is. 
The green is broken into sections with 
arrows showing what directions the ball 
will roll. 

After checking what direction the wind 
is blowing, and at what velocity, select 
your club from the I -Wood through the 
wedge, (or the putter if you're on the 
green). Next you decide with what 
strength you want to hit. The 1-Wood 
through 9-Iron offer strengths of 6-0 (for 
10). The wedge hits in increments of 10 
yards. The putter hits in feet. 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



Jsing the game paddle, you aim the 
ball. Hit Return and the graphic shifts. 
You no longer see the first tee. Instead, 
you're looking at the ball from the side. 
Its height depends upon whether it's a 
tee, fairway, rough, or sand shot. 

Behind the ball (to left or right, depend- 
ing on where you are on the fairway) is a 
series of horizontal lines outlining the 
perfect clubpath. The club face is poised 
vertically at the top of the screen. Touch 
a key. and it begins to move. 

Each time you touch it after that, the 
club face changes direction 22.5 degrees 
(as on the 1,500 meter race on Microsoft's 
Olympic Decathlon). Your object is to 
keep the face inside the clubpath and hit 
the ball at the correct angle. Go inside or 
outside the clubpath and you'll hook or 
slice the ball. You can also top it or 
undercut it, thereby cutting your distance. 
I don't even want to mention the ever- 
popular whiff. 

To make it tougher, out of the rough or 
a sand trap you must hit the ball at a 
different angle from a fairway or tee shot. 



Hi Res Golf is a 

hilarious substitute 

for housebound 

northern and/ or rainy 

day golfers. 



If you make a perfect shot, the graphic- 
changes to look down on the fairway as 
the ball sails along. You can go over 
water, rough, sand, and— sometimes— 
trees. You can't trespass over the bound- 
aries to take a shortcut, though. 

When you roll onto the green, the 
graphic shows the way the surface slants 
in different areas. You again use the 
paddle to aim. but needn't go through the 
swing steps. Just choose distance and hit 
Return. 

Sink the putt, and your score is added 
to the card. 

The graphics are simple (all shapes 
have 90 degree angles) but adequate. 
Sound effects add to the game. 

It's a hilarious substitute for house- 
bound northern and/or rainy day golfers. 
I do wish Aronoff had allowed for more 
than one game at a time to be saved for 
later play. (How can I practice if I'll lose 
everyone's place?) 

I also think it would be much more 
enjoyable to have the courses modeled 
after actual courses. Perhaps there could 
be a "PGA microtour" for passionate 
golfers with Apples. 

Oh, after Lowell made his hole-in-one, 
he fell completely apart. I told you it was 
almost like real golf. D 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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Deluxe Invaders and K-razy Shootout 




Blast from the Past 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Deluxe Invaders 

Type: Arcade game 

System: Atari 400/800 16K 

Format: Disk, ROM cartridge 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Finally a "genuine" 

Invaders implementation 

Price: $34.95 disk. $40.95 ROM 

Manufacturer: 

Roklan Corporation 

10600 Higgins Rd. 

Rosemont. IL 60018 



Deluxe Invaders 

Your story may well be the same. Space 
Invaders, the first "cult" arcade game, 
hooked you— you. who vehemently swore 
your quarters would never be in short 
supply. It was the drum beat that did it: 
the quickening pulse that glazed over your 
eyes and tightened every muscle in your 
arms as you furiously raced to kill the last 
row of flapping insects. 

Those were the days. I remember when 
Invaders first became available on cas- 
sette for the Atari computer. Finally, 
something had arrived to knock Star 
Raiders off the tube for a while. Invaders 
was well-animated, colorful, addicting, 
hilarious. But it was disappointing in its 
distance from the coin-op arcade game. 
Gone were the barriers that afforded 
temporary shelter from the falling "worm 
rays": missing was the pace and feel of 
the game that was its inspiration. 

Well it's been a while in coming— quite 
a while, actually— but the real thing is 
finally here. The nostalgia warms my 
heart. Deluxe Invaders faithfully captures 
the look, spirit, and play of arcade Space 
Invaders. And it doesn't stop there. 



John Anderson 



Deluxe Invaders retains the color, 
sound, and polish of the earlier Atari 
computer game, while remaining true to 
many of the features of the deluxe arcade 
game version. The barriers are back, as 
are the spinning "worm rays." Back also 
is the hypertensive pacing, and if you 
were into the game "back when," this 
game will go "click" when you start with 
it. Set aside some time. 



K-razy Shootout brings 

nearly all the 

excitement of the 

arcade game to the 

Atari computer. 



There are nine levels of difficulty, 
including some where an insect results 
merely in its splitting into two baby 
insects. Other levels include mother ships 
that deposit new aliens on the board in 
play. Even the alien shapes are truer to 
the original game, as is the difficulty. 

The difficulty levels are not too well 
documented, and only experimentation 
will flesh them out completely. The pro- 




gram does allow for a two player game, 
along the same lines as the coin-op. 

"What," you say? "Another Invaders 
game?" You're tired of Invaders games? I 
said the same thing when I first saw this 
package. I was wrong. 

Roklan has some exciting plans for the 
Atari computer, including Gorf and 
Wizard of Wor. They are also planning a 
track-ball peripheral. If these products 
are up to the standard of Deluxe Invaders, 
we're in for a real treat. 

K-razy Shootout 

It's sometimes fun to trace the lineage 
of a game like K-razy Shootout. First 
there was Star Wars, with its stirring laser 
battles in the corridors of the Death Star. 
Audiences bobbed, weaved, and ducked 
in their seats as Luke, Han, and the 
Princess blasted their way through count- 
less evil storm troopers. 

Next there was the coin-op game 
Berzerk, pitting the arcader against evil 
'droids closing in for the kill. The exciting 
"laser shoot'em-up" mood was evoked 
pretty accurately, constituting the appeal 
of the game. What's more, the game 
spoke, goading you, mocking you. teasing 
more quarters out of you. 



Deluxe Invaders. 
88 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: K-razy Shootout 

Type: Arcade game 

System: Atari 400/800 8K 

Format: ROM cartridge 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Addictive "shoot-em-up" 
game with classic roots 

Price: $49.95 

Manufacturer: 
KByte 

1705 Austin 
Troy, MI 48099 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



WM 



Among a bevy of "laser motif" games 
for many systems. K-razy Shootout brings 
nearly all the excitement of the arcade 
game to the Atari computer. The only 
element that's missing is the speech. This 
is not to say that the Atari couldn't do it; 
it's simply not implemented here. 

K-razy Shootout also bears the distinc- 
tion of being the first ROM cartridge- 
based game from a third-party source. 
This necessarily adds to the cost of the 
package; but if you saw, enjoyed, and 
fondly recall the film Star Wars, you won't 
want to do without this program for lone. 

Your character runs through maze-like 
chambers, as 'droids close in from all 
directions. Using the joystick, you aim 
your laser, drawing a bead on them before 
they do the same to you. If you manage 
to clear a sector, you advance to the 
next. The action becomes increasingly 
furious, and you soon find yourself shoot- 
ing from the hip, moving from sheer 
instinct, and totally addicted. 

Scoring is dependent on several factors, 
including time, ammunition used, and 
'droids' manner of demise: through hostile 
fire, collision, or shooting each other. In 
addition, you collect an extra player for 
every 10.000 points. 

The only way you'll see sector four or 
beyond is through strategy. You'll dis- 
cover that it's possible to get 'droids to 
collide or shoot each other— finding good 




K-razy Shootout. 

cover is also imperative. Don't collide 
with a wall, though. That's as fatal as 
being hit by enemy fire. 

The graphics, sound, and smooth ani- 
mation in K-razy Shootout far outweigh 
its few negative points. The ranking 
system is screwy: you can progress from 
"Goon Class 1" to a higher score, which 
then is ranked back at "Goon Class 4." 
This frustrated our play testers. The game 
can be paused, but only by pressing 
Control- 1 . as if you were in Atari Basic. A 
much more friendly option is using the 
space bar to pause, a function now stand- 
ard on many games. 

Still, K-razy Shootout is lots of fun, and 
has a great deal of staying power. If only 
it could talk. □ 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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Dog Daze and Caverns of Mars 




Atari Fun for the Dog Days of Summer 



Sandy Small 



Dog Daze 

We had just finished a picnic lunch of 
barbecued spareribs. I was walking the 
dog and as usual, when we passed a fire 
hydrant, he insisted upon investigating it. 
dragging me along on the end of the leash. 
David quickly grabbed a chewed bone, 
threw it, and hit the fire hydrant. "It's 
mine." he shouted gleefully. 

David and I are not insane, just cur- 
rently addicted to an APEX (Atari Pro- 
gram Exchange) game called Dog Daze. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Dog Daze 

Type: Game 

System: 32K Atari, disk drive. 

2 joysticks or 8K Atari. 
cassette drive. 2 joysticks 

Format: Disk or cassette tape 
Language: 6502 Assembly 
Summary: Excellent game, lots of 

fun: highly recommended. 

Price: $17.95 

Manufacturer: 

The Atari Program Exchange 
P.O. Box 427 
155MoffattParkDr.. B-l 
Sunnyvale. CA 94086 



Sandy Small. 1 1.114 Yucca Dr.. Austin. TX 78750. 



Now, I readily agree that the game con- 
cept which uses two dogs, fire hydrants, 
bones, and an occasional automobile 
doesn't sound as thrilling as being invaded 
by aliens. Furthermore, I will concede 
that the graphics are not as fancy as the 
ones in Centipede or PacMan. Then, you 
ask. just what is so good about Dog Daze'! 
Why should I buy it? That's very simple 
to answer. The game is fun to play. 

Dog Daze opens with the melody of 
"How Much Is That Doggy in the 
Window," then plots a play area and two 
dogs, each a different color. Along the 
top of the play area is a row of sixteen fire 
hydrants, eight of one color, and eight of 
the other. These fire hydrants keep 
score. 

The object of Dog Daze is to get all the 
fire hydrants at the top of the play area 
your dog's color. 

You maneuver your dog with the joy- 
stick, causing him to run vertically, hori- 
zontally, or diagonally across the play- 
field. Neutral fire hydrants (colored blue) 
appear on the playfield in random loca- 
tions, and your dog must run to "claim" 
it. When the hydrant is claimed, it turns 
to the color of the dog that claims it. 

You can claim a neutral hydrant one of 
two ways. One way is to run and touch 
each of the hydrants as they appear, 
thereby changing them to your color. The 
other strategy is to throw your bone at it 
by pressing the joystick button. If you hit 
it, you claim the hydrant, and get your 
bone back automatically. If you miss, you 
must retrieve your bone before you can 
throw it again. 

90 




In the meantime, your opponent is 
trying to do the exact same thing, making 
for a furious competition to be the first to 
claim the neutral hydrant. 

There are several hazards to be avoid- 
ed. If you pass too close to your oppo- 
nent's hydrant, like all dogs, you must 
stop to sniff for a few seconds. While you 
are sniffing, your oponent's dog may be 
claiming all the neutral hydrants in sight. 

An even more serious hazard is the car 
that periodically swerves across the play- 
field. It sounds a warning honk, but if you 
are in the path or stuck to a hydrant in its 
path, you may be hit and lose the game. 

Scores are calculated based on two 
events: each time you claim a hydrant, 
one-half of one of the hydrants on top of 
the play area changes to your color and 
each time you run into the other dog's 
hydrant, one-half of one of your hydrants 
changes to his color. 

The only options allowed in Dog Daze 
are to limit the length of the game, which 
is default sixteen minutes, and to handicap 
yourself by starting with fewer than eight 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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package available." \ 

• Features - ELECTRIC PENCIL has a 36k+ text buffer (48k\t«k system), supports disk, tape and Stringy 
Floppy files (disk version)* and has every major feature you want ink word processor. It is "bullet proof"- Data 
recovery is a built-in feature. The exclusive DICT-AMATIC'teatureCves your office the flexibility of dictation- 
word processing without fancy equipment. Your dictation playback's ^ont rolled from the computer keyboard. 

• Flexible - It is the only word processing system that is designed like an operating system. You can add 
new programs and features to ELECTRIC PENCIL, such as RED and BVUE PENCIL dictionary/correction - 
with a 50.000 word dictionary (sold separately) - without patches' andvjpgrades. Simply press one of the 
control key combinations and new additions to your system are instantlyayailable. Add automatic proofing, 
spelling correction, dynamic print formatting, proportional printing, communications, graphics and typesetting 
and many other add-on features when you need them. \ 

• Versatile - ELECTRIC PENCIL runs on TRS-80 model I and model III compilers under all versions of 
TRSDOS, and NEWDOS without modification or patching (Patches required for otfter operating systems). It 
also supports parallel and serial printers as well as single and double density disjt systems 

ELECTRIC PENCIL is the choice of thousands- make it yours for only $89.95 (dispersion) or S79. 95 (tape 
and Stringy Floppy versions). Manual only S24.95. Jm 

ELECTRIC PENCIL is available at computer stores, selected B. Daltor}/#~ 
Booksellers and selected independent book dealers. If your dealer is outjof f 
stock, order direct (specify disk tape or Stringy Floppy version) Induce ' 
S4.00 for shipping and handling. Foreign residents add S1 1.00 plus pu | 
price, in U.S. funds. if ' 

•Tape and Stringy Floppy versions support tape and stringy files only / 






CIRCLE 262 ON READER iERVICE CARD 



Interface 



Your Color 
Connection 







| \)*mi% Manual 

PKASO 



PKASO Interlaces 
come complete 
with Cable 
Instructional 
Diskette and 
Comprehensive 
Manual 



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New and exciting from Interactive Structures— 
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or color: A guick copy of anything you see on the 
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points on a standard page, photo-like graphics 
with 16-level gray scale processor Plus you 
can design your own printing symbols and 
characters PKASO Interfaces are compatible 
with all major languages ana options and are 
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Telephone: (215) 667-1713 



CIRCLE 256 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Dog Daze, continued... 

fire hydrants of your color. This allows a 
skilled player to play with someone who 
is less skilled. 

Sound is used quite imaginatively. A 
variety of bleeps, bonks, and various 
degrading noises (when you make mis- 
takes) are generated. The dogs are ani- 
mated quite nicely; the running motions 
are done very well. The author obviously 
took great care in designing his player 
tables. 

Dog Daze is also one of the few two 
player games which allows both competi- 
tors to play at the same time. Most games 
use an "I go first, you go second" 
approach. 

In summary. Dog Daze is an excellent 
game. It combines the capabilities of the 
Atari and an unusual game concept to 
achieve a truly enjoyable game. 



Caverns of Mars 

The Caverns of Mars arrived recently. 
I had heard rumors about this new Atari 
game, so I immediately sat down to play 
it and see what all the fuss was about. 

Four minutes later, I was hooked. 

Four hours later, my wife dragged me 
away. 

The plot is as follows (some of it is 
somewhat cliche, as it follows the lead of 
many, many other games.): First, there's 
the Sole Defender syndrome common to 
many games, where you alone are respon- 
sible for saving the Moon Base (Invaders) 
or six cities (Missile Command) or eight- 
een little people (Defender) or whatever. 
In this case, you are responsible for 
destroying a Martian base. In order to do 
so, you must penetrate a series of caverns 
to the lowest level, where an explodable 
device sits; arm it and start the countdown 
(by touching it); then escape before it 
goes off. 



creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Caverns of Mars 

Type: Game 

System: 24K Atari w ' Disk Drive 
or 16K w/ tape. 1 joystick 

Format: Disk or Tape 

Language: 6502 Assembly 

Summary: Excellently done game. 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

Atari. Inc. 

1265 Borregas Ave. 

Sunnyvale, CA 94086 



Should you succeed the first time, you 
must go through the same thing a second 
time, but with added obstacles, twistier 
corridors, and the like. 

The game starts with you at the top of 
the cavern. It begins slowly scrolling up, 
so you move downward. By moving the 
joystick right-left you can maneuver from 
side to side (from a central position), and 
by moving it back and forth, you can 
increase or decrease your rate of 
descent. 

If you pull the stick so that your ship 
moves upward on the screen, your ship 
matches the vertical speed of the caverns 
scrolling up past you. So your position 
relative to those caverns doesn't change; 
you have no vertical speed. But this can 
only last until your ship hits the top of the 
screen, at which point your relative veloc- 
ity returns to normal. Similarly, if you 
move your ship downward, your velocity 
relative to the cavern walls is double that 
of no-motion. 

This concept is what makes the 
Caverns so interesting, and difficult. If 
you don't move vertically, your rate of 
descent is constant and there are many 
places you must stop moving vertically to 
avoid running into the cavern walls (such 
as horizontal passages). 

While you are descending through 
scenic Mars, you must destroy various 
installations. By pressing the joystick 
button, you launch two missiles down- 
ward from each side of your ship. If you 
hit a fuel canister (imaginatively labelled 
"FUEL") your fuel supply increases by 5 
(of 100). If you hit other installations, you 
just plain destroy them. The idea is to 
wreak as much havoc as possible on the 
way down. 

You can see only a limited section of 
the caverns. So you never know what's 
going to come next. You maneuver 
through a passageway twisting back and 
forth, and suddenly the screen is filled 
with Martian ships you must avoid, and 
try to blow up. But you must not collide 
with the ships or the wall. 

If your first descent is successful you 
begin again. This time there are floating 
space mines, and force doors that open 
and close, and things begin to shoot back 
at you. Completely horizontal passages 




appear, requiring you to be ready for 
them and use nearly the full vertical 
screen's worth of maneuvering to get 
through. It gets harder and harder until 
you are destroyed, or somehow succeed 
in navigating all five caverns. 

Technically, the game is excellently 
implemented. It's apparently done with 
remapped character graphics, letting the 
characters serve as the walls, ships, and 
so forth. Vertical scrolling is done 
smoothly and without flicker. The player 
tables for the ship are well laid out, and 
the missiles operate correctly. Sound is 
used well, with the usual explosions, 
rumbles, firing noises, and whatnot. 

The Caverns of Mars has that indefin- 
able "something" that makes it arcade- 
quality. Here's my best definition: When 
you lose in an arcade-quality game, you 
know why, and know how you could have 
done better, if you were just a little faster 
or if you hadn't have made that one 
mistake. Instead of the machine causing 
your destruction, it's your mistake that 
causes it. So, of course, you want to go 
back and try it again, and again, and get it 
right, until your fingers get cramps from 
holding the joystick, or until you're totally 
frustrated. 

I recommend this game to anyone who 
likes fast-paced arcade games in the style 
of Asteroids or Missile Command and 
who is looking for a new challenge. D 



Programming Precocity 

Greg Christensen, author of 
Caverns of Mars, can't understand 
what all of the fuss is about. It certain- 
ly can't be the fact that he wrote an 
arcade action game for the Atari, or 
even the fact that it was good enough 
to win an "Atari Star" award. Perhaps 
it has more to do with the fact that he 
did so in less than two months, and 
despite the limitations of the Atari 
Assembler/Editor cartridge. 

More likely it has something to do 
with the fact that he was 17 years old 
when he wrote it, after having a com- 
puter in the house for less than a year. 

In addition. Caverns of Mars is the 
first program to make the transition 
from a package in APX, the Atari Pro- 
gram Exchange, to a part of Atari's 
main product line. Atari liked the 
game a lot. and invided Christensen to 
collaborate on the creation of a ROM 
cartridge version. 

Young Mr. Christensen declined 
the offer. He has wisely decided to 
pursue an uninterrupted college edu- 
cation. Doubtless he has felt some 
pressure to surpass his feat, but has 
not succumbed. One cannot help but 
feel, however, that we may hear from 
him again.— JJA 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



93 



The Choice of 





IBM-PC SUPrLY CEM 


mi 




ICR 


III 

iil! 


PERIPHER»lSISOfn.»lf 


PERSONAL COMPUTER 


mi ik ww re 




HAtOWAtE 








COIVUS. Hard Dish Systems See Csrvus section this pate 




SAVE 


Microsoft HI RAM Card 


No* 


$395 


20* 


128* RAM Olid 


thai 


1555 


20% 


256* RDM Cud 


real 


SI75 


20% 


64K RAM Card 


New 


8160 


20% 


Ouaeram. Quad Boaid 2S6K 4 function bid NeW 


S6I9 


31% 


T6 Products. Joystick 




S 49 


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WWII 








Automated Ska temple ol Apsha 




s n 


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Cavalier. Championship Btectuech 




129 


25% 


Continental. Home Accountant Plus 




1112 


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Deavor. Easy lEiec Accwntmt Srsl 


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lefocom. Deadline 




1 39 


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brtl 




« n 


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8369 


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ISM Mathmae.ic 




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Easyrrrler II 


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1299 


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1215 


40% 


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SorCMi. Supererrler 




«295 


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S219 


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Visrcorp Visicalc 




SI59 


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Mctk/JMI 




8199 


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ft commodore 

VlU l\j Home Computer 1211 

list Drier VIC 1540 S479 

Super Eipander VID 12I1A3I with Us ol eitras $56 

3K Memoir Eipander Cailndee S 32 

M Memo, Eipander Cattcdfe I At 

I6K Memo, Eipander Certndre 8 81 

VrC Modem, telephone Interlace S 96 

VC/IEEE AM Interlace 8 80 

torsKl s 8 

Came Paddle Pair J 15 

Eipenson Module (add 6 sletsl Aufusi ti 8119 
Software by Comae da n ICartndees eicept as noted) 

Prof ramrners Aid 8 48 

VICMon Machine lanfuafe MorMor 8 48 
Adventure land. Peate Cove. Mrssron Impossible. 

the Count Voodoo Castle, or Sareon II Chess Each 8 29 

VIC Aventer. Superslot VIC Super Attn. JupAei. Draw Poker. 

Moment Drive, lander, oi Radar Ret Race Each 824 
Omeia Race Corl. Wuard ol War. Dofpatch. Seawor) 

Oowns/Bncbverd or VIC het/VIC term Each. NeW Call 

Tapes: Math Improv Snpack, Recreation Pack A. or 

Heme Calculation Pact A Each lupesl 8 48 

Meteor Run by UMI | 37 

VtCptoc bl UMI tape | 11 

Amok by UMI. tape S 19 



IM 






ATARI 



A 

otfj^r ll^Wk 

810 Ortt Drive 
850 Interlace 
410 Recorder 
825 Printer 80 Col Impact 
820 Punter 40 Col Impact 
822 Pimter 40 Col Thermal 
830 Acoustic Modem 
16* RAM 
32* RAM 

le Ststl by Detasott 
Game Paddles <pair| 
(oystict (pe>| 
SOnwttf: 

Viscak. Oist 

Word Processmf. Dish 

Pacraan, Cart 

Centipede, Cart 

Caverns of Mars. Dish 

Touch Typing tape 

Personal tmancial Met Cast 

Entertainer rut. Cart 

Educator K A. Cart 

Prorammer Kit Cert 

Communicator K4. Cart 

Don Jones Invest Dish 

Temple of Apshai by Automated Dish 

Apple Pen* by Broderbund. Dish 

Ratter Blaster by Budeeco Dish 

But Attach by Cavater. Out 

Ten Witerd by Oatasolt. Dish 

Compu series by Edu Ware. Dish 

Deadhne by Intocom. Dish 

7orh II by Intocom. Dot 

Asteroid by On line. Dish 



8747 
8777 
S3}} 
8444 

8159 
8 79 
8595 
8269 
8279 
8159 
I 85 
8109 
129 
t 18 
8 II 

8119 
8119 
8 35 
8 35 
8 31 
8 19 
8 55 
8 79 
8125 
S 55 
8335 
8 99 
829 
8 23 
8 23 
8 23 
8 75 
Cat 
137 
8 29 
8 20 



20% 
SAVE 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 
20% 

20% 
20% 

20% 

20% 

Call 

20% 
25% 
25% 
25% 



SAVE 
3t% 

37% 
40% 
17% 
26% 
25% 
21% 
25% 
14% 
14% 
2»% 
15% 
20% 
21% 
20% 
20% 

25% 
23% 
22\ 
22% 
2?% 
23% 
22\ 
33% 
29% 
22% 
26% 
24% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
25% 
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Portland, OR, Cash & Carry Outlet 

11507 Sw Pacific Hwy . Pacific Terrace Step Ctr. T.jaid, OR Over the 
ctwtiltr s»fM onry On 99W between Rte 217 and Interstate 5 Call 245 1020 



r* D / M BUSINESS & DEVELOPMENT 
l»»r / IVI SOFTWARE 

SAVE 

Adventure. Adventure's (1 to (12 inclusive. I' t 95 26% 

* Ashion tele. dBase II, r 8495 30% 
Oatasolt Mychess. I" 8 39 25% 
Fat I Collet. Quiclcode lor dBase II 8249 13% 

Quichscreen tor dBase • 8129 13% 

dUtl lor dBase II 8 75 25% 

Inlocom. Deadline. I' 8 45 25% 

2ork I.I- 8 39 25% 

Innovative. Speftfuard. t* 8220 25% 

♦ trrsoft. Accountant I'. each module 

For each Gl A/17. A/P or Parrot Absolutory one of the best eccounfNif software 

system erereble P/e use if ml recommend if a,fni> A besfbuy' 199 60% 

■icroCreft. lrr,el Bilinf i tene Keepuif 8395 45% 

Pro! rMni I Time Keep.ni 8395 45% 

MicroPro. Wordstar. V 8215 40% 

Oalastar. T 8225 40% 

Malmeree. I' 8 90 40% 

Super Sort, r 8150 40% 

Word Master, r 8 90 40% 

Spell Star I' 8150 40% 

Care Star. I' 8180 40% 

Microsoft Fortran 80. f 8325 25% 

Base Compiler, 8' 8295 25% 

CobcJ 10. 1' 8545 25% 

Basic 10 I' 8275 25% 

Poacbtree. Mafic Wand J 8275 30% 

a A/R A/P PR or Inventory. 8" 8325 35% 



E9 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



*H P IS Microcomputer Monitor/Printer 

HP 17 CP Microcomnter 
*H P IIS CP/M ■ter m eat plot 

M/P I2W1M 5' Duel Drives 

H/P 72251 Professenal Graphics Ptofler 
•H/P 7470A Graphics Plotter 
•H/P I2WI Serial Printer 

H/P 41C Calculator 

H/P 41CV CalcuUtor 2 2* 

Card leader lor HP4I 

Printm/Plotter lor HP41 

Optical Wend for HP41 



Special 
NeW 
•eat 

Special 

New 

Special 



SII95 
81175 
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81595 
11795 
81125 
I ISO 
8 115 
8 245 
I 159 
8 219 
8 19 



SAVE 
31% 
25% 
SON 
21% 
35% 
21% 
50% 
25% 
25% 
27% 
25% 
25% 



Visicalc • tor HPI7 8 119 25% 

Visicalc • tor HP125 8 159 20% 

* Accoeataat by Insott lor HP125 or HPI7 

For each Gl, AID. A/P or Parrot Absolutely the best HPlPi or MPS/ accounbnf 

sotware ae flare seen We use if tntl recomrflend 4 fttftrr A best out/' 

8 99 60% 

Fat las of HP accessories sad software Cat Cat 



«* 



CORVUS SYSTEMS 

* * 

SAVE 

( Mei Hard Disk 82195 30% 

II Met Hard Disk 83995 20% 

20 Met Hard Disk 14795 20% 

Mirror buit m for easy backup 8 649 20% 

Apple Interlace 8 239 20% 

Apple III Interface ISOSI I 239 20% 

IBM PC Interlace (IBM DOSI 8 239 20% 

Xeroi Interface (CP/M) 8 239 20% 

NEC Interface ICP/M) 8 239 20% 

IRS SO Interface IcatJ Cat 20% 

Otter Interfaces Omni Net. Constellation Mirror til i> Stock. 



NEC 



8001 32K Computer 

2K( Total Dual Drive PCM}1 
321 addon and I/O Unit PCW12 
Ren lee "The Wedee 32K 

8023 Impact Punter F/T 
Impact Printer Cable 
3510 letter Quality Daisy Wheel Printer 
Monitor, 12* Green 
. 12- Color 



8 739 
8 739 
8 4IS 

8 495 

8 4W 
8 49 
81995 
8 159 
8 349 



SAVE 
25% 
25% 
29% 
17% 
25% 
25% 
20% 
25% 
25% 



IEC CP/M DOS lor NEC 1001 8 115 25% 

NEC Report Manlier 8 135 30% 

■EC General Accfwntino. 8 239 40% 

■EC Accounts Receieatee 8 239 40% 

•EC Inventory System 8 239 40% 

NEC Payroll System 8 239 40% 

NEC Game Peck I 8 24 20% 

■EC Game Pact t | 24 20% 

•EC Word Processor | 395 20% 

Inlocom fork II 8 29 25% 

Deadline 8 39 25% 
Insott Accountant 

For each a. A/R. A/P or Parrot AMofufey 'he nea NIC account^ sotware we 

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fJSCl 



MICRO-SCI 



FOR THE APT 

DIRECT SUBSTITUTES far 

APPLE DRIVES 



Mr io Sci A2 drives and/or controllers are drect ptol compellable substitutes tor 
Apcaediivesandconttolleis A2 ml run al Apple sotware Save over 8350 on an AAO 
dual drive system We use them arid tafary recommend the product 
* A2 i . 143K Drsh Drive 8390 11% 

Controller Card lor A2 Dnve 8 90 15% 

AAO S ■" I60K Dot Drive 8369 11% 

A70 S r. 2I6K Disk Drive. Double Density 8489 20% 

Controller Card tor AAO or A70 Drive 8 79 21% 

Fair. Disk Utrkty Software System lor A2 Drives 8 15 25% 




FOR THE APPLE 11/11 + 

320K RAM Substitute tor Dish Drives Pro 
tessionally housed in a dish dnve like boi 
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Z3l\/( (""IfNJ tIAIOISI 3201 Memory System 81145 



PRINTERS, Daisy Wheel save 

* Oume Sprint 9 45 Cps RO SPECIAL' 81195 33% 

Spirit 5. AS Cps RO SPECIAL 1 81995 34% 

OCorarei. CRI l7Cps RO. RS232 NEW 8 195 26% 
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and rnletlace Io Apple II 81295 24% 



PRINTERS, Impact 




SAVE 


Eaton See Epson section below 


See below 


IDS. Prism 132. Color a/Graphcs 


8IS95 


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Prism 80 Color. w/Graphics 


I1A95 


17% 


Paper Titer 445C. w/Graphics I 2t Special 


8 595 


35% 


Peter Tieer, 560. a/Graphxs 


1 995 


30% 


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8 A95 


15% 


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81295 


15% 


tP ebUIN PRINTERS t ACCESSORIES 








SAVE 


MXIO a/Graftrai 


8A25 


31% 


M18O F/T a/Gratrai • 


8525 


25% 


MXlOOF/la/Gralrai • 


1695 


27% 


Apple Interface and Cable tor MXIO/MIIOO 


895 


15% 


Gratrai 10 tor MXIO 


8 79 


20% 


Epson/ Atari Cable 


8 30 


2C% 


Epson TRS 10 Cable 


8 30 


26% 


Grapprer by Orange Micro Specify Computer 


8129 


21% 


MONITORS 




SAVE 


IIC. ir Green 


8159 


25% 


12" Color Composite 


8349 


25% 


Satyo. 






run 


8149 


25% 


• r Green 


8149 


31% 


iriM 


8199 


20% 


ir Green 


1199 


25% 


13* Color, Composite 


1349 


25% 


Zenith, 12* Green 


8119 


30% 


Amdek. ir Green 1300 


8159 


31% 


13- Color 1. Composite 


8359 


20% 


13- Color II. RGB 


8799 


20% 


Color II to Apple II Interface 


8159 


20% 


Coeaea. 13* Color ComposAe 


8349 


27% 


ir Color. RGB tor IBM PC 


8529 


15% 


DISKETTES 






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SAVE 


CDC 120 tact, 5 • with nnt SS. SO (Apple IBM. etc 1 


8195 


57% 


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8 12 


45% 


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8 21 


45% 


12 each 1'. SS. SO 


8 21 


45% 


Vertatm 10 each V. with nnt SS SO 


8 21 


45% 


■avail 10 each 5 4 SS. SO 


8 35 


33% 


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8 39 


30% 


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OUR REFERENCES: We have been a comouler dealer since 1971 Our bank reference a Fast Interstate Bant (503) 776 5620 We betone. to the Chamber of Commerce 
1503) 772 6293. or cafl Dun I Biedstreet it you ae a subsenber Computer Eichanee is a division of Tech Group. Inc 

ORDERING INFORMATION: Minimum oideiSlOO C.sh»isChectsandMoe«^O^rsw«omed Personal Checks alow 20 days to clear Add 3S tor VISA or MC 
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and Howell {not by Apple) and is one 
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SAVE OVER •300 on a pair of drives. 

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A Division of 



Ad #934 



Woz and Us 




Steve Wozniak speaks out on rock concerts, 
Berkeley and new Apples. 



David H. Ahl and Betsy Staples 



What do a rock concert and an Apple 
Computer have in common? They are 
both brain children of Steve Wozniak, 
co-founder of Apple and sponsor of the 
upcoming Us Festival. 

We spoke with Wozniak in an effort 
both to cut through some of the PR hype 
surrounding the Festival and to get his 
opinion on recent developments in the 
personal computer industry. 

The press information that announced 
the Us Festival back in May referred to 
"a union of computer technology and the 
traditional concept of people working 
together to solve common problems," an 
"event designed to graphically present 
how, by working together, our country 
can experience positive growth in the 
decade to come," and "the first meeting 
place where the 'computer underground' 
can exchange information and review 
major developments in computer tech- 
nology... a dynamic educational experi- 
ence." 

What did Wozniak have in mind when 
he initiated plans for the Festival? "I had 
this neat image of Woodstock— lots of 
great groups in one place. I look through 
the newspapers every week, and I find 
very few concerts that I want to go to, 
and you never find a collection of good 
groups in one place. So my image was of 
that part of Woodstock." 

He has subsequently done some 
research on Woodstock, including read- 
ing a book called Barefoot in Babylon, 



and "I never would have done this if I had 
read that book first." 

How does he plan to avoid the disasters 
that befell the organizers of Woodstock? 
"We have some very professional people; 
we're not wild hippies with wild ideas 
who are just doing it for the sake of doing 
it. We want to make sure that it comes off 
well, that we look good, and that the 
community benefits from it. I hope it 
makes San Bernardino county look really 
good." 

"The Us Festival is an 

event designed to 

graphically present 

how, by working 

together, our country 

can experience positive 

growth in the decade 

to come. " 



We asked who was financing the ven- 
ture. "I'm financing it in a way, but I 
don't know yet if well make a profit. 
Right now we're going to lose money, but 
I think we are going to raise the ticket 
prices from the original $15.00 per day. I 
structured it so that I did not have much 
ownership of it. I had to keep 52% just so 
that I could say in the end, 'Yes, I want 



this group. No, I don't want that one.' 
And I want to make sure that I have a 
house for the night. Basically, it is struc- 
tured so that I am lending the corporation 
enough money to do it, and then the 
corporation will pay me back. 

"I would like to break even, but it's not 
currently forecasted to do that. I don't 
mind losing just once in my life." 

According to the press release, "The 
Festival will be a celebration to under- 
score the need to shift away from the 'me' 
focus of the 70s to the 'us' decade of the 
80's, creating an era in which Wozniak 
envisions people who will ask 'what's in it 
for us,' before asking 'what's in it for 
me.' " 

"We've got some good ideas, and we 
would like to get people to start thinking 
about working together and cooperating 
rather than just complaining about how 
bad things are and not working to change 
them. 

"People might look back in a few years 
and say that this was the start of some- 
thing; we might be a focal point. But this 
is not a political event. We're not going to 



The Us Festival will be held over 
Labor Day Weekend in Glen Helen 
Regional Park in Devore, CA. Tickets 
may be purchased by writing to the Us 
Festival, Box 9508-1157, San Jose, CA 
95108 or through The Source: TCW 
314. The price is S35 for one to three 
days. 



96 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



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Woz and Us, continued... 

get on stage and try to tell people a whole 
bunch of ideas. We are just going to nudge 
them a bit in that direction— maybe in 
our brochures. The only politics is just to 
enjoy being together and smile." 

Technology Fair 

What about the Technology Fair? 
"Well, I'm changing directions on the 
Tech Fair. At first I thought it would be a 
computer user group get-together to 
which we would invite a lot of users from 
clubs and have on-site competitions— how 
fast can you write programs to solve 
certain types of problems? I thought it 
would be a big event— like a Hamfest. 

"My plan is to sell the 

first tickets to the 

Us Festival through 

The Source. w 

"But all of a sudden I realized that the 
music had turned out so well that there 
was no way you could expect all of those 
hobbyists to sit on the other side of the 
lake in their tents. Now we plan to make 
the technology section similar to the 
World's Fair. We will have demos of some 



creative hardware and software appli- 
cations—graphics, art and music, and. 
of course, telecommunications. We 
hope to be receiving some things by 
satellite, and we plan to publicize it on 
The Source, bulletin boards, etc. 

"My plan is to sell the first tickets to 
the Us Festival through The Source. I 
want to give the hobbyists the first chance 
to get the tickets. There will be a special 
camping area for them, as well as other 
private facilities. We want to give them 
preferential treatment." 

New Products 

We chatted a bit about some recently 
announced products, including the new 
16-bit personal computers from Digital 
Equipment Corporation and some Japan- 
ese companies. We asked if those an- 
nouncements would force Apple to intro- 
duce its new machine sooner than antici- 
pated. 

Wozniak responded, "I think with the 
Apple III Apple learned a big lesson 
about feeling forced to bring out a pro- 
duct early or on a certain date. I think 
Apple will be much more likely to wait 
until they can come out with a complete 
product." 

Is the new computer in the final stages 
of development? "Yes, it is very far along, 

98 




September 1982 e Creative Computing 




] .^ 






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but sometimes it's hard to predict whether 
that last 10% will wind up taking 10, 20, 
30, or 90% of your time. From what 1 
hear, they are now finishing a bunch of 
software packages of graphics editors, 
word processors, and whatnot. 

"As for hardware, the only problem is 
the floppy disk drive that we are building. 
It is very high density, and has been a 
problem for us for two years. It has been 
horrible." 

We had heard that the new machine 
would use a 16-bit processor, so we asked 
which one. "I never call it 16-bit, because 
when you are writing software for it, a 32- 
bit machine is all you see; the architecture 
of the machine is 32-bit. The exact same 
chip will have a few extra pins for a 32-bit 
hardware bus transfer version. 

"It's not really a 16-bit machine like the 
8086 is. The 8086 has 16-bit registers, and 
of course, they implemented an 8-bit 
version of it, the 8088. But it is still the 
same machine. 

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many 32-bit registers, it is still the same 
machine. You say 'load this register,' and 
you can load a byte, two bytes or four 
bytes and you are loading 32 bits. The 16- 
bit version of that chip just loads 16 bits 
of hardware at a time, but we did quite a 
few things to speed up even that. 



"I think that it might possibly be the 
machine of the decade. You can do 
extremely fast memory moves, which help 
a lot in certain graphics and windowing 
situations or a graphics-oriented screen. I 
think Apple, like everyone else in the 
business, is heading toward a pure bit- 
mapped screen because memory costs so 
little now. Why bother considering any- 
thing else?" 

"/ think 

that it might 

possibly be the 

machine of the 

decade. " 

School Days 

We next inquired about Wozniak's 
recent tenure as an undergraduate com- 
puter science major at Berkeley. He told 
us, "First of all, I go to class under a fake 
name. "Some people have figured it out, 
but I don't know whether any of the 
professors know. I'm in my final quarter." 

We commented on the irony of the co- 
founder of Apple Computer studying 
computer science. Couldn't he teach most 
of the courses? 



"Not really, because I'm more into 
finding solutions to problems. Sometimes 
I could teach things, but sometimes 1 have 
a lot of trouble. For example, I took a 
psychology statistics course and dis- 
covered that few of the psychology majors 
had ever used a calculator. I had the 
biggest advantage in the world, so I was 
tutoring them and writing programs in 
VisiCalc and Basic and on my HP cal- 
culator I was really learning it well. 

"I came up with some new formulas for 
solving some of the problems. We had 
some very complicated factorial design 
problems that can take several hours to 
solve. So I came up with a great formula 
that was easy to solve, but I couldn't get 
anyone to listen to me except students. 

"In my computer classes, I was just 
sitting back and working quietly. The first 
quarter I worked hard to get A's, the 
second quarter I worked hard enough to 
get B's, and this quarter I could care 
less." 

Does he plan to go back to Apple? "I'm 
not sure. I'm going to take a rest first. I 
thought this year was going to be a rest 
being away from Apple, but I found 
myself getting to bed at 2:00 a.m. or 
spending all night doing assignments. I 
figured that if I'm going to work this hard, 
I'd rather be designing stuff for Apple. D 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



99 



'Peripherals Plus Extension Unlts\ 
Improve Your Apple II 

EZPort 

E Z Port extends the game I/O port to the 
outside of your Apple II so that you don t 
have to open the computer when switching 
from paddles to joystick. VersaWriter. etc. 

E Z Port goes beyond just extending the 
I/O. We utilize ZIP (Zero Insertion Pressure) 
sockets. Wth ZIP sockets, you plug in a 16 
pin DIP plug and throw a small switch which 
engages the connections within the socket. 
No stress is exerted on the 1 6 pin connector 
until the switch is thrown. 

Ordinary DIPsocketsare not designed to 
be used over and over— eventually they 
won't make contact. Also repeatedly stressing 
a 16 pin connector will cause pins to snap 
off. So, E Z Port will not only outlast other 
I/O extenders, your paddles. VersaWriter 
and joysticks will last longer too! 

Installation is easy: Plug E Z Port s cable 
into the game I/O, run the 24" cable to the 
outside of the computer, then peel the 
protective paper from the special adhesive 
strip and attach E Z Port to the side of your 
Apple II. Now making I/O changes will be 
quick, easy and safe! 

Only $24.95. Ordering information 
below. 

Select A Port 

Like the EZ Port, the Select A Port extends 
the game I/O port to the outside of your 
Apple II. However, the Select A Port also 
allows you to permanently plug in up to four 
peripherals simultaneously. It consists of 
five switchable I/O ports The first socket 
directly parallels the game socket in the 
Apple. Itcan be utilized for sensitive devices 
for which diode isolation would interfere. 
(There is a switch provided for future ex- 
pansion and this socket will override the 
other four). It is mounted in a 6 x 2 3/4" x 
1/2" sturdy high impact plastic case You 
simply switch on the peripheral to be used 
(joysticks, paddles, VersaWriter. etc.) and 
you are ready— no plugging or unplugging 
of delicate 16 pin connectors. You save 
wear and tear on your peripherals, your 
Apple II, and your nerves. 

Dual Joysticks 

With the Select A Port you can also use 
two joysticks simultaneously. The Apple II 
has the capability to read more than just 
two game controllers ( paddles). The second 
I/O port on the Select A Port is cross wired 
so that it can be reversed and will read 
Paddles 2 and 3. Just plug another joystick 
into any of the remaining three ports and 
enjoy dual joystick operation. Dual joysticks 
and no more hassles with connectors. Only 
$59.95. 

Send payment* indicated plus $2.00 per 
order postage and handling to Creative 
Computing. Department C927, One Park 
Avenue, Room 458, New York, N.Y. 10016. 
Orders may also be charged to your Visa, 
MasterCard or American Express account- 
by mail include credit card name, number 
and expiration date, or if you prefer, use 
our 24-hour toll free number, 800-631-81 12. 
In N.J. only 201-540-0445. 



Peripheral s Plu s 



*NJ residents add 5% sales tax. 




Digital Equipment Corporation has 
decided to join the crowd, throw its hat in 
the ring, and otherwise serve up its own 
versions of that now officially estimable 
machine, the personal computer. 

As one might imagine, when a company 
like DEC jumps in the pool, it could make 
quite a splash. With the Professional 300 
Series, the Rainbow 100, and the 
DECmate II, DEC promises to spark 
some real competition. 

The Professional 325 and 350 com- 
puters use DEC's well-known PDP-11 
microprocessor, which is also the brain of 
one of the most popular minicomputers 
of the past ten years. They utilize the 
P/OS operating system, a menu-driven 
subset of the RSX-11 system used by the 
PDP-11 mini. This allows for linkage to 
PDP-11 and VAX systems, as well as 
Ethernet and DECnet compatibility. It 
also makes available a large library of 
languages, utilities, and applications soft- 
ware. 

The 350 can house a 5.25 Winchester 
hard disk option inboard, as well as an 
optional Telephone Management System, 
with autodial, autoanswer, and internal 
voice digitizer. 

Both machines offer multitasking capa- 
bility, dual floppy disk drives with HOOK 
of storage, and communications capa- 
cities. Options available are a high-reso- 
lution color monitor, a floating point 
adapter allowing for faster mathematics 
execution, extended bit-map graphics 
capability, and a real-time serial/parallel 
interface. 

The Rainbow 100 uses both a Z80 and 
an 8080 microprocessor. Its unique oper- 
ating system has the capability to deter- 
mine automatically whether the 8- or 16- 
bit processor should be invoked with an 

100 



application program. The other chip then 
acts as bus controller. Thus the user ean 
interchange software freely, and the dual- 
processor design speeds program execu- 
tion. 

Also expandable to 256K. the Rainbow 
100 comes with 64K. and runs C" I'M 8h HO 
and MS-DOS. It includes dual 5.25" floppy 
disks, and optionally supports an external 
Winchester hard disk. 

The machine has been designed to run 
a wide range of applications software, in 
both 8- and 16-bit formats. Word pro- 
cessing, a spread-sheet calculator. Basic, 
and "C" compiler have been announced 
for fall release. 

DECmate II is an improved version of 
the DECmate I system, with optional 
CP/M capacity. The emphasis of this 
machine is on word processing, and it 
contains %K of random-access memory. 
It also includes dual floppy disks, and the 
option for 8" floppy as well as external 
hard disk expansion. 

Documents stored on 8" floppy disk 
are compatible with other DEC word 
processing systems. 

The system utilizes a custom-designed 
microprocessor, and affords the DEC- 
mate II with one and a half times the 
speed of its predecessor. 

CP/M option software available from 
DEC will include accounting, spread- 
sheet, and Basic packages. 

The DECmate II is priced at $3470; the 
Rainbow 100 at $3245. the Professional 
325 at $3995. and the 350 at $4495. All 
machines and initial software releases are 
scheduled for the fall. 

For more information, contact Digital 
Equipment Corporation, Maynard, MA 
01754. □ 

CIRCLE 342 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

September 1982 • Creative Computing 



NEC Announces 1 6-Bit Machine 



NEC, one of Japan's most formidable 
electronics concerns, has announced a 
16-bit. 80X6-based microcomputer for 
release in the U.S. in July. 

The machine is dubbed the APC. for 
Advanced Personal Computer, and will 
be geared toward the business market. It 
will offer CP/M-86 and MS-DOS compat- 
ibility. RAM memory is expandable to 
256K. 

Priced to compete favorably with the 
IBM personal computer, the APC sup- 
ports high resolution black and white or 
color graphics. Because the system incor- 
porates a dual-sided 8" floppy disk drive, 
the APC is capable of a megabyte of 
storage, more than three times as much 
as the IBM PC. A second H" drive can be 
added for $700. bringing on-line storage 
to two megabytes. 

The NEC Spinwriter daisy-wheel 
printer, as well as a 100 cps. 13(vcolumn 
dot matrix printer will be supported. 

Other features of the APC include 22 
user-definable keys, a numeric keypad, 
and a line-drawing graphics subsystem 
with a resolution of 1024 x 1024 pixels. A 
32-bit floating-point arithmetic processing 
unit for scientific applications is available 
for $250. 




NEC Information Systems, which will 
market the machine, has anounced the 
initial release of 15 application software 
packages for the APD. Among these are: 
Accounting Plus packages from Systems 
Plus: the Benchmark word processor, 
telecommunicator. and mailing manager 



from Metasoft; and MicroPlan from 
Chang Laboratories. 

The system will have a base price of 
$3,298. For more informaton. contact 
NEC Information Systems, 5 Militia Dr.. 
Lexington , MA 02 1 73. □ 

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September 1982 c Creative Computing 



101 










Basic vs. Database 



Edwin W. Meyer 



The microcomputer market is facing a crisis of sorts. While 
the cost of computer hardware has come down dramatically 
in the past few years, the cost of providing software tailored 
to a specific environment has remained high. 

A purchaser of a microcomputer system must either be 
satisfied with the limited customization capabilities of current 
commercial software packages or be willing to pay several 
times the cost of the hardware to obtain a satisfactory custom- 
built software package. 

What the computer user really needs is an application 
building system which is readily understandable and can be 
used by non-technical personnel to construct a business 
application program. A satisfactory solution to this problem 
would greatly expand the market for microcomputer systems. 
VisiCalc, a limited step in this direction, has amply demon- 
strated this for Apple sales. 

Over the past year or so a variety of packages intended to 
help meet this goal have appeared on the market. All fall 
short of the ideal by a substantial margin. Some tend to be 
too complex for a non-programmer to use while others have 
limited capabilities. However most of these packages provide 
advanced capabilities at reasonable cost. Generally speaking, 
anybody who can write a competent Basic program can learn 
to write a simple database-oriented business application using 
one of these packages. 

This article will demonstrate some database programming 
concepts in connection with implementing a hypothetical 
check register system. This system will be implemented first 
in Basic, then in Condor 20, a popular database management 
system for CP/M-based microcomputers. 



Edwin W. Meyer. Micro Workshop of Cambridge. 1208 Massachusetts 
Ave.. Cambridge. MA 021.18. 



Some Database Fundamentals 

Generally speaking, a database is any coherently organized 
set of stored information. Some examples of databases which 
most people maintain are a check book register and an 
address book. Both have the same general organization of 
most common databases: an ordered sequential set of data 
records, each composed of separate fields. Each record in the 
database has the same format. 

An address book is a good example. Each record in the 
address book database consists of the following fields: first 
name, last name, address, city, state, zip code, and telephone. 
These address records are stored in alphabetical order using 
the last name field of each record as a sort key. 



Database Formats 

The databases maintained by mainframe and minicom- 
puters are frequently complex. However those maintained by 
most microcomputers generally use some variant of the 
indexed sequential access method (ISAM), which stores 
database records one after another. A program can access 
database records either in sequential order as they are stored 
in the file, or it can select a particular record based upon a 
particular value of a key field. 

Let's take a computerized address book as an example of 
an ISAM file. In this case the last name field will be used as 
the key, so that the program might find the record of a 
particular person, using the last name as a search key. 

Each ISAM file also has a separate index file, which relates 
a particular key value to a record number within the database. 
To retrieve the record for a particular last name without 
having to read each record in the database, the program 
looks up the key in the index file, then goes directly to the 
indicated record number in the database. 



102 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



A database record may be stored in many different formats, 
the two most common of which are fixed field and comma- 
delimited field. In the fixed field format, each field has a fixed 
length and occupies a specific position in the record. This is 
the usual record format which relational database systems 
such as Condor 20 and dBase II use. 

In comma-delimited format, the entire record consists of 
printable character data. (This is not necessarily true of fixed- 
field format data.) A field can be of indefinite length, and 
commas are inserted between two adjacent fields to separate 
them. A field is commonly enclosed within quotation marks 
to avoid confusion with commas used as part of the data for a 
field. Basic programs perform all file operations using comma- 
delimited format. 

Functional Capability of Database Systems 

There are quite a few different database systems available 
for CP/M and other microcomputer operating systems. 
Generally they provide one or more of the following database 
management functions: data entry, sorting, query operations, 
form output, and report generation. 

Data Entry. Data must be input into a database in some 
manner. Certain database systems provide a subsystem for 
operator entry of data without requiring complex program- 
ming. Many such data entry systems provide full screen input 
and editing capabilities, in which the operator is presented 
with a user-designed form with blanks to be filled. 

Sorting and Merging Operations. Almost all database 
applications require that some kind of record reordering be 
done. In addition, some applications call for the records of 
two or more databases to be merged into a single database. 
Virtually all database systems provide these kinds of capability 
in some manner. There are also several programs available 
which do nothing but various kinds of sort and merge opera- 
tions. 

Query Operations. It is very desirable to provide a simple 
mechanism to allow non-technical users to examine a database 
and extract subsets of information from it in different formats. 
This mechanism is usually provided in the form of a command 
interpreter and is called a query language. 

Form Output. Most database applications call for the output 
of printed forms. Many database systems offer an easy-to-use 
format defining capability for the output of these forms. 

Report Generation. A report consists of a columnar format 
output of selected items from each record, plus headings, 
totals and subtotals. Database systems usually offer some 
kind of report generation capability. 

A Sample Database Application 

We will illustrate some of these database concepts by 
implementing a sample database application. In order to 
show how a database management system can substantially 
simplify the database programming task, we will implement 
our sample application first using Basic, then using Condor 
20. 

A Check Register System 

The application chosen for our sample implementation is a 
hypothetical check register system. 

This check register system should do the following: 1) 
Enter new checks to be issued, 2) print new checks, 3) print 
the check register, 4) mark canceled checks as returned by 
the bank, and 5) print a report of all outstanding checks and 
deposits. 

Our check register system will be organized around a central 
database of check and deposit records. Each check record 
contains the following fields: 

CHKNO-The number of this check. 
DATE— The issue date of this check. 



PAYEE— The name of the person or company to whom 
this check is made out. 

AMOUNT— The amount of this check. 

CANCELED— "N" if this check is still outstanding, "Y" if it 
has come back from the bank. 

Note that we will record deposits as "deposits" in the 
PAYEE field and a negative number in the AMOUNT field. 

Since we have chosen to not include a field specifying 
whether a check has yet been printed, we need at least two 
instances of the check register database, the main check 
register and the new check database. This second database is 
identical in format to the main check register except that it 
contains the newly entered checks which have not yet been 
printed. 

The check register implementation in Basic consists of the 
following modules: 

CHKENT— Provides for entry of information for the new 
checks. 

PRTCHK- Prints the new checks. 

PRTREG- Prints the check register. 

CANCHK— Cancels checks returned by the bank. 

OUTPRT— Prints a list of checks still outstanding. 

The system also includes three databases: 

CHKREG— This database is the main check register. 

NEWCHK— This database is identical in format to 
CHKREG except that it contains newly entered checks not 
yet printed. 

C ANNUM— This database contains the numbers of checks 
returned with the latest bank statement. 

Now let's take a more detailed look at these modules: 

Entering the Checks 

The CHKENT module asks the operator to enter data for a 
new check to be written. Then it adds a> record containing the 
information concerning this check onto the end of the 
NEWCHK file. 

CHKENT first performs an OPEN call: 

200 OPEN "0", m, "NEWCHK" which allows the CHKENT 
program to write check records to the NEWCHK file, 
referring to it as file ft I. Opening a file in "0" (for "Output") 
mode deletes any existing records or creates a file if one does 
not exist. (All examples are written in Microsoft Basic.) 

Next CHKENT uses input statements to ask the operator 
to provide the data for the next check : 

2310 INPUT "ENTER CHECK NO."; CHKNOS 

This input statement displays the prompt message "ENTER 
CHECK NO." on the screen, then waits until the operator 
enters a line terminated by the return key. Whatever the 
operator has typed is stored in the Basic internal variable 
CHKNOS. The INPUT statements for the other fields to be 
entered are as follows: 

210 INPUT "ENTER CURRENT DATE:"; DATES 

230 INPUT "ENTER PAYEE":; PAYEES 

240 INPUT "ENTER AMOUNT:"; AMOUNTS 

Now that the operator has entered all the data fields for the 
new check, CHKENT appends a record for this check onto 
the end of NEWCHK database: 

250 WRITE m. CHKNOS. DATES, PAYEES, AMOUNTS. 
"N" 

Figure 1 shows a sample dialog using this program to enter 
a check, and Figure 2 shows several records of the NEWCHK 
database as the WRITE statement would output them. The 
record contains a copy of each variable specified in the 
WRITE statement, enclosed in quotes and separated by 
commas. This is the standard Basic "comma delimited" for- 
mat. 

The CANCELED field was not entered by the operator but 
was specified as "N" in the WRITE statement. This indicates 
that the check is still outstanding. 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



103 



Business Application, continued... 

The remaining part of CHKENT contains code to allow 
the operator to exit from the program or to enter data for 
another check. If the operator decides to exit, the program 
must insure that the last NEWCHK database is closed out 
properly. This is done as follows: 

300 CLOSE #1 



Figure I. Entering a New Check— Basic Implementation. 



ENTER CHECK MO: 106 

EIJTER CUKRBUT DATEi 6/12/(2 

ENTER PAYEE: Ai.iti.icai. Express 
ENTER AMOUNT: 27 3.&1 



Figure 2. Record Format of the NEWCHK or CHKREG 
Databases— Basic Implementation. 



"103" 


,"8/12/82", 


"Herbert 


Forsberg, 


D.D.S.", 




"43.56","N" 
"104","b/12/i<2", 
"473.10", "N" 
"105", "8/12/82", 


"1st National Bank 
"American Express" 


of. Hollis 
,"273.91", 


9 

"N" 



Printing the Checks 

The next step is to print the newly issued checks on 
NEWCHK, then to append these records to the main check 
register database, CHKREG. The program PRTCHK com- 
bines these two operations in a single module. The first thing 
PRTCHK does is open the two check databases, the new 
check register NEWCHK for input and the main check 
register CHKREG for output to be appended to the end of 
the file. 

200 OPEN "I", #1. "NEWCHK" 

210 OPEN "A", #2, "CHKREG" 
Note: The CHKREG database is opened in "append" mode, 
so new records will be appended after existing records. Some 
versions of Microsoft Basic do not provide "append" mode. 
In this case, a more involved sequence is necessary.) 

Next we input a new check record from the NEWCHK 
database into the internal storage of Basic: 

250 INPUT m. CHKNOS, DATES, PAYEES, AMOUNTS, 
CANCELEDS 

Now a check must be printed using this data. This is done 
using several LPRINT statements. 

300 LPRINT " ", CHKNOS 

310 LPRINT " ", DATES 

320 LPRINT " 

370 LPRINT " ", PAYEES 

380 LPRINT " ", AMOUNTS 



Note that the actual output form must be created in an ad 
hoc manner using PRINT statements with varying numbers 
of blank spaces and blank lines in order to get the check 
fields to print in the proper position on the form. 

After printing the check, PRTCHK appends a new check 
record to the end of the main check register, CHKREG. 

400 WRITE #2 CHKNOS, DATES, PAYEES, AMOUNTS. 
CANCELEDS 

Other parts of the PRTCHK program (not shown) loop 
back to print more checks and CLOSE the database files 
when finished. 

Printing the Check Register 

PRTREG prints the complete check register, but first it 
resets the BALANCE variable to zero. 

200 BALANCE = 
(BALANCE is to be the sum of the AMOUNT field of each 
check record.) 

Next the main check register CHKREG is opened for 
input: 

210 OPEN "I", #1, "CHKREG" 

Then PRTREG ouputs a heading for the register report on 
the printer: 

220 LPRINT "CHK# DATE PAYEE AMOUNT OUT- 
STANDING" 

Now comes the section of code which prints a one-line 
report for each check in the register. 

300 INPUT m, CHKNOS, DATES, PAYEES. AMOUNTS, 
CANCELEDS 

310 LPRINT CHKNOS, DATES, PAYEES, 
AMOUNTS, CANCELEDS 

(Note that this illustration uses a simplified LPRINT statement, 
a practical implementation would use more complicated 
statements to obtain better column alignment in the report). 

The last thing to be done with the current check record is 
to convert the character string value held in the AMOUNTS 
variable into a floating point number, then add it to the 
running balance. 

320 BALANCE = BALANCE + VAMAMOUNTS) 

Now PRTREG goes back to step 300 to process all other 
check records in the main check register in the same manner. 

After all check records in the main register database have 
been processed, PRTREG prints the current balance inverting 
the arithmetic sign: 

400 LPRINT "CURRENT BALANCE:",0-BALANCE 

Finally the program closes the CHKREG file and exits. 

Figure 3 shows a sample check register report which 
includes the checks shown in Figure 2. 

Balancing the Check Register 

Two additional programs, CANCHK and OUTPRT provide 
an aid to reconciling the computerized check register with 
the monthly bank statement. 



Figure 3. Check Register Report— Basic Implementation. 



CHKI 


DATE 


PAYEE 


AMOUNT 


CANCELED 




7/31/82 


deposit paycheck 


-1576.45 


H 


101 


7/28/62 


American Express 


456.31 


bi 


102 


7/30/82 


Hollis Lawn end Garden Center 


43.37 


H 


103 


8/12/82 


Herbert Forsberg, D.D.S 


43.56 


n 


104 


8/12/82 


1st National Bank of Hollis 


473.10 


N 


105 


8/12/82 


Hollis Lawn and Garden Center 


76.03 


N 


106 


8/12/82 


American Express 


273.91 


N 


CURRENT BALANCE 


t 210.17 







104 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



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Business Application, continued... 

CANCHK is a program that asks the operator to enter the 
check number of canceled checks returned with the bank 
statement, then sets the canceled field of each such check or 
deposit to "Y." The check numbers are stored in a temporary 
database, CANNUM. Each record of this database consists of 
a single field, the check number of a canceled check. 

When the operator finishes entering all canceled check 
numbers, the next step is to go through the main check 
register, setting the CANCELED field of each check number 
found in CANNUM to "Y." It does this by copying each 
record from the main check register into a temporary file, 
which becomes the new main check register after the 
CANCHK program finishes. 

As each record is read into Basic memory from the main 
check register, the program scans the CANNUM file to 
determine if this is a canceled check. If so, the canceled field 
is set to 'Y." Then the record is written out to the temporary 
file. Otherwise, the record is copied with the CANCELED 
field left unchanged. 

When the end of the main check register is reached it is 
renamed to be a backup file, and the temporary check register 
is renamed to be a new check register. 

The last program in our Basic check register system, 
PRTOUT, prints a report of all outstanding checks and 
deposits plus the total amount of these outstanding items. 
PRTOUT is almost identical to the CHKPRT check register 
report program described earlier. The only difference is that 
it ignores all records with "Y" values in the CANCELED 
field. 

To implement even this simplified task in Basic would have 
taken several hours of programming and debugging. More 
involved tasks will require correspondingly greater amounts 
of time. 

A Relational Database System 

Now we will implement our check register system again, 
this time using the Condor 20 Relational Database Manage- 
ment System, produced by the Condor Computer Corporation 
of Ann Arbor, MI. Condor 20 is a good example of a self- 
contained database package suitable for maintaining many of 
the databases found in a business environment. Unlike some 
database packages, it lacks a sophisticated programming 
language, so there is a limit to the complexity of the tasks 
which it can perform. However, because of this simplicity, it 
is fairly easy for non-technical personnel to write Condor 
procedures to maintain common databases and print forms 
and reports. 

Condor 20 is a relational database system. This means that 
through the use of field names associated with each database, 
certain records in one database can be related to specific 
records in another database. 

As a simple example, let's say that we want to maintain a 
list of all outstanding invoices for a business customer. In a 
relational database, there might be two different databases, a 
CUSTOMER database and an outstanding INVOICE data- 
base. 

The CUSTOMER database contains identification data for 
all customers and the INVOICE database contains the data 
for all oustanding invoices. In this simplified example, the 
customer database contains only two fields, the CUSTNO, 
customer number, and the CUSTNAME, customer name, 
fields. The INVOICE database contains three fields, the 
CUSTNO, customer number; the INVNO, invoice number; 
and the INVTOT, invoice total fields. 

Note that these two databases have a common field, 
CUSTNO. The CUSTOMER database associates customer 
information with the CUSTNO field while the INVOICE 
database associates invoices with it. 



The common CUSTNO field is a link between the two 
databases, we can associate the customer name and address 
with invoice data. A database system might use this relation 
to print a periodic statement of outstanding invoices for each 
customer. 

The Check Register System in Condor 20 

Let's see how the check register system previously pro- 
grammed in Basic might be implemented using Condor 20. 

The first step is to define the databases which we will be 
using. For this check register system we will use four different 
databases: the NEWCHK new check database the CHKREG 
check register database, the CANNUM canceled check 
number database, and the CHECK check form database. 
Check, used to print newly issued checks, is the only new 
database. The other databases are similar to their Basic 
counterparts. 

In Condor 20 a database has both an internal record format 
and a visible form associated with it. The internal format 
specifies the type and length of each field in a database 
record, while the form defines the visual representation of 
such a record on the screen or when printed. 

This form can be either displayed on the screen for entering 
records into the database or used as the actual output format 
for printing forms. 

The form associated with the main check register CHKREG 
is of no concern since we will not be entering records directly 
from the screen or printing forms from this database. However 
both NEWCHK and CHECK databases need a form. The 
form for NEWCHK is displayed during check entry, while the 
form for CHECK is the actual template for printing checks. 

Defining a Condor 20 Database 

To define the NEWCHK database with Condor 20, type 
the command line: 

DEFINE NEWCHK 
to the CONDOR command interpreter. The first thing it asks 
for is a definition of a visual form for NEWCHK. This form 
definition consists of a set of underscores preceded by a field 
name enclosed within square brackets. 

Figure 4. Record Definitions of the Check Register Data- 
bases — Condor 20 Implementation. 



Attribute summary of Database UEWCHK 

1.CHKN0: N, 5, 0,99999," 

2. DATE: J, 3 ,01/01/00 ,12/31/99, " 

3. PAYEE: AN, 40, 0,40," 

4. AMOUNT: $,10,-21474636.47,21474836.47,' 

Record Size (Bytes) ■ 59 



Attribute summary of Database CHKREG 

1.CHKN0: N, 5,0, 99999," 

2. DATE: J, 3 ,01/01/00 ,12/31/99, " 

3. PAYEE: AN, 40, 0,40," 

4. AMOUNT: S ,10 ,-21474836. 47 , 21474836. 47, " 

5. CANCELED: A, 1,0,1," 

Record Size (Bytes) - 60 



The underscores indicate the screen position at which data 
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those of word processing systems are provided for moving to 
desired positions on the screen. 

When a form is complete, the DEFINE command stores it 
and then asks for the data types and lengths of each field 
mentioned in the form. 

Figure 4 shows the specifications for the databases NEW- 
CHK, and CHKREG. CHKREG is almost identical to the 



106 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 




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Business Application, continued. 

new check database NEWCHK except for the addition ot 
CANCELED field. This field is not found in NEWCHK, nor is 
it shown to the operator entering new checks. 

Like NEWCHK, the CHECK database also lacks a CAN- 
CELED field, since this information is not printed on the 
check. The field specification of CHECK is identical to that 
of NEWCHK; only the fields are printed in the desired 
positions on a blank check. No field names are included since 
only the data and not the field names are printed on the 
checks. 

Data Entry Using Condor 20 

To enter new check records into the NEWCHK database, 
type the command line: 

ENTER NEWCHK 
A blank version of the form for NEWCHK appears on the 
screen complete with labeled fields and underscores which 
indicate where the data will appear. The operator types in the 
data for each field, using cursor positioning to correct mistakes 
as needed. When complete, the new record is appended to 
the end of the NEWCHK database and the blank form is 
redisplayed for entry of another check record. Figure 5 shows 
a sample data entry screen. 

After all records are input, the operator can view the 
records in NEWCHK by typing 

LIST NEWCHK 

The records will be displayed on the screen individually in 
the format used during input. 

The full screen data entry section of Condor 20 is typical of 
the data entry system functions of several database manage- 
ment systems. 

As compared to the Basic implementation described above, 
the Condor 20 check entry version is much simpler to create 
and offers greater functional capabilities, such as the ability 
to move among fields during record entry. 

Figure 5. Entering a New Check — Condor 20 Implementation. 



(CHKNO) 


103_ 


(DATE) 


8/12/82_ 


(PAYEE! 


Hprbert Fnrsbprq. D.D.S. 


( AMOUNT 1 


43. 56 



Printing New Checks 

After new checks have been entered into the NEWCHK 
database, the system must print them. Then the new check 
records are added to the main check register database 
CHKREG. In order for the records to be printed using the 
check template of CHECK, the records must be copied from 
the NEWCHK database into the CHECK database. All 
records that may be in the database CHECK are first deleted, 
then the new check records in NEWCHK are copied onto the 
end of the CHECK database: 

EMPTY CHECK 

APPEND CHECK NEWCHK 

Now we actually print the checks: 

LPRINT CHECK 
All the check records are printed on blank check forms 
loaded into the printer. Figure 6 shows an example on plain 
paper. 

Now the just-printed check records must be added to the 
main check register CHKREG. Since the APPEND command 
works only if both the source and target databases have the 
exact same record format, the NEWCHK records (which lack 



the CANCELED field) must first be converted into the 
CHKREG record format: 

JOIN NEWCHK XCHKREG BY CHKNO DATE PAYEE 
AMOUNT DATE (D) 

JOIN is an operation which merges records from different 
format databases having some common field definitions. 
However, here it is used in an ad hoc manner to get the 
contents of the NEWCHK database into the same record 
format as CHKREG. The result is to "join" a CANCELED 
field having a default value of "N" to each record of 
NEWCHK. The resulting record is now in the same format as 
CHKREG records. (XCHKREG is an empty database having 
the same definition as CHKREG.) 

Figure 6. The information Printed onto a Check — Condor 20 
Implementation. 







103 






08/12/82 


Herbert Fcrsbcrg, 


D.D.S. 






43.56 





The result of the JOIN operation is placed into a temporary 
database called RESULT, which can now be appended to 
CHKREG: 

APPEND CHKREG RESULT 

The final step is to delete all records from the CHECK and 
NEWCHK databases so new checks can be added later: 

EMPTY CHECK 

EMPTY NEWCHK 

The preceding commands could be typed in directly from 
the console, but would typically be stored in a command file 
so that the operator need enter only a simple command such 
as 

RUN PRTCHKS 
where PRTCHKS is the name of the command file for printing 
newly issued checks. 

Printing the Check Register 

A report of the main check register plus the current balance 
can be output to the printer with a single command: 

LPRINT CHKREG BY CHKNO DATE PAYEE AMOUNT 
AND COMPUTE TOTAL AMOUNT. 

The "BY CHKNO DATE PAYEE AMOUNT" section of 
the command specifies the fields of each record which are to 
be output in the report and the order in which they appear. 
(Note that the CANCELED field does not appear in this 
report.) The "COMPUTE TOTAL AMOUNT" part of the 
command line specifies that the total of the AMOUNT fields 
is to be calculated and printed at the end of the report. Figure 
7 shows a check register as it might be printed by this com- 
mand. 

Figure 7. Check Register Report— Condor 20 Implementation. 



CHKNO 


DATE 


PAYEE 


AMOUNT 





07/31/62 


deposit paycheck 


-1576.45 


101 


07/28/82 


American Express 


456.31 


102 


07/30/82 


Hoi lis Lawn & Garden Center 


43.37 


103 


08/12/82 


Herbert Forsberg, D.D.S 


43.56 


104 


08/12/82 


1st National Bank of Hollis 


473.10 


105 


08/12/82 


Hollis Lawn fc Garden Center 


76.03 


106 


08/12/82 


American Express 


273.91 


Total 






-210.17 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



109 



Business Application, continued... 

That's all there is to printing the check register in Condor 
20. Note how much simpler this is than the corresponding 
Basic program. 

Another simple sequence prints the check register subto- 
taled according to payee: 

SORT CHKREG BY PAYEE 

LPRINT CHKREG BY CHKNO DATE PAYEE AMOUNT 
AND COMPUTE TOTAL AMOUNT SUBTOTAL USING 
PAYEE 

First SORT is used to put CHKREG into alphabetical order 
according to the PAYEE field. Then the LPRINT command 
with the 'SUBTOTAL USING PAYEE" clause generates a 
subtotal of the amounts of all checks issued to a single payee. 
Figure 8 shows a sample report using this command. 



Returned by the Bank 

The next part of the Condor 20 implementation is to cancel 
checks returned by the bank and produce a total of all 
outstanding checks. Due to its complexity, only an outline of 
the steps of the corresponding Basic program was presented. 
However, the complete Condor 20 program is shown. 

As in the Basic program, the first step is to enter all the 
canceled check numbers. A simple database, CANNUM, 
consisting of a single field, the CHKNO field, is defined for 
this purpose. The canceled check numbers are entered into 
the CANNUM database using the ENTER comand. Then a 
program consisting of the following steps is executed: 

JOIN CHKREG CANNUM BY CHKNO 

The effect of the JOIN operation is to create a temporary 
RESULT database containing only those check records from 
CHKREG having check numbers also found in CANNUM. 
(In this case the RESULT database has the same record 
format as CHKREG. However, this is not always true.) 

The next step is to set the CANCELED field of these 
checks to "Y," and to insert them back in the CHKREG 
check register in place of the previous records for these 
checks. 



Since Condor 20 does not deal with database records 
individually, but can deal only with records in groups, this is 
done in a somewhat circuitous manner. The JOIN operation 
has placed all the newly canceled checks into a database 
named RESULT. If another temporary database is created 
having only the CHKREG records not found in RESULT, the 
two temporary databases now contain all the checks, minus 
the previous copies of the newly canceled check records. To 
merge these records back into CHKREG, the former contents 
are deleted and then the two temporary databases are 
appended to CHKREG. Finally, CHKREG is sorted on the 
CHKNO field to put the databases back into proper order. 

CHANGE RESULT ST CANCELED = "Y" 

COPY CANTEMP = RESULT 

COMPARE CHKREG CANTEMP NOT MATCHING 
CHKNO 

EMPTY CHKREG 

APPEND CHKREG RESULT 

APPEND CHKREG CANTEMP 

SORT CHKREG BY CHKNO 

The following two commands print the outstanding checks 
with a total for the AMOUNT field: 

SELECT CHKREG WHERE CANCELED = "N" 
PRINT RESULT BY CHKNO DATE PAYEE AMOUNT 
AND COMPUTE TOTAL AMOUNT 

The SELECT command produces a temporary RESULT 
database having only those fields from the CHKREG database 
in which the CANCELED field equals "N" (for outstanding). 
PRINT generates a report of this RESULT database listing 
the CHKNO, DATE, PAYEE, and AMOUNT fields. The 
total for the AMOUNT fields is printed at the bottom of the 
report. 

Conclusion 

The previous paragraphs have shown an essentially com- 
plete implementation of the check register system in Condor 
20. Clearly, this system would be much easier and faster to 
implement than the Basic version. By now I hope you are 
convinced that using a database system to create business 
applications has many advantages over programming in 
Basic. D 



Figure 8. Check Register Report Sub totaled by Payee— 
Condor 20 Implementation. 



CHKNO DATE 


PAYEE 


AMOUNT 


104 08/12/82 
Subtotal 


1st National Bank of Hollis 


473.10 
473.10 


106 08/12/82 
101 07/28/82 
Subtotal 


American Express 
American Express 


273.91 
456.31 

730.22 


07/31/82 
Subtotal 


deposit paycheck 


-1576.45 
-1576.45 


103 08/12/82 
Subtotal 


Herbert Forsberg, D.D.S 


43.56 
43.56 


105 08/12/82 
102 07/30/82 
Subtotal 

Total 


Hollis Lawn 6 Garden Center 
Hollis Lawn fc Garden Center 


76.03 
43.37 

119.40 

-210.17 




"And this time wait until we open it up before 
saying il looks like it's in pretty bad condition...!" 



110 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



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A Simple VisiCalc Application 



Comparing Prices 



David H.Ahl 




Double digit inflation. Shrinking profit 
margins. Higher prices on just about 
everything except avocados. 

Because of these factors people and 
organizations are doing more and more 
comparison shopping. Whether it's com- 
paring supermarket ads in the newspaper 
or bids on a job, we all have a need to 
compare prices quickly and easily. 

To compare prices on a few items is no 
particular problem; one need only jot 
them down on a slip of paper. On larger 
lists, it becomes more difficult. And when 
discounts and shipping charges enter the 
picture, the task becomes nearly impos- 
sible. 

Example 1 : You are a stamp collector 
with the usual gaps in your collection. 
Linn s or Western arrives each week along 
with circulars from mail order shops with 
which you have dealt in the past. Dealer 
A allows a 10% discount on orders over 
$200 while Dealer B allows a 5% discount 
on ten items or more although neither 
has the lowest prices among those you 
have jotted down. Problem: what is the 
least expensive way to get the 3(X) some 
odd stamps to fill in the gaps recognizing, 
of course, that your purchases will be 
made over a period of time. 

This example is equally applicable to 
any type of collection— comic books, coins. 
Hummels. antique auto parts, postcards, 
etc. 



Example 2: You own a retail toy shop. 
While much of your stock comes from 
major manufacturers through their reps 
or distibutors, you also buy some close- 
outs and foreign goods. You want to get 
some puppets and stuffed animals. You 
visit 200 Fifth Avenue in New York and 
come home with sheaves of flyers and 
price lists. More arrive in the mail daily 
and you see others in the various trade 
magazines. Tally it up and you have about 
250 different pieces (40" monkey puppet, 
brown: 8" stuffed bear, purple, etc. I and 
15 or 20 vendors. You don't want to put 
more than about $300 or $400 into stock 
at this time and you want the most for 
your money. What to buy? 

This example applies to just about any 
type of retail store from hardware to gifts. 
The number of items and vendors may be 
different, but the problem is fundamentally 
the same. 

Example 3: You are an arcade operator 
trying to maximize your profit. This means 
having a good choice of the latest games 
balanced by a cross-section of older games 
that still attract the quarters. You get 
Play Meter and look at the pages of 
classified listings of new and reconditioned 
games in the back. You attend the Amuse- 
ment Operators Expo and pick up the 
circulars from the distributors. And. of 
course, your own distributor is always 
telling you he has a great deal on a like- 
new game that was just returned from a 
bum location. 

You like to pick up a reconditioned 
game from time to time but the ads and 
circulars just aren't designed for comparison 
shopping. One ad lists games in order of 
decreasing price, another by ascending 
price, another by manufacturer, another 
puts the biggest movers at the top and 
many seem to be in totally random order. 

112 



This third example will be used to show 
how VisiCalc can be used quickly and 
easily to come to our rescue in all of the 
situations above. 

The first step is to put the list of items 
into some sensible order. While ascending 
or descending price has some attraction, 
it really isn't useful because a game might 
fall into several spots on the list because 
of different pricing from different vendors. 
In this case. I chose alphabetical order 
because it made the most sense to me. 

Rather than trying to assemble the names 
of all the arcade games and then alpha- 
betizing. I decided to just start entering 
information into the computer, putting 
each new piece where it belonged. I took 
the longest list of games from a single 
vendor, started five lines down from the 
top and entered the name of the game in 
the first two VisiCalc columns (18 char- 
acters total) and the price in the third 
column (C). 

If a game fell above or between those 
already entered. I simply opened up a 
row by typing /IR (insert row) and entered 
the new listing. 

I then took the second largest vendor 
list and put these prices in the fourth 
column (D), opening up rows for new 
information as necessary. Ditto for the 
third and fourth vendor. But then trouble 
arose. 

My computer (TRS-80 Model III) per- 
mits only six columns of VisiCalc data on 
the screen and adding additional vendors 
meant I could no longer see the game 
names in Columns A and B. So I simply 
typed /TV with the cursor on Column B 
which sets the first two columns perma- 
nently on the screen. 

With the title columns protected in this 
way, to insert a new game, it was neces- 
sary to use the "go to location" function 
(A28 for example) to enter the title area. 

September 1982 c Creative Computing 



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Comparing Prices, continued. 


,. 














(File: VIDEO) 


















Vendor 


Vendor 


Vendor 


Vendor Vendor Vendor 










A 


B 


C 


D E F 








Alpine Skier 


2«95 








\^m^Bf^Sf^ 








Aaldar 


2395 














Araor Attack 




MOO 




12*9 










Asteroids 


1695 


1550 


1395 












Asteroids Deluxe 


1695 


1«50 


1195 


1»95 










Astro Blaster 


1895 


1700 






■V 1 a^^^^^^k 








Astro Fighter 




1200 














Astro Invader 




995 




1095 










Avalanche 








295 










Barrier 


695 


500 






^k k\ t ^"TeV. 








Battlezone 


1195 




895 


10«9 


a#^ \ ▼ m. 1 mm*, ^rl 








Berzerk 


1795 


1«95 




1500 


W Hu v ^^ * 








Bosconlan 


2«95 








1 xS» V ^t 








Carnival 


1»95 


1525 




795 








Centipede 


2650 
















Challenger 


1595 








Lam asf ^BBaTa ^aV 








Circus 








325 


Bam ^ar ^^a. 








Cobra Gun Ship 


295 
















Cosalc Avenger 


1895 








L^Lx laBBBa^aaW^^S—' 1 








Cosmic Guerilla 


995 






695 










Crazy CI labor 




1695 




1«00 


^aat^^QL^/aflf^^ka^ 










Daabusters 




















Defender 


2395 


20*5 


1995 


2175 


^J^Km. ^^ 










Devil Fish 










^^■^•1 










Donkey Kong 


2395 








■sr >•» 










Eagle 


1695 








=^2*v \ 1 










Ellalnator 


2 395 






1895 


~ > / 








The End 




1350 






■hlC 








Fantasy 


2295 








*?*^l A 








Frogger 


2395 






2295 


.P^^^ m. i 








Galaga 


2550 








■* ^^ L^. 








Galax Ian 


1795 


1*00 


1195 




^ l_Sk 








Gorf 




19»5 


1995 


1850 


|^^kw^ 








Grand Champion 


2995 
















Kaos 


1395 








s^- ■-;.'' 1 1 ' 








Kick Man 


2550 
















King & Balloon 
Lady Bug 
Lock A Chase 


1695 
2295 
1550 








Just doing these few steps alone was 






Locoaotlon 
Looping 
Lunar Lander 


2 350 








enormously valuable. I had previously been 








500 




595 


impressed with Vendor B because of his 






Lunar Rescue 
Mad Allen 


1«95 


13«5 




795 


$1395 price on Asteroids. $300 less than 






Magical Spot 
Make Trax 
Megattack 


2»50 
1695 


995 




1995 


my local distributor was asking, and also 
his $1195 price on Galaxian, way less 






Missile Coaaand 
Moon Cresta 




1350 
1*00 


1395 


13«9 

895 


than anyone else. 1 had begun to think he 






Moon War 


2295 








had the best prices on everything and 






Mouse Trap 
Ms. Pac-Man 


2395 
2595 






23*9 


why look further. But then my simple list 






Might Driver 
Oaega Race 
Pec-Man 






• 95 


22«9 

2300 


revealed that his $1595 price on Battle-X 






2095 


2350 




wasn't so good after all. and $1995 on 






Phoenix 
The Pit 


2295 
2350 


1795 






Gorf was more than anyone else was asking. 






Polaris 
Pot of Gold 
Pulsar 


2095 


1295 
1650 






(See Figure 1.) 
Since I now had all the data, it seemed 






Oli 

Radar Scope 


2395 
1595 








sensible to let the computer look for the 






Rally-X 


1»95 




1595 




best price on each game. I attempted to 






Red Baron 
Rip Off 


1795 




1395 


800 


do this by typing @MIN(C4...H4) as the 






Robotron 
Round Up 
Scraable 


1595 
1695 








entry in 14. This function selects the 






1895 




1500 


minimum value from the list C4, D4, E4, 






Sea Wolf II 
Solar Queat 


2295 


550 


195 


3»9 


etc. and enters it in 14. Surprise! The 






Space Attack 


1195 








minimum was because several entries in 






Space Chase 
Space Duel 


795 








the list were blank. 






Space Firebird 
Space Invaders 


1295 


1»50 
800 


795 


895 

800 


This, of course, was not what I intended 






Space Odyssey 


2095 








so I tried entering the special VisiCalc 






Space War 
Space Zap 


595 


175 
1100 




**9 


(SNA function in the blanks (meaning 






Specter 
Star Castle 


1595 


1250 


1295 


13«9 1350 


value not available). Now for the minimum 






Star Gate 


2650 








I got NA. So I tried entering alphabetic 






Star Fire 

Star Havk 


750 




595 




characters. Still, no go. 






Star Ship I 
Strategy X 
Stratovox 


295 
2295 
1295 


1295 


395 


3"9 
1995 


When averaging a list, VisiCalc looks 
at only the non-blank values. Not so for 






Sundance 
Super Breakout 


695 


375 


395 




selecting the minimum or maximum values. 






Super Bug 






• 95 




Hence, the only solution was to fill in the 
chart with values larger than would ever 






Super Cobra 

Super Moon Crusher 


1595 
1795 


1795 




1595 2100 






Tenk 
Targ 








2«9 

• 95 


be found (say, 10000) which, unfortunately. 






Tea pest 


2850 








makes it less readable. Alternatively, one 






Thief 
Toaahawk 




1325 






could use a value of 1E9 (meaning 1 times 






Trivia Oulz 


595 
3195 








10 to the ninth power). Since the expanded 






Turtles 


1595 








form of the number will not fit in a standard 






Vanguard 
V-D«y 


1«95 
2350 


1695 




1625 


width VisiCalc column, the exponential 






Venture 


1795 








notation is retained. 






Victory 
















War Lords 






• 1«95 










Warp Warp 


1»95 














Warrior 
Zar zon 


695 

1595 








Figure 1. Output from VisiCalc program 






Zaxxon 










shows prices on games from six vendors. 












114 


September 1982 '■ Creative Computing 

















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CIRCLE 119 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Comparing Prices, contini 

If you wish to use this method, you 
should fill in the VisiCalc worksheet with 
10000 or 1E9 before entering any other 
data by simply using the replicate com- 
mand. This saves having to enter each 
value individually. A portion of the work- 
sheet with 1E9 filled in is shown in Figure 
2. 

To make this modified worksheet move 
readable. I elected to format the real price 
entries as dollars and cents while leaving 
the IE9 alone. This is done by typing /F$ 
before each dollars-and-cents entry. Typing 
it in as, say. $1995.00 will not do since 
VisiCalc will drop the zeroes after the 
decimal point. This output is shown in 
Figure 3. 

To use these data to make a "shopping 
list" which shows only the lowest price on 
each item, one can move the last column, 
in this case column I. to the position 
immediately next to the title columns using 
the /M command. (See Figure 4). 

Since two of the vendors were on the 
West Coast and I was on the East Coast. I 
wanted to modify their prices to reflect 
an extra $100 per game for shipping. This 
was done by using a spare column I J) and 
giving the command +C5+ 100 in position 
JS followed by a /R (replicate) in J6...J109 
using relative values. I then replaced the 
original column with this modified column 
using the move i Mi and delete column 
(/DC) commands. 

All told, this entire initial comparison 
shopping procedure took about two hours. 
To update the list each month (or whenever 
the occasion arises) takes no more than 
15 minutes. The potential savings are hun- 
dreds or possibly thousands of dollars, a 
more-than-satisfactory return on my 
investment of time and computer 
resources. □ 



\ferbatim 

flexible disks 

Call Free (800) 235-4137 for 

prices and information. Dealer 
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CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Vendor 


Vendor 


Vendor 


Vendor 


Vendor 


Vendor 


Hin 




A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


Price 


Alpine Skier 


2*95 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


2195 


Amidar 


2395 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


2395 


Armor Attack 


1E9 


moo 


1E9 


1219 


1E9 


1E9 


1219 


Asteroids 


1695 


1550 


1395 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1395 


Asteroids Deluxe 


1695 


1150 


1195 


1195 


1E9 


1E9 


1150 


Astro Blaster 


1895 


1700 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1700 


Astro Fighter 


1E9 


1?00 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1200 


Astro Invader 


1E9 


995 


1E9 


1095 


1E9 


1E9 


995 


Avalanche 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


295 


1E9 


295 


Barrier 


695 


500 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


500 



Figure 2. Portion of the same price list as in Figure I with IE9 filled in where no 
price is available. This allows selecting the minimum value in the last column. 







Vendor 


Vendor 


Vendor 


Vendor 


Ve 


idor 


Vendor 


M 


n 








A 




I 


C 


D 




E 


F 


Price 


Alpine 


Skier 


2195 


.00 




1E9 


1E9 


1E9 




1E9 


1E9 


2195 


00 


Amidar 




2395 


.00 




IE9 


1E9 


1E9 




1E9 


1E9 


2395 


00 


Armor 


Attack 




1E9 


1100 


.00 


1E9 


1219.00 




1E9 


1E9 


1219 


00 


Asterc 


ids 


1695 


.00 


1550 


.00 


1395.00 


1E9 




1E9 


1E9 


1395 


00 


Asteroids Deluxe 


1695 


.00 


1150 


.00 


1195.00 


1195.00 




1E9 


1E9 


1*50 


00 


Astro 


Blaster 


1B95 


.00 


1700 


.00 


1E9 


1E9 




1E9 


1E9 


1700 


00 


Astro 


Fighter 




1E9 


1200 


.00 


1E9 


1E9 




1E9 


1E9 


1200 


00 


Astro 


Invader 




1E9 


995 


.oo 


1E9 


1095.00 




1E9 


1E9 


995 


00 


Avalar 


che 




1E9 




1E9 


1E9 


1E9 


295. C 


1E9 


295 


00 


Barrier 


695 


.00 


500 


.00 


1E9 


1E9 




1E9 


1E9 


500 


00 



Figure .?. Formatting real prices into dollars and cents makes the list more 
readable. 



Figure 4. Moving the minimum price 
column next to the game name makes 
a convenient shopping list. 





Min 




Price 


Alpine Skier 


2195 


Amidar 


2395 


Armor Attack 


1219 


Asteroids 


1395 


Asteroids Deluxe 


1150 


Astro Blaster 


1700 


Astro Fighter 


1200 


Astro Invader 


995 


Avalanche 


295 


Barrier 


500 



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CIRCLE 144 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

116 September 1982 • Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 196 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple Graphics Tutorial 



The Graph Paper 



Parr Three: Moving Experience 



David Lubar 



Last month, we ended with a section on 
shape tables. This time, we'll put shape 
tables to use and begin animation. While 
there is no great secret to animation, 
almost every programmer has his own 
approach. And though these varied 
approaches share many common attri- 
butes, there is enough diversity that you 
can often tell the author of a program just 
by looking at the graphics. So I'll provide 
the basics, and you'll probably find your 
programs quickly moving in whatever 
direction seems most appropriate to you. 
First, a look at the two commands used 
in Applesoft to draw shapes. 

Chest of Drawers 

To draw something on the screen, you 
first need a shape table in memory, and 
the address of the table has to be stored 
in locations SE8 and SE9, using lo byte, 
hi byte format. (To get these values from 
a decimal number, divide the number by 
256. The result provides the hi byte while 
the remainder provides the lo byte. If you 
don't want to convert the values to hex. 
just poke them in from Basic.) 

If you don't have a shape table handy, 
go into the monitor and type 6000:0 1 00 04 
00 04 00. Then type E8:00 60. This creates 
a shape table consisting of a single dot. 
Not very exciting, but handy for quick 
tests. Before drawing the shape, some 
preparation is necessary. 

First, of course, you must get into the 



graphics mode with the HGR command. 
Also, a color must be specified. The colors 
for drawing are the same we used for plot- 
ting last month. 

Two other parameters are needed: scale 
and rotation. Scale determines the size of 
the shape, and rotation determines how 
it will be oriented. When scale is set to I 
(this is done with the command 
SCALE- 1), the shape will be drawn 
exactly as it was created. With a scale of 2, 
each vector will be repeated. When scale 
equals three, each vector will be done three 
times, and so on. 

Rotation is done with ROT=N where N 
can range from to 63. A rotation of 
places the shape the way it was created. A 
value of 16 rotates- the shape 90 degrees 
clockwise. To go 180 degrees, use 32, and 
to go 270 degrees, use 48. In essence, every 
increase of 8 rotates the shape by 45 
degrees. 

While rotation can be increased by 
smaller amounts, there are two problems. 
First, small rotations aren't recognized by 
shapes with small scales. At a scale of I, 
the only available rotations are 0, 16, 32 
and 48. At a scale of 2, rotation can be 
used in steps of eight. At 3, you can go in 
steps of 4. A scale of 4 allows all even 
rotations, and any scale from 5 up can use 
all rotations. 

The other problem is that rotations 
other than in steps of 90 degrees just don't 
look good. Even 45 degrees will produce 

118 



a distorted shape. One final word on rota- 
tion: if a value greater than 63 is used, it 
is treated in a MOD 64 fashion (MOD N 
means take the remainder of a number 
after division by N, so a rotation of 64 is 
equal to one of 0, 65 is equal to I, and so 
on). 

Rotation and scale do not have default 
values. You can't assume the computer 
will set them properly, so it is a good idea 
to do so in your program. To draw the 
shape as it was created use RO I -0 and 
SCALE=I. (Note that a scale of is actu- 
ally the largest available scale, rather 
than the smallest.) 

DRAW uses an X and Y coordinate. 
DRAW I at 10,40 will place the first shape 
ten dots in and forty down from the upper 
left corner (location 0,0). The coordinate 
location actually specifies the place where 
the first part of the shape will appear. 

As was covered last month, a shape table 
is a series of commands to plot or not plot 
and then move. The first plot (or non plot) 
occurs at the given coordinate. From there 
the points will follow the vectors in the 
table. It is important to remember this 
when creating shapes. If you are doing a 
character set, the letters must all be created 
with the same starting point, such as the 
upper right corner. 

If the DRAW command is given without 
coordinates, it starts the shape at the 
location of the hi-res cursor. This is con- 
venient for linking shapes. For example, 

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CIRCLE 233 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Graph Paper, continued. 



Figure I. 



Q 



A. Vectors for 
the square. 



B. Vectors unwrapped 
in sequence and 
given numbers. 



• — 101 (plot and move right) 
1 10 (plot and move down) 

— ■ 1 1 1 (plot and move left) 
100 (plot and move up) 



101 



I D^K 



M 



J~L 



— » i 

00II0I0I 



OOIOOIII 

J 



01 — Number of shapes 

00 

04 — location of first shape 

(offset from start). 
00 

.35 



100 



-27 

00— Oto mark 
end of shape. 



I 


4 


53 
39 





C. Vectors placed 
into bytes (note 
unused 00 on hi end). 



I) 



Converted to 
hex, with index 
added. 



E. Converted 
to decimal 
for poking 



you could draw a spiral on the screen by 
First creating a small shape that was a 
straight line, and then giving a series of 
DRAW commands while changing scale 
and rotation. The end of each segment 
would be the starting point for the next. 
(Actually, the end is determined by the 
final move after the last plot in the shape 
definition.) Even when DRAW is used 
without coordinates, it still requires a 
shape number. 

Besides DRAW, Applesoft offers 
XDRAW, a rather powerful method of 
handling multiple images. XDRAW per- 
forms an exclusive or of the shape defi- 
nition against the screen. This logical 
operation is one of the most powerful 
available. If both the shape and the screen 
have a bit set in a certain location, 
XDRAW will turn off the pixel on the 
screen. (A set bit is a binary I. The binary 
number 00000001 has only the lo bit set.) 

If only the screen or the shape has a bit 
set, a pixel will be left on by XDRAW. If 
neither has a bit set, the pixel will be off. 
The power of this is that once a shape is 
drawn, it can be erased by repeating the 
XDRAW. 

Take the following example, using a 
shape of one dot. If the background is 
black, the XDRAW will plot the shape 
since the shape has a bit set while the screen 
doesn't. A second XDRAW at the same 
location will result in the bit from the 
shape being exclusive ored with the bit 
now on the screen, producing a or off 
pixel. Thus the screen is restored. If the 
background originally had a bit set, the 
first XDRAW would turn it off, while the 
second would restore it. So XDRAW sim- 
plifies the process of erasing shapes, and 
prevents the problem of a shape destroy- 
ing the background. 



The method even works with multiple 
shapes. Several shapes can be drawn on 
a background, then removed, leaving the 
original screen intact. And the order of 
drawing and removal doesn't matter. But 
there is a tradeoff. When a shape crosses 
a background, the portions that were on 
will turn off. You've probably seen this 
effect in early Apple games. A solid object 
crossing a white line suddenly has a black 
line through it. 

XDRAW has the same parameters as 
DRAW, it can be used with coordinates 



The concept of 

animation is actually 

very simple. Place 

something on the 

screen, erase it, then 

place it elsewhere. 



or linked, and must contain a shape 
number, but doesn't use HCOLOR since 
it merely turns bits on or off regardless of 
their location. 

Now that we have all the basic require- 
ments for putting an image on the screen, 
let's get on to actual animation. 

Move It, Buddy 

The concept of animation is actually 
very simple. Place something on the 
screen, erase it, then place it elsewhere. 
If the new location is not too far from the 
old, and the process is done quickly, the 
eye believes it has detected motion. You 

120 



can produce animation on the text page 
in this way. For a trivial example, see 
Listing I. 

Listing I. 



10 


HOME 


20 


FOR I - 1 ,TO 39 


23 


VTAB 1 


30 


PRINT TAB( I) H A" 


40 


NEXT I 



To do animation on the hi-res screen, 
you must perform the same draw, erase, 
redraw sequence. Actually, it is easiest to 
think of the process in three separate 
stages. First comes the initial draw which 
places the object on the screen. Next there 
is a sequence of erase redraw, repeated as 
often as the program requires. Finally, if 
the shape is to be removed, there is one 
final erase. 

For a simple example, let's make a hi-res 
object bounce around the screen. Since 
this is the first animation program of the 
series, and since it contains some essential 
concepts, I'll go over it in excruciating 
detail, recounting the steps I went through 
writing the program. 

First, I needed a shape. A small square 
seemed appropriate. Being lazy, I decided 
to make it with only one dot per side and 
use the scale function to increase its size. 
So the vectors of the square, starting in the 
upper left, are plot and move right, plot 
and move down, plot and move left, then 
plot and move up. 

To make the table, I drew these vectors 
on a piece of paper, then wrote their num- 
bers next to them.- The numbers were put 
together in pairs, producing the shape 
information (see Figure I). An index was 
added, as explained last month, producing 
the full table. 

September 1982 c Creative Computing 






The first thing the program does is 
POKE the table. The table is placed at 
$6000. Since SI 000 is 4096 decimal. I used 
6*4096 for the base address. This way, I 
can look at the program later and know 
where I put the table without bothering 
to convert the number back to hex. 

Next, the table address is POKED into 
SE8 and SE9 (note that the decimal value 
96 is used for the hex hi byte of 60). With 
the table in memory, it was time to figure 
out how to make the shape move. 

Motion requires a change of location. 
The variables DX and DY represent this. 
The chosen value of I means that the X 
and Y location of the figure will change 
by I each time. 

Next, I needed a starting location. The 
values chosen for X and Y are somewhat 
arbitrary. I wanted the figure to start out 
near the center of the screen, but not 
exactly in the middle. Line 60 sets up the 
graphics mode, color, rotation and scale. 

As mentioned, scale is used here to draw 
the shape in a bigger size than the original. 
Line 70 is the first step in the animation 
cycle. It simply places the object on the 
screen. 

Now comes an important concept. If 
something is moving, you should know 
both where it is and where it will be. This 
requires a second set of variables. PX and 
PY (the P is for "previous") keep track 
of the most recently plotted position. This 
will be used later to erase the shape. 

Next, the new location is calculated by 
adding DX to X and DY to Y. While this 
produces a change in location, the screen 
isn't infinite, so a check for boundaries is 
required. If the X value is too large or 
too small (in other words, if the shape has 
hit the edge of the screen), the sign of DX 
is changed. From here on it will be adding 
I until the next change. The same thing 
happens for the Y coordinate. 

Now it's time to erase the old shape and 
draw a new one. All the required values 
have been calculated, allowing the erase 



and draw to be as close together as possi- 
ble. This is important for reducing flicker. 

Line 120 first erases, the old shape. As 
mentioned, two XDRAWS of the same 
shape in the same location will remove the 
shape. It was XDRAWN once at line 70. 
The XDRAW at 120 will erase it. Follow- 
ing this comes a command to redraw the 
figure at the new location. The program 
then loops back to 80 and repeats the 
process forever. 

That, basically, is all there is to anima- 
tion. While faster and more sophisticated 
routines are required for doing games, 
this simple program contains many of the 
concepts we will be exploring in coming 
months. I should stress that this program is 
just a framework. There is much to explore 
and change. Try using different values for 



If something is moving, 

you should know both 

where it is and where 

it will be. 



DX and DY. How great a change is pos- 
sible without getting a jerky motion? Is 
anything gained by drawing the new shape 
before erasing the old one? For a bigger 
challenge, try putting in paddle control of 
the shape. 

If you want to use a colored shape, you 
must make DX an even value such as 2 or 
4. Otherwise, the color will change when- 
ever the figure moves. To get more than 
one color in a shape, create the shape with 
every second horizontal point set. On 
different vertical lines, switch the pattern 
so the other set of dots is on. When this 
shape is drawn in white, two colors appear. 



Listing 2. 




"Through complicated computer-controlled circuitries, we robotrons can imitate any number of subtle 
human movements. " 

September 1982 c Creative Computing 



1 REM THIS PROGRAM BOUNCES A SH 

APE AROUND THE SCREEN 

2 REM FIRST STEP IS TO POKE THE 

SHAPE TABLE 
10 BASE - 6 » 4096 
20 FOR I - BASE TO BASE ♦ 6 
30 READ A: POKE I, A: NEXT I 
40 POKE 232, Oj POKE 233, 96t REM 

POKE TABLE ADDRESS 
50 DX » 1:DY - 1»X - lO0»Y - 30 
60 HGR : HCOLOR- 3s ROT= O: SCALE- 

8 
70 XDRAW 1 AT X,Y 
80 PX » X:PV ■ V 
90 X - X ♦ DX«Y » Y + DY 
lOO IF X > 270 OR X < 1 THEN DX - 

- DX 

110 IF Y > 1S1 OR Y < 1 THEN DY - 

- DY 

120 XDRAW 1 AT PX.PY: XDRAW 1 AT 

X,Y 
130 GOTO 80 
200 DATA 1,0,4,0,33,39,0 



The dots on the even locations have one 
color, those on odd locations have the 
other color. By using white 2 (color 7), the 
other pair of colors will appear on the 
screen. While the two pairs of colors can't 
be mixed in a shape, this method does 
allow for two colors at a time. 

One more thing before we continue; if 
a shape goes past the edge of the screen, it 
will wrap around and appear on the other 
side. There is no way to prevent this other 
than by checking for the edge and using 
a series of shapes. 

While the above program does produce 
animation, it also produces a fair amount 
of flicker. There is only one way around 
this, which brings us to a topic many of 
you asked about in your letters. As Walter 
A. Kuhn, this month's winner of Shape 
Master, asks, "Is it possible to use HPLOT 
and DRAW on the hi-res page which is not 
being displayed? The answer is, indeed, 
yes. 

You may be wondering why anyone 
would want to draw on the unseen 
page. Consider this: Applesoft animation 
flickers because the shape is not always 
on the screen. The time between erasing 
and redrawing is just too long, even when 
the commands are right next to each other. 
Also, the program is not timed with the 
scan gun of the television so the shape can 
be caught in transition. But what if the 
shape were never erased when it was on 
the screen? There would be no flicker. And 
that's what page flipping is all about. 

Like many aspects of programming, it 
is simple once you understand it. The only 
trick is keeping track of everything, and the 
computer is fully capable of doing that for 
you. Where the first program consisted 
of an crase-rcdraw cycle, page flipping 
requires a few extra steps. 

Start with a shape on hi-res page I. Next, 
draw the shape in a new location on page 
two, then make page two the visible page. 
Now erase the old shape on page I and 



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CIRCLE 184 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Graph Paper, continued... 



Listing 3. 



56 
60 



65 



75 



1 REM ANIMATION USING PAGE FLIP 

PING 
10 BASE - 6 * 4096 
20 FOR I • BASE TO BASE * 6 
30 READ At POKE I, A: NEXT I 
40 POKE 232,0l POKE 233.961 REM 

POKE TABLE ADDRESS 
30 DX - 2:DY - 2:X « 100: V - 30 
35 PAGE(O) - 32tPAGE<l> - 64sFLIP 

- IsSWITCH » 230:DISPLAV - 
49236 

HOME ! HGR2 

HGR : HCOLDR- 3: ROT' O: SCALE- 

8 
POKE 49234,0: REM FULL SCREE 

N GRAPHICS 
XDRAW 1 AT X,Y 
X:PY - Y 

-X*DX:Y-Y*DY 

IF X > 270 OR X < 1 THEN DX » 

- DX 
IF Y > 151 OR Y < 1 THEN DY - 

- DY 
POKE SWITCH. PAGE (FLIP) : REM 

SET UP FOR DRAWING ON THE 
UNSEEN PAGE 
XDRAW 1 AT X,Y 
POKE DISPLAY + FLIP.O: REM 
DISPLAY THE NEW PAGE 
124 FLIP - NOT FLIP: REM CHANGE 

BETWEEN AND 1 
POKE SWITCH. PAGE (FLIP): REM 

SET UP TO ERASE ON THE UNSE 
EN PAGE 

XDRAW 1 AT PX.PY 
GOTO 80 
DATA 1,0,4.0.53.39,0 



80 PX 
90 X 
100 

110 

121 



122 
123 



123 



126 
130 
20O 



draw it in a new location. Display page 
one again, and so on. 

There are only two new concepts here. 
First, switching visible pages, and second, 
drawing on the unseen page. 

The visible page is controlled by poking 
49236 and 49237. The value POKED there 
doesn't matter. Any value POKED into 
49236 will cause page I to be displayed. 
Any value placed in 49237 will make page 
2 visible. 

The trick to drawing on the unseen page 
is just as simple. When you give the HGR 
command, Applesoft places a 32 in loca- 
tion 230. This value is used for indexing 
and calculating various hi-res functions. 
When the command HGR is used, a 64 is 
placed in location 230 (note that 32 is 
hex 20, 64 is hex 40, and the hi-res pages 
start at hex locations 2000 and 4000). 

If you change the value, Applesoft won't 
know the difference. It will blithely plot 
on either hi-res page, no matter which one 
is displayed. Listing 3 produces a bouncing 
square using page flipping. Rather than 
keep track of which page is which, a sim- 
ple Boolean variable is used. It alternates 
between and I, allowing alternating 
strobes of locations 49236 and 49237. It 
is also used to index the two values placed 
in location 230. 



There really isn't that much difference 
between the two programs. The POKE to 
49234 is used to produce full screen 
graphics. Otherwise, the text window will 
flicker. The POKE to PAGE determines 
where the shape will be drawn, and the 
POKE to SWITCH controls which page is 
displayed. Compare the results of this 
program to the previous one. It is much 
cleaner though the image will occasion- 
ally "tear" due to being out of phase with 
the TV. Again, experiment with it and see 
what happens. 

Other Matters 

I must thank you again for all the letters. 
Many of the questions raised will be cov- 
ered in following articles, including paddle 
control, sound, collision detection, Apple- 
soft entry points, and advanced machine 
language animation. If I miss something, 
or if an explanation isn't clear, please let 
me know. I'm always willing to backtrack. 

Last month, I listed a short program that 
produced a ladder in the shape of a sine 
wave and promised to give some animated 
versions. Since time and space have run 
out, that will have to wait until next 
month. Meanwhile, armed with the basics 
of animation, see what you can do to get 
that ladder moving. □ 



APPLE SPEAKS 
INTELLIGENTLY! 



The people who dared to teach Atari to talk are again 
challenging the microcomputer establishment with the 
VOICEBOX Speech Synthesizer for Apple. This low cost intel- 
ligent peripheral can speak thousands of words unassisted, 
generated directly from its firmware ROM dictionary lo- 
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provided for on our disk. 

In addition your VOICEBOX for Apple can be easily coded to 
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graphic speech animation! The VOICEBOX for Apple will 
run on 32K Apple II with Applesoft or Apple II Plus systems 
equipped with sixteen-sector disk drives. VOICEBOX for 
Apple comes with loudspeaker and disk. The Alien Group 
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features (including expandable disk dictionary), but ex- 
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optional on this unit. 




For Atari users, 
the VOICEBOX for 
16K and up Atari 
plugs directly into the 
serial port. No extra cables are 

needed and no speaker is needed since the speech comes 
directly over your TV monitor. This unit has all speech syn- 
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AL-3001 VOICEBOX for Apple. With firmware ROM, singing 

capability and speaker $215.00 

AL-3501 VOICEBOX for Apple. Without firmware ROM, 

singing capability and speaker $ 1 39.00 

AL-4001 Speaker for AL-3501 (the AL-3501 will also work 

with any other speaker) $1 5.00 

AL-5001 VOICEBOX for Atari $1 69.00 

All mail orders are on a 10 day moneyback guarantee if 
you're not completely satisfied. When ordering enclose 
check or money-order or state VISA or MASTERCARD num- 
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THE ALIEN GROUP 

27 West 23rd Street 

Dept. CC-2 

New York, New York 10010 



or Telephone orders 
from 1 AM to 6 PM 
New York time 
(212)924-5546 



ALSO AVAILABLE AT LEADING COMPUTER STORES 
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



CIRCLE 106 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
125 







Logo Ideas 



Robert Lawler 



Do It Again 



A ten-year old girl met the Logo language for the first time. 
She didn't tunc any idea of what to do or what could be done. 
She started to draw with the turtle, making it go forward dif- 
ferent amounts and turn \arious numbers of degrees. Some- 
times she didn't like the latest line the turtle put on the screen 
and wanted to erase it. I he turtle didn't have an eraser, so she 
used a clever trick: whenever she liked an addition to her 
drawing, she would code it into a procedure she wrote as the 
drawing developed; when she didn't like a change, she would 
clear the screen and execute the procedure, that way re-creating 
the drawing as it looked before the latest change. She com- 
pleted her effort with a drawing that looked a bit like a boot, as 
you see below: 



Boot 



25 Boots 





The girl had gi\cn Logo a fair chance, worked dutifully, had 
some good ideas, but she was basically bored. "Is that all the 
turtle can do?" she asked. Lor no very good reason, she 
executed her BOO'I procedure again. I he second boot drawn 
over the first was rotated through a large angle. Shedid it again, 
and again, and again, becoming caught up in the design that was 
emerging from repeating her BOOT. Finally, she cleared the 
screen and executed BOOT 25 times in rapid succession under 
control of the REPEAT command. She was thrilled with the 
design above which emerged from her doing it again. 

Summary 

Repeating a specific list of commands can have interesting 
results if the executions "add up. "The ways to do it again are by 
re-keying, naming the commands as a procedure and re-keying 
the name; executing a named procedure under the scope of a 
repeat command: recursive invocation: and looping. 



Knht'it lauk-i. Orotic Mondial Inlui manque I I RcuH i rec i Humainc. 

l\in\. h'rancc. 



Do Something A Little Different 

One of the basic procedures most people work out when 
starting Logo is a procedure to make a square. If you are willing 
to stop the turtle with "control G," this procedure will do quite 
nicely: 

TO SQUARE 
FORWARD 100 
RIGHT 90 
SQUARE 

If you want to do something a little different, you might pick 
out a command operand, such as 1 00 and turn it intoa variable. 
Doing so would permit you to make squares of any size. 

TO SQUARE DISTANCE 
FORWARD DISTANCE 
RIGHT 90 
SQUARE :DISTANCE 

If you want to do something a little different, you might 
consider changing the value of distance in every invocation of 
SQUARE. You would have a SQUARE. MAZE procedure: 

TO SQUARE.MAZE :DISTANCE :CHANGE 
FORWARD :DISTANCE 
RIGHT 90 

SQUARE.MAZE CDISTANCE + :CHANGE) 
CHANGE 

If you want to do something a little different, you might look 
at the operand of the second command in the procedure and 
turn that 90 into a variable. You would then have what has 
become known as a POLYSPI procedure (can you find some of 
the many good numbers for angle'.'): 

TO POLYSPI :DISTANCE :ANGLE :CHANGE 
FORWARD :DISTANCE 
RIGHT ANGLE 

POLYSPI (:DISTANCE ♦ :CHANGE) :ANGLE 
:CHANGE 

If you want to do something a little different, you might think 
of applying the change value to the variable ANGLE instead 
of to DISTANCE. You would then have what has been called 
the INSPI procedure (be certain to try INSP1 5 7): 

TO INSPI :DISTANCE :ANGLE :CHANGE 

FORWARD :DISTANCE 

RIGHT ANGLE 

INSPI :DISTANCE CANGLE + :CHANGE) :CHANGE 

If you want to do something a little different, you might ask 
yourself about symmetrical versions of the POLYSPI and 
INSPI procedure. Or ask yourself tr/ir the procedures generate 
the attractive designs they make. Or ask if you can apply in 
other places the idea of isolating some single element of a 
procedure and changing it to create new things and to under- 
stand them. D 



126 



September 1982 ° Creative Computing 



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MSF-10601R $394 95 ea 2 lor $369.95 ea 

Shugart SA851R double-sided double-density 
MSF-10051R $554 95 ea 2 lor $529.95 ea 

Tandon TM848-1 smgte-sided double-den thin-tine 
MSF-5S8481 $424 95 ea 2 lor $394.95 ea | 

Tandon TM848-2 double-sided double-den thin-line 
MSF-S56482 $574 95 ea 2 lor $549.95 ea | 

Oume DT-8 double-sided double-density 

MSF-7S0060 $524 95 ea 2 lor $496.95 ea \ 

Siemens FDD 100-8 single sided double-density 
MSF-201120 . $384 95ea 2 lor $349.95 ea 



Software 



PLANNER CALC - Target Software 

Spread sheet (what it ">) program designed for with the user 
in mmd. user oriented (simple english) commands allow you 
to quickly master this powerful software, supplied on 8" disk 
tor use with CP M based systems 

SFC-12251050F 8" CP M version $49.95 

SFC-12251053F 8 Xerox $49.95 

SFC-12251053M 5'V Xerox $49.95 



Place Orders Toll Free 



Continental U.S. 
800-421-5500 



Inside California 
800-262-1710 



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for Tt'thmcal Inqum-x nr Cuatomet Service call: 

213-973-7707 



Computer Products 

4901 W. Rosrcranx, Hawthorn* Ca 90250 

TKK.MS of SAI.K: Cash, check* credit cards, or 
r*Mnll— ■ ' Inlirs from qualified firms and institution!*. 
Minimum Order SltVOO. < 'alifnrnia ri-snti-nts add I 
tax Minimum shipping & h. milling ( hartfe $3.00. 
l'ricintji <V availihiltty Kuhjct't to rhanite 



CIRCLE 173 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Computer Products 

3313 South Bristol St. 
Santa Ana 714-549-7108 



Computer Products 

1291 West El Camino Real 
Sunnyvale 415-965-7980 



Computer Products 

4344 Convoy Street 
San Diego 714-268-4661 



PI Anc nPHFR^ Continental U.S. - 800-421-5500 
ri-MKsC unuczna inside California - 800-262-1710 



TOLL FREE. 



Los Angeles Area - 213-973-7707 



Jade Diskettes 



PREMIUM DISKETTES - Jade 

We proudly put our name on these high Quality diskettes - 
guaranteed to satisfy you or your money back 

5'/«" Diskettes. Boa ol Ten 

MMO-S1 10103 SS. SD. OIS ... $29 00 

MMD-S1 11003 SS. SO. 10S $29.00 

MMD-51 11 603 SS SD 16S $29 00 

MMD 5120103 SS. DD. 01S $31.00 

MMO-5121003 SS. DD. 010 $31.00 

MMD-5121603 SS. DD. 16S $31.00 

8 Dlatette*. Boa ol Ten 

MMD-8110103 SS. SD. 01S ... $31.00 

MMO-8120103 SS. DD OIS $39.00 

MMD-8220103 DS. DD.01S $48.00 

BARGAIN DISKETTES 

MMD-5110105 5', SS. DO OtS $19.95 

MMD-S22010S 5, OS. DD. OIS $32.95 

MMD-811010S 8 SS. SD. OtS $21.»S 

MMD 8120105 8 SS. DD. OIS $32.95 

MMD 8220105 8 SS. DD. OIS $35 95 



Video Monitors 



9" AMBER or GREEN - Jade 

High resolution 18 MHz compact video monitors 

VDM-901201 9" Amber phosphor S149.95 

VDM-901301 9 Green phosphor $139.95 

HI-RES 12" GREEN - Zenith 

15 MHz bandwith 700 fines inch, P31 green phosphor. 
switchabie 40 or 80 columns, small, light-weight & portable 
VDM-201201 List price $189 95 $129.95 

12" GREEN SCREEN - NEC 

70 MHz bandwidth. P31 phosphor ultra-high resolution 

video monitor with audio 

VOM-561200 List price $289 95 $199.95 

12" COLOR MONITOR - NEC 

High resolution color monitor with audio 
VDC-651212 Color monitor $389.95 

NEC-1202D RGB color monitor $999.95 

COLOR MONITORS - Amdek 

Reasonably priced color video monitors 
VDC-80130 13" Color I $379.95 

VDC-801320 13" Color II $894 95 

IOV-2300A DVM board lor Apple $199.95 

COLOR TELEVISION - Bohsei 

High quality inexpensive color televisions with excellent 
color, brilliance. A reception, both UHF A VHF. perfect for 
Apple II. Atari, Commodore VIC-20. or TRS color computer 
VDC-991300 IT Color receiver $239 95 

VOC-991900 19 Color receiver $299.95 



EPROM Erasers 



ULTRA-VIOLET EPROM ERASERS 

Inexpensive erasers for industry or home 
X ME -3 100 A Spectromcs w o timer . $69.50 

XME-3101A Spectromcs with timer $94.50 

XME-3200A Economy model $39.95 



Power Strips 



ISOBAR - GSC 

Isolates 4 protects your valuable equipment from high 
voltage spikes 4 AC line noise, inductive isolated ground. 15 
amp circuit breaker. UL listed 

EME 115103 3 socket . $39.50 

EME-1 15105 4 socket .. $49.50 

EME-1 15100 8 socket . $54.50 

EME-1 151 10 9 socket rackmount $74.50 



Single User System I Single Board Computer 



THREE BOARD SET - SD Systems 

4 MHzZ 80A CPU. 64K RAM I optional 256K I. serial! Oport. 
parallel I O port, double density disk controller. CP M 2 2 4 
manual set. system monitor, control 4 diagnostic soltware 
Includes SBC-200 64K ExpandoRAM II. Varsatloppy II. 4 
CP M 2 2 ■ all boards are assembled 4 tested 
Board ut with 64K ol RAM $1095.00 

Board Ml with 256K ol RAM $1295.00 



Apple II Accessories 



16K RAM CARD - for Apple II 

Expand your Apple to 64K. I year warranty 
MEX-16700A Save S12S 00 M $74.95 

Z-80 SOFTCARD - Microsoft 

Two computers in one. Z-80 4 6502. more than doubles the 
power and potential ol your Apple, includes Z-80 CPU card 
CP M 2 2 S Basic 80 
CPX-30S00A A & T with soltware . . $299.95 

8" DISK CONTROLLER - Vista 

New Irom Vista Computer, single or double sided, single or 
double density, compatible with DOS 32 33 Pascal. 4 
CP M 2 2. Shugart 4 Qume compatible 
IOD-2700A A 4 T $499.95 

2 MEGABYTES lor Apple II 

Complete package includes: Two 8" double-density disk 

drives. Vista double-density 8" disk controller, cabinet. 

power supply. 4 cables. DOS 32 33. CP M 2 2. S Pascal 

compatible 

1 MegaByle Package Kit $1495.00 

1 MegaByle Package AS. T $1695 00 

2 MegaByle Package KM $1795 00 

2 MegaByle Package 4 4 7 $1995.95 

A2 DISK DRIVE - Micro Sci 

Inexpensive direct replacement lor Apple Disk II. works with 
Apple II controller as lirst or second drive 
MSM-123101 Micro Sci A2 $379.95 

MSM-123101C A2 with contrlr $459.95 

VISION 80 - Vista Computer 

80 column x 24 line video card lot Apple II. 128 ASCII 
characters, upper and lower case. 9x 10 dot matrix with 3 dot 
descenders, standard data media terminal control codes. 
CP M Pascal 4 Fortran compatible. 50 60 Hz 
IOV-2400A Vista Vision 80 $299.95 

CPS MULTICARD - Mtn. Computer 

Three cards in one' Heal time dock calendar, serial 
interface. A parallel interface ■ all on one card 
IOX-2300A A & T $179.95 

APPLE-CAT - Novation 

Software selectable 1200 or 300 baud direct connect, auto- 
answer autodial auxiliary 3 wire RS232C serial port tor 
printer. 
IOM-5232A Save $50 00'" $325.95 

JOYSTICK - T G Products 

A better joystick tor your Apple II 
SYA-1512A A & I $49.95 



Modemr 



SIGNALMAN - Anchor 

Direct-connect automatic answer originate selection. 300 
Baud lull duplex. Bell 103 includes RS-232 cable 
IOM-5600A Signalman $98 50 

SMARTMODEM - Hayes 

Sophisticated direct-connect auto- answer auto-dial 

modem, touch-tone or pulse dialing. RS-232C interlace. 

programmable 

IOM-S400A Smartmodem $248.95 

IOK-1500A Hayes Chronograph $219.95 

IOM-2010A Micromodem II . ... $328 95 

IOM-1100A Micromodem 100 $368 95 



SUPERQUAD - Adv. Micro Digital 

Single board, standard size S-100 computer system. 4 MHz I 
Z-80A. single or double density disk controller lor 5V 4 " or 8" 
drives 64K RAM. extended addressing, up to4K ol EPROM. 
2 serial 4 2 parallel I O ports, real time interrupt clock. CP M | 
compatible. 

CPC-30800A AST $794.95 

IOX-30800A Serial I O adapter $29.95 

Z-80 STARTER KIT - SD Systems 

Complete Z-80 microcomputer with RAM. ROM. I O. 
keyboard, display, kludge area, manual. 4 workbook 
CPS-30100K Kit with workbook $299.95 

CPS-30100A A 4 7 with workbook 469.95 

AIM-65 - Rockwell International 

Complete 6502 microcomputer with alphanumeric display, 
printer, keyboard. 4 instruction manual 
CPK-50165A IK AIM-65 $424.95 

CPK-5046SA 4K AIM-65 $474.95 

SFK-74600008E 8K Basic ROM $64.95 

SFK-64600004E 4K assembler ROM $43 95 | 

SFK-74600020E PL 65 ROM $84 95 

SFK-74600010E forln ROM $64 95 I 

SFK-74600030E Instant Pascal $99 95 

PSX-030A Power supply $64.95 

ENX-000002 Enclosure $54 95 

4K AIM-65 8K Basic, power supply 4 enclosure 
Special Package Price $649.95 



S-100 EPROM Boards 



PB-1 - SSM Microcomputer 

2708. 2716 EPROM board with on board programmer 

MEM-99S10K Kit with manual $154.95 

MEM-99510A AST with manual $219.95 

PROM-100 - SD Systems 

2708. 2716. 2732 EPROM programmer with soltware 
MEM-99520K Kit wrth soltware $189.95 I 

MEM-99520A AST with software $249.95 | 

EPROM BOARD - Jade 

16K or 32K uses 2708 or 2716 EPROMs. IK boundary 

MEM-16230K Kit w o EPROMs $79.95 

MEM-16230A AS T w o EPROMs $119.95 



S-100 Video Boards 



SPECTRUM COLOR - CompuPro 

Full-function color graphics board, up to 8 colors. 256 x 192 
graphics, parallel I O port. 8K RAM 

IOV-1870A AST $348.95 

IOV-1870C CSC $39895 

MICROANGELO - Scion 

Ultra high resolution 512 x 480. 256 color or black 4 white S- 

too video board 

IOV-1500A AST $999.95 



S-100 Mother Boards 



ISO-BUS - Jade 

Silent, simple, and on sale ■ a better motherboard 

6 »ol (5V' * «VJ 

MBS-061B Bare board $19.95 I 

MBS-061K KM $39 95 

MBS-061A AST $59.95 

12 Stol (ft," * •% "> 

MBS-121B Bare board $29.95 I 

MBS 121 K Kit $69.95 

MBS-121A AST $9995 ] 

ItSloHW/," '*>.~> 

MBS 181 B Sere board $49.95 I 

MBS-181K Kit $99.95 

MBS-181A AST $139.95 | 

ACTIVE TERMINATOR - CompuPro 

A true mother's helper 

TSX-100A AST $59.45 



8 mux hi- slightly higher at our retail locations. Please call the store nearest you for local price <m<l availability. 



Computer Products 

13440 South Hawthorne Blvd. 
Hawthorne 213-973-7330 



Computer Products 

21800 Ventura Blvd 
Woodland Hills 213-716-6120 



PLACE ORDERS 
TOLL FREE. 



Continental U.S. - 
Inside California - 
Los Angeles Area 



Computer Products 

4950 Beltllne Road 
Dallas 214-458-2782 

800-421-5500 
800-262-1710 
- 213-973-7707 



S-100 CPU Boards I S-100 Memory Boards 



8085/6086 - CompuPro 
Both at 16 bit CPUs, standard 8 bit S-100 bus. up to 8 MHz. 
accesses 16 Megabytes of memory 

CPU-20510A 6 MHz At T 1398 95 

CPU-20510C 6 8 MHz CSC $497 95 

8086/8087 - CompuPro 

76 bit 8 or 10 MHz 8086 CPU with provisions tor 8087 t 
80130 

CPU-70520A 8 MHz 8086 At T $824 95 

CPU-70520C 8 MHz 8086 CSC (784.95 

CPU-70530A with 8087 A t T $1224.05 

CPU-70530C with 8087 CSC $1455.95 

CPU-Z - CompuPro 

2 4 MHz Z80A CPU. 24 bit addressing 

CPU-30500A 2 4 MHz A t T $279.95 

CPU-30S00C 3 6 MHz CSC $374.95 

SBC-200 - SD Systems 

4 MHz Z-80A CPU with serial t parallel I/O. IK RAM. 8K 

ROM space, monitor PROM included 

CPC-30200A At T .... $399.95 

THE BIG Z - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz switchable Z-80 CPU board with serial I/O. 
accomodates 2708. 2716. or 2732 EPROM. baud rates from 
75 to 9600 

CPU-30201B Bare board w manual $35.00 

CPU-30201K Kit with manual $139.95 

CPU 3021 0A AiT with manual $199.95 

CB-2 - SSM Microcomputer 

2 or 4 MHz Z-80 CPU board with provision lor up to 8K of 
ROM or 4K of RAM on board, extended addressing. IEEE S- 
100. front panel compatible 

CPU-303O0K Kir with manual $229.95 

CPU-30300A A t T with manual $274.95 

2810 Z-80 CPU - CCS. 

2 or 4 MHZ Z-80 CPU with serial I O port t onboard monitor 

PROM, front panel compatible. 

CPU 30400A AiT with PROM $219.95 

2820 Z-80 DMA CPU - CCS. 

4 MHz Z-80 CPU board with 2 serial I O ports t Centronics 
parallel I O port, separate data t status ports. DMA daisy 
chain compatible. 
CPU 30420A A t T with manual $569.95 



S-100 Disk Controllers 



DISK 1 - CompuPro 

8" or 5'V DMA disk controller, single or double density, 
single or double sided. 10 MHz 

IOD-1810A A t T $449.95 

IOO-1810C CSC $554.95 

SFC-52506580F 8" CP/M 2 2 lor Z-80 $174.95 

SFC-52506S86F 8" CP/M 22 for 8086 $299.95 

SFO-541560OOF Oasis single user $499.95 

SFO-S41S8002F Oasis multi-user $949.95 

DOUBLE D - Jade 

High reliablity double density disk controller with on-board 
Z-80A. auxiliary printer port. IEEE S-100. can function in 
multi-user interrupt driven bus 

IOO-1200B Bare board t hdwr man $59.95 

IOD-1200K Kit w hdwr t sltwr man $299.95 

IOD-1200A AiT w/hdwr t sltwr man $359.95 

SFC-59O02O01F CP M 2 2 with Double D $ 99.95 

VERSAFLOPPY II - SD Systems 

Double density disk controller tor any combination of 5' 4 " 
and 8" single or double sided, analog phase-locked loop 
data separator, vectored interrupts. CP/M 2.2 t Oasis 
compatible, control/diagnostic software PROM included 

IOD-1160A A t T with PROM $359.95 

SFC-55009047F CP M 2 2 with VF II $99.95 

2242 DISK CONTROLLER - CCS. 

5' «" or 8' double density disk controller with on-board boot 

loader ROM. tree CP'M 2.2 t manual set 

IOO-1300A A t T with CP M 2 2 $399.95 



2S6K RAMDISK - SD Systems 

ExpandoRAM III expandable Irom 64KIO 256K using 64K x 1 
RAM chips, functions as ultra-high speed disk drive when 
used with optional RAMDISK soltware. compatible with 
CP M. MP M Oasis. Cromemco. t most other Z 80 based 
systems. 

MEM-65064A 64K A t T $474.95 

MEM-65128A 128K A t T $574.95 

MEM-6S192A 192K At T $974.95 

MEM-652S6A ?56K At T $774.95 

SFC-55OO9OO0F RAMDISK sltwr CP M 2 2 $24.95 

128K RAM 21 - CompuPro 

128K x 8 bit or 64K x 18 bit static RAM board. 12 MHz. 24 bit 
addressing. 

MEM-12810A AiT $1609.95 

MEM-12810C CSC $1794.95 

64K EXPANDORAM II - SD Systems 

Expandable RAM board from 16K to 64K using 4116 RAM 
chips 

MEM-16630A 16K A t T $344.95 

MEM-32631A 32K A t T $3*4.95 

MEM-46632A 48K A t T $394.95 

MEM-64633A 64K A t T $399.95 

64K RAM 17 - CompuPro 

64K CMOS static RAM board. 10 MHz. low power less than 4 
watts. DMA compatible. 24 bit addressing 

MEM-64180A 64K A t T $549.95 

MEM-64180C 64K CSC $996.95 

64K RAM 16 - CompuPro 

32K x 16 bit or 64K x 8 tut low power static RAM board. 10 
MHz. 24 bit addressing. 

MEM-32190A RAM 16 A t T $596.95 

MEM-32180C RAM 16 CSC ... $698 95 

64K STATIC RAM - SSM 

If E E 696 SI 00 standard, up to 6MHz 8 Bit. 12MHz 16 Bit. 24 
Bit extended addressing, disable-able in 2K increments 
MEM-643O0A AiT $749.95 

64K STATIC RAM • Mem Merchant 

64K static S-100 RAM card. 4 to I6K banks up lo 8 MHz 
MEM-64400A 64K A t T $594.95 

2065 64K RAM - CCS. 

4 MHz bank port bank byte selectable, extended addressing. 
16K bank selectable, front panel compatible 
MEM-64565A 64K A t T $349.95 

2066 64K RAM - CCS. 

64K RAM board with bank and block select switching 
functions tor Cromemeco Cromix t Alpha Micro 
MEM-64566A 64K A t T $424.95 

MEMORY BANK - Jade 

4 MHz S-100 bank selectable expandable to 64K. 

MEM-99730B Bare board w manual $49.95 

MEM-99730K Kit with no RAM $179.95 

MEM-32731K 32K kit ... $199.9$ 

MEM-64733K 64 K kit $249.95 

Aiiembled * Tetled add $50.00 

32K RAM 20 - CompuPro 

32K static RAM. up to 10 MHz. disable-ablem4K banks, bank 
select or 24 bit addressing. 

MEM-1S180A 16K A t T $259.95 

MEM-16180C 16K CSC $324.95 

MEM-24160A 24K A t T $324.95 

MEM-24180C 24K CSC $394.95 

MEM-3216SA 32K A t T $394.95 

MEM-32165C 32K CSC $449.95 

16K STATIC RAM - Mem Merchant 

4MHz lo power static RAM board. IEEE S-100. bank 
selectable, addressable in 4K blocks, disable able in IK 
segments extended addressing 
MEM-16171A I6K A t T $154.95 



1-100 I/O Boards 



SYSTEM SUPPORT 1 - CompuPro 

Real time clock, three 16 bit interval timers, dual interrupt I 
controllers! 15 levels), up to 4K EPROM /RAM. RS-232C 
serial channel, provision tor 9511 A/9512 math chip. 

IOX-1850A SSI A t T $359.95 

IOX-1850C SSI CSC $459.95 

IOX-1855A with 9511 A t T $554.95 

IOX-1S5SC with 951 1 CSC $654.95 

IOX-1960A with 9512 A t T $$54.95 

IOX-1660C with 9512 CSC $654.95 

INTERFACER 1 • CompuPro 

2 serial I/O ports 50-19 2K baud 

IOI-1910A AiT $219.95 

IOI-1910C CSC $266.95 

INTERFACER 2 - CompuPro 

3 parallel. 1 serial, t interrupt timer 

IOI-1820A A t T $218.95 

IOI-1820C CSC $2*9.95 

INTERFACER 3 - CompuPro 

5 or 8 channel serial I O board for interrupt driven multi- user 
systems up to 250K baud. 

IOI-183SA 5 port A t T $558.95 

I0I-193SC 5 porl CSC $628 95 

IOI-1939A 8 port At T $628.95 

IOI-1939C 8 port CSC $749.95 

INTERFACER 4 - CompuPro 

3 serial. 1 parallel. 1 Centronics parallel 

IOI-1640A AiT $314.95 

IOI-1640C CSC $414.95 

MPX - CompuPro 

Multi-user I/O multiplexer t interrupt controller with on- 
board 8085A-2 CPU t 4K or 16K of RAM 
IOI-187SA 4K MPX A t T $444.95 

IOI-1875C 4K MPX CSC $534.95 

IOI-1880A 16K MPX At T $5*4.95 

IOI-1880C 16K MPX CSC $674.9$ 

1/0-4 - SSM Microcomputer 

2 serial I/O ports plus 2 parallel I/O ports. 

IOI-1010B Bare board wlmanual $35.00 

IOI-1010K Kit with manual $179.95 

IOI-1010A A t T with manual $249.95 

l/O-S - SSM Microcomputer 

Two serial t 3 parallel I/O ports. 110-19 2K Baud 
IOI-101SA 44 7 $2*9.95 

l/O-B - SSM Microcomputer 

Eight software programmable serial I/O ports. 110 -19.2K 

Baud, ideal lor multi-user systems 

IOI-1016A AiT $469.95 

MPC-4 - SD Systems 

Intelligent 4-port serial TO card, on board Z -BOA. 2K RAM. 
4K PROM area, on-board firmware, fully buttered, vectored 
interrupts, lour CTC channels, add to SD Board set lor 
powerlul multi-user system 
IOI-1504A AiT w software $495.00 

2719 2 SER & 2 PAR - CCS. 

Two RS-232C serial I O ports plus two 8 bit parallel I/O ports 
IOI-1060A A t T with manual $349.95 | 

2710 4 PORT SERIAL - CCS. 

Pour RS-232C serial I O ports with lull handshaking. 
IOI-1060A A t T with, manual $319.95 j 

2830 6 PORT SERIAL - CCS. 

Six asynchronous RS-232C serial I/O ports with 

programmable baud rales 

IOI-1040A A t T with manual $529.95 



ilight I) higher at our retail locations. Please cull the store near* 

CIRCLE 173 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



for local i>ri 



How To Solve It— With The Computer 



International Computer 
Problem Solving Contest II 



Donald T. Piele 



Approximately 3000 students at 400 contest sites located in 
44 states and 16 foreign countries participated in the Second 
Annual International Computer Problem Solving Contest 
sponsored by The University of Wisconsin— Parkside. The 
contest was held on Saturday, April 17, 1982. The number of 
teams competing at each site ranged in size from a single 
team made up of the only kid in town who owned an Apple 
II— to the entire southeastern portion of the state of Wiscon- 
sin, where 50 teams descended upon the University of 
Wisconsin— Parkside carrying their micros with them. Placed 
into three divisions (Elementary (grades 4-6), Junior (7-9), and 
Senior (10-12)), teams of up to three students each plugged in 
their machines and prepared for the programming challenge: 
solve five problems within two hours. 

When the smoke had cleared and the last sample run had 
come reeling off the faithful Paper Tiger, students and 
machines rested while the local judges went to work. Local 
winners were announced and, depending upon the organiza- 
tion of the local contest, prizes awarded. 

If a team correctly solved four or five of the problems, the 
contest director sent us their work. If not, the director simply 
reported the results, encouraged his teams to finish the 
problems, and often remarked in a note to us " look out for us 
next year!" 

Team Effort > 

Many local contest directors were surprised at the enthusi- 
asm displayed by students for this competition— independent 

Donald T. Piele. The University of Wisconsin— Parkside. Kenosha. Wl 
53141. 



of individual performances. Teams who managed to solve 
only one problem came away determined to finish the 
remaining problems and improve their score next year. 

Local teachers and contest directors often wrote to request 
more problems to give to their eager teams. Cooperation 
between students working on the problems together helped 
establish the value of the team effort. 

Your Turn 

Following is a copy of the 1982 International Computer 
Problem Solving Contest. If you are a student (or just an 
interested reader) and want to compare your computer 
programming ability with those who entered the contest this 
year, here is your chance. Before looking at the problems, 
read the rules of the contest, get yourself one or two partners, 
set aside a two-hour time period, read the problems, and go to 
work. 

If you are a teacher, you can structure a session for the 
students in your classes who might enjoy a programming 
challenge. The solutions written by the winning teams will 
appear in this column next month. The results of the contest 
will be provided so that you can compare your performance 
with the very best in the country. Happy programming. 

More Problems 

If these aren't enough for you, there are many more 
problems available to challenge your creative computing skills. 
Problem sets from previous contests have appeared in 
Creative Computing (Sept. 1979, pp. 152-153; Feb. 1981, pp. 
86-92; and Oct. 1981. pp. 140-148). O 

1 30 September 1 982 • Creative Computing 



How can you turn ygur>4pple ini 



<■" 






1 2*2«4Nd 






Hi i 




s. 


uw u w 






A schoolteacher? An accountant? A game opponent? 




A security guard? Asecretary? 

Let The Creative Ap ple show yon how-for only $15.95!! 




Your Apple computer is one of the 
most versatile instruments ever invented 
. if you know its potential and how to tap 
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to run them on your Apple! 

The book is The Creative Apple, from 
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You'll discover how to use your Apple 
for graphics, including animation, kaleido- 
scope effects, hi-resolution text, the Apple 
Picture Packer, the Apple Graphics Tablet, 
and integrating CAI and videotape 

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computer (and you'll appreciate the 
reviews of synthesizer peripherals) . . . how 
to use computers in the classroom for 
teaching (as well as for computerizing 
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You'll also find three years' worth of 
the popular "Applecart" column from 
Creative Computing, a guide to data 



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The Creative Apple is an important 
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it's vital that you read it. You'll be amazed 
at how much time, trouble and money 
The Creative Apple will save you. 

To get your copy of this great new 
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creative compatlnff SE^SSSST'"™' 

< i I ip ■ Please send me The Creative Apple for $15 95 plus $2 postage and handling. 
X CiO ! (Outside USA, add $3 for airmail shipping) 

□ Payment enclosed $ (NJ residents add 5% sales tax.) 

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Purchase orders under $50 not accepted. 

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CHARGE ORDERS- For your convenience, call TOLL FREE 800-631-8112. 
(In NJ only, 201-5400445) 



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■■■ 



tfjfj 



Professional Software Introduces 
POWER 

by Brad Templeton 




*]* 



POWER TO YOUR $e9- 9 * 
COMMODORE COMPUTER 



POWER produces a dramatic improvement in the 
ease of editing BASIC on Commodore's computers. 
POWER is a programmer's utility package (in a 4K 
ROM) that contains a series of new commands and 
utilities which are added to the Screen Editor and the 
BASIC Interpreter. Designed for the CBM BASIC 
user, POWER contains special editing, programming, 
and software debugging tools not found in any other 
microcomputer BASIC. POWER is easy to use and is 
sold complete with a full operator's manual written by 
Jim Butterfield. 

POWER'S special keyboard 'instant action' features 
and additional commands make up for, and go beyond 
the limitations of CBM BASIC. The added features 
include auto line numbering, tracing, single stepping 
through programs, line renumbering, and definition 
of keys as BASIC keywords. POWER even includes 



new "stick-on" keycap labels. The cursor movement 
keys are enhanced by the addition of auto-repeat and 
text searching functions are added to help ease pro- 
gram modification. Cursor UP and cursor DOWN 
produce previous and next lines of source code. 
COMPLETE BASIC program listings in memory can 
be displayed on the screen and scrolled in either direc- 
tion. POWER is a must for every serious CBM user. 

Call us today, for the name of the Professional 
Software dealer nearest you. 

Professional Software Inc. 

166 Crescent Road 

Needham, MA 02194 

Tel: (617) 444-5224 Telex #951579 

CIRCLE 209 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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September 1982 c Creative Computing 






IF YOU'RE WAITING FOR TH 
PRICE OF WORD PROCESSORS 
TO FALL WITHIN REASON. 




i 



Everyone expected it would happen 
sooner or later. . .with WordPro PLUS" 
it already has! Now all the marvelous 
benefits of expensive and advanced 
word processing systems are available 
on Commodore computers. America's 
largest selling computer line. WordPro 
PLUS, when combined with the new 80 
column CBM 8032, creates a word pro- 
cessing system comparable to virtually 
any other top quality word processor 
available— but at savings of thousands 
of dollars! 



New, low cost computer technology is 
now available at a fraction of what you 
would expect to pay. This technology 
allowed Commodore to introduce the 
new and revolutionary CBM 8032 
Computer. 

WordPro PLUS turns this new CBM 
8032 Computer into a sophisticated, 
time saving word processing tool. With 
WordPro PLUS, documents are dis- 
played on the computer's screen. Edit- 
ing and last minute revisions are simple 
and easy. No more lengthy re-typing 
sessions. Letters and documents are 
easily re-called from memory storage 
for editing or printing with final drafts 
printed perfectly at over five hundred 
words per minute! 



Our nationwide team of professional 
dealers will show you how your office 
will benefit by using WordPro PLUS. At 
a price far less than you realize. 



Invest in your office's future. . . 
Invest In WordPro PLUS. . . 
Call us today for the nam* of the 
WordPro PLUS dealer nearest you. 



Professional Software Inc. 

166 Crescent Road 
Needham. MA 02194 
(617)444-5224 
TELEX 95 1579 

CIRCLE 210 ON READER SERVICE CARD 









, MX-80 
OWNERS 

MXPLUS™ ADDS NEW CONVENIENCE 

• PERF-SKIP TO AUTOMATICALLY GIVE YOU 
TOP AND BOTTOM MARGIN ON EACH PAGE. 

(SWITCH SELECTABLE, OF COURSE) 

• MANUAL PRINT MODE CONTROL TO LET 
YOU SELECT CONDENSED, EMPHASIZED, 
OR NORMAL PRINTING INSTANTLY USING 
THE PRINTER PANEL BUTTONS. 

MXPLUS™ INSTALLS IN MINUTES, NO SOLDERING! 

MXPLUS IS A PLUG-IN MODULE FOR MX-80. MX-BOF/T. AND MX-100 
AND IS COMPATIBLE WITH GRAFTRAX AND ALL INTERFACE BOARDS 
MXPLUS IS UNCONDITIONALLY GUARANTEED FOR 30 DAYS 



'■V GRAFTRAX Aflf TRADEMARKS OF EPSOM 



ORDER TODAY 

ORDERS CALL 24 MR 800-835 2246 i44 I 
INFORMATION CALL 2 I 3 969-2250 



ORESSELHAUS COMPUTER PRODUCTS 
22713 VENTURA BLVD. SUITE F 
WOODLAND HILLS. CA 91364 



$49.95 

POSTPAID CALIF A00 6% 

SAME DAT SHIPPING 

WITH MC/VISA 



1 

1 
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CIRCLE 157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



QUALITY SOFTWARE FOR TRS-80 COLOR AND OSI 




BASIC THAT ZOOOMMSM 
AT LAST AN AFFORDABLE COMPILER 
FOR OSI AND TRS-80 COLOR MA- 
CHINES!!! The compiler allows you to 
write your program* in easy BASIC and 
then automatically generates a machine 
code equivalent that runs 50 to 150 times 
faster. 

It does have some limitations. It takes at 
least 8K of RAM to run the compiler and it 
does only support a subset of BASIC about 
20 commands including FOR, NEXT, END. 
GOSUB. GOTO. RETURN, END. PRINT. 
STOP. USR(X). PEEK. POKE. *./. + .-. 
X , X . = . VARIABLE NAMES AZ. A 
SUBSCRIPTED VARIABLE, and INTE 
GER NUMBERS FROM 64K 
TINY COMPILER is written in BASIC. It 
generates native, relocatable 6502 or 6809 
code. It comes with a 20 page manual and 
can be modified or augmented by the user. 
$24.95 on tape or disk for OSI or TRS-80 
Color. 



LABYRINTH - 16K EXTENDED COLOR 
BASIC - With ama/ing 3D graphics, you 
fight your way through a ma/e facing real 
time monsters. The graphics are real enough 
to cause claustrophobia. The most realistic 
game that I have ever seen on either system. 
$14.95. (8K on OSI) 



UUIiVlUiUL 



QUEST - A NEW IDEA IN ADVEN 
TURE GAMES! Different from all the 
others. Quest is played on a computer 
generated map of Alesia. Your job is to 
gather men and supplies by combat, bargain- 
ing, exploration of ruins and temples and 
outright banditry. When your force is strong 
enough, you attack the Citadel of Moorlock 
in a life or death battle to the finish. Play- 
able in 2 to 5 hours, this one is different 
every time. 

16K COLOR 80 OR TRS-80 or 12KOSI 
$14.95. 





VENTURER!- A fast action all machine 
code Arcade game that feels like an adven- 
ture. Go berserk as you sneak past the 
DREADED HALL MONSTERS to gather 
treasure in room after room, killing the 
NASTIES as you go. Great color, high res 
graphics, sound and Joystick game for the 
TRS-80 Color or OSI machines, (black 
and white and silent on OSI.) Tape only. 
$19.95 



Send $1 .00 for complete catalog of Games. Utilities & Business Software. 



**^ 2352 S. 
TRS 80 COLOR 



AARDVARK - 80 
Commerce, Walled Lake, Ml 48088 
(313)669-3110 



% 



OSI 



CIRCLE 101 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



INTRODUCING 

WATSON 

Teamed up inside 

your Apple, Watson 
adds new features 

that give you complete 
access to everything you ever 

wanted to know about memory 
and disks. Recover blown disks, 
fix catalog entries, display and delete 
control characters, repair bad data files even 
on disks with non-normal DOS. Search forward and 
backwards in memory, edit in HEX, ASCII, NEGATIVE ASCII 
and LOWER CASE. Scan disks forward and backwards, follow files 
forward and backwards in track/ sector list on either 13- or 16-sector 
disks. Lockout sector* on Track Ml Map. reconstruct VTOC. find and display all 
Track/Vector Lists, display map of Vectors used on disk, read Nibbles trark-b\-lrack. 



Now The Inspector 

[AS an A SSISTANT 




Unassemble with 4M II dupUml kill |MM and (lathing characters, trrih and compare disks 
differences read and wntr directlv to disks Otcr D*t,\ to dtsplav control character* in inverse and dar 
sirrrrt to a printer with a CTRI / even from within b\M( There'* more but we re running on! nf spate 
Oh w t II tou grt the idea 



I 
il 



Kprom cir disk u-rsions arc al»a\s ai 
/ Miur fingertips Ualson inquires The 
Inspector) $-t'l'ls The Inspector. 
Ss'l 'Is At your local dealer or direct 
Master! ard and \isa holders order 
loll free or return the coupon 

1-800-835-2246 
CA/VVs 

Send me ©A**** MtelrOVVJMf, INC 

The Inspector @ Ss'l 'Is 111 So. Riverside Pla/a 

I Warn @ $■<<) 'Is Chicago. II 60606 

Check or money order enclosed 312-648-4844 

Si stem description 
Apple II Apple II + D Integer Card H I6K Ram card D 



CIRCLE 265 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Contest, continued... 



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September 1982 c Creative Computing 



I HUNTINGTON COMPUTING I 

I 2~: "IT'S A CHILD" SALE \ 

B\^-/ To celebrate the birth of our new child, scheduled for Caesarean birth on June 10, we offer 

y « s "*\ v i , ,ne following specials. Our press deadline was early May, so we couldn't print whether it m 

M r^v -.V— ^ was a boy or girl. So, if you give us acall. we II be happy to brag about our new addition. M 
P5 ^T^LlJZ^S^ —Barb, Fred and Melody Huntington 

[jj \ffv^r ) A " programs on disk for Apple \m 

E.S.P. (Huntington) $1 1.99 

f Axiom Graphics Printer GPiooA.w.thcard/cabie $349.00 

i BMC Green Screen $99.00 

f Dosource (Lazeo $19.99 f 

J Skeet Shoot/Trap Shoot (Hun.ng.on> $14.99 

f Screen Writer II ( onune) $99.99 S 

9 Pie Writer (Hayden) $109.00 3 

£ VisiCalc (vscor P ) $199.00 £ 

HOdge POdge (Dynacomp or Artworks) $15.99 £ 

f Lemmings (s,n U s) $19.99 £ 

S Little Red Riding Hood (m.a.o $21.19 i 

f Cyber Strike (sn») $29.99 £ 

i HOmbleSCOpe III (Huntington) $19.99 i 

y Party Pac (H U nt,n g ton) $19.99 S 

I Bandits (s,n US ) $24.99 1 

k Computer Foosball (ssnus) $19.99 £ 

I Twerps onus) $19.99 i 

f Hellfire Warrior ( E Py x) $29.99 f 

i Labyrinth (Broderbund) $19.99 i 

> David's Midnight Magic (Broderbund) $27.99 V 

i Star Blazer (Broderbund) $19.99 

k Super Text II (Muse) $1 19.00 k 

Three Mile Island (Muse) $29.99 i 

Ti Call TOH-Free 800"344«5 106 (outside California) B 

U HUNTINCTON COMPUTING We take MasterCard. American Express or VISA (Include card # and 

B 1, p™inniri.fln< i?<>7 *<*>* ' ,s • '•»«•'•» trademark oi Apple Computer inc expiration dale) California residents add 6% lax Include $2 00 tor postage -^ 

Jt, «,,,, Per* a reo,steredirao»marw Commodore Foreign and hardware extra Foreign (excluding Canada) remit U S cur WA 

Corcoran, California 9321 Z trs eo-» a reg^edtrademaAtf Tandy Corp rency. checks on U S banks, use listed charge cards, or make direct wire fal 

Br„,„,„„ r»,Ha»re OnQ QQ9-AAR 1 " * " 9M " a uaMm "* <* *»" "* translers through Security Pacific Bank. Corcoran, tor a $6 00 charge All IfJ 

roreign y raers ^u»-3r«-*TO i OutsideCalil 800-344-5106 overseas orders shipped by air Send tor free catalog Prices subiect to M 

In California 800-692-4146 ^^ change without notice ■»! 



CIRCLE 171 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Contest, continued... 



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September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 






■■i 



^m 



How many times 
must your 
computer stop 
just to talk 
to your printer? 



Your computer talks faster than 
your printer can listen. Expensive 
time is lost forever. SPOOL/64, a 
64k byte hardware print spooler, 
keeps your computer processing 
while your printer is printing. No 
more waiting. No more wasting. 

SPOOL/64 buffers your print 
output and transmits the 
information to your printer at the 
printer's specific print rate. It 
buffers up to 13 minutes of print 
output (at 80 characters per 
second). 

SPOOL/64 plugs directly into 
both your printer and 




computer, accepts input from 
parallel Centronics cables (serial 
RS-232 available soon), and its 
user programming feature allows 
you to download your own 
programs so SPOOL/64 can 
handle sophisticated print 



routines. And SPOOL/64, used 
with your software spooler, can 
give you the highest performance 
spooling available. 




Sl'( K )l I>1 utilize* 64k of dynamic RAM, a 
Z-80 ( I't . a 27 16 ROM and a copy of the 
lource program for the object code in the 
ROM it included. 

SPOOL/64, priced at just $399, 
is the most cost/effective print 
spooler on the market. Evaluate 
performance. Evaluate price. 
Then let SPOOL/64 get your 
computer back talking to you. 
Call or write Apparat today for a 
free brochure. Dealer inquiries 
invited. 



Apparat, Inc. 

4401 So. Tamarac Parkway, Denver, CO 80237 (303) 741-1778 

ON GOING SUPPORT FOR MICROCOMPUTERS' 

CIRCLE 1 10 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NEW23K 
PERSONAL COMPUTER 



$239.00 



FACTORY SALE 
PRICE 




You get the NEW APF IM-1 Full Size 
Powerful Computer: Includes 14K ROM 
with Level II BASIC built in. 9K user 
RAM, Color, Sound. Professional 53 
keyboard. Two Controllers. Two 10 key 
numeric pads. High speed cassette. AC 
Adapter. RF Modulator. TV Switchbox 
Accepts TAPE-DISK-PLUG IN CAR- 
TRIDGES. It is PLUG IN EXPANDABLE 
at low cost. 90 day parts and labor 
warranty, owner's guide. BASIC language 
manual. All this in a beautiful black and 
white console case for only $239.00. 
15 DAY FREE TRIAL Return within 15 
days complete and undamaged for refund 
of purchase price. 
PROTECTO ENTERPRIZES 
BOX 550, BARRINGTON, IL 60010 
I TO ORDER PHONE 312/382-5244 

CIRCLE 212 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MEMOREX 

FLEXIBLE DISCS 

WE WILL NOT BE UNDER- 
SOLD!! Call Free (800)235-4137 

for prices and information Dealer 
inquiries invited and COD's 
accepted 




PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blvd 
San Luis Obispo CA 
93401 In Cal call 
(800)592-5935 or 
805)543- 1037 






CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

TRS-80. COLOR COMPUTER. PET 

& APPLE II 
ELEMENTARY MATH 
SCIENCE HISTORY 

GEOGRAPHY ACCOUNTING 
ECONOMIC8 BUSINESS ED. 
FOREIGN LANG. PHYSICS 
GRAMMAR FARM RECORDS 

Write for FREE Catalogue: 

MICRO LEARNINGWARE, Box 
2134. N Mankalo. MN 56001 

(607) 625-2206 
VISA 6 MASTER CARD ACCEPTED 

We pay 1 5% royalty for Educational 
Programs listed with us. 
TRS-80 is a registered trademark of 
TANDY CORP. 

PET is a trademark of COMMO- 
DORE BUS MACHINES. 
APPLE is a trademark of APPLE 
COMPUTER CO. 



Contest, continued. 



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y42l3 



PO Bo- 6471 Greenv<lk«SC 29b06 



Ph 803 297 0'jW 



S®IPTr(HaH[R(S 

PACKER Machine language program that adits all or 
in faster. 



part of your Baste program to run I 

or easa editing Tha 5 options includa UNPACK - 
unpacks multiple statement lines into single statements 
maintaining logic inserts spaces and renumbers Unas 
SHORT —deletes unnecessary words, spaces, and REM 
statements PACK - packs lines into ma »imum multiple 



lining program logic RENUM- 
renumbers lines, including all branches MOVE-moves 
line or blocks ol lines to any new location in program 
On 2 cassettes lor I6K. 32K, a 48K For TRS-80"* 
Mod I or III Level II or Disk Basic S29 95 

SYSTEM TAPE DUPLICATOR Copy your SYSTEM 
lormat tapes Includes verily routines The Modal III 
version allows use ol both 500 and 1500 baud cassette 



For T RS-80™ Model I or III Level II * 1 5 95 

CASSETTE LABEL MAKER A mini word processor 
to print cassette labels on a line printer. Includes 50 
peel-and-stick labels on tractor lead paper 
For TRS-80" , Model I or 111 Level II S Printer $17 95 
PRINT TO LPRINT TO PRINT Edits your Base program 
In seconds to change all Prints to LPnnts (except 
Print* or Print* | or LPnnts to Pnnts Save edited 
version 

For TRS-SO™ Model I or III Laval II » i ? 95 

FAST SORTING ROUTINES For use with Radio 
Shacks Accounts Receivable Inventory Control I. 
and Disk Mailing List Systems tor Model I Level II 
Sorts in SECONDS' You II be amazed at tha time they 
can save Supplied on data diskette with complete 
instructions 
FAST SORT tor Accounts Receivable »1«»5 

FAST SORT tor Inventory Control I » 1 9 »5 

FAST SORT tor Dak Mailing List Isoeeity data drskette 
cassette lor 1 drive system) J14 95 

ALL THREE ROUTINES »44 95 

Prices subiect to change without nonce Call or writ* 
tor complete catalog Dealer inquiries invited VISA 
and MasterCard accepted Foreign orders in US 
currency only Kansas residents add 3% sales tax 
On-line catalog on Wichita FORUM-80 316-682-21 13 
Or call our 24 hour phone 316-663-481 1 or write 
COTTAGE SOFTWARE 
614 N Harding Wichita. KS 67208 
TRS-80 is a trademark ol Tandy Corporation 



CIRCLE 102 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 186 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 140 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



■bV 



It's hard to picture 

all of DYNACOMP's software 




(C) 1982 PROMEDIA ASSOCIATES 



TURN TO NEXT PAGE. 



- 



DYNACOMP 

Quality software for*: 

APPLE II Plus ALTAIR**** 

OSBORNE- 1 NEC PC-8000 

NORTH STAR*** TRS-80 (Level II)** 

ATARI SUPERBRAIN***** 

PET/CBM CP/M Disks/Diskettes 

. See Availability boa . 
( MtASIC CBASIC ) 



CARD GAMES 

BRIDGt MASTER I A»a.1abie lor all computer*) Price: S21.93 Ditactic 

H vh. I*-J DYSAt DMrs amOG( 1*. »M «eH ak.ptor.aly tan BRWGf HASMK rlHIIW.I MAMI K W ■ 
rt.OMj n Wa. to . krMtoja iwpn Ore ip. 4 te at—tea tww af rW Biaojaej t.MMjaetltoa fcraftrajtea 
~«U-J imhMw Stavo 




■mv epoaeca m RR11K..MASTIK W a mmmI ckeaaa af M M at*. 
> haal O rt a i Ml >HH<W M*IH MHjat k. rata — a. 

BACCARAT (Atari onrti Price: SIMS Cf»etec/t22.93 Diienie 

TW. to ah* Cmama car* ph «Mtk to (W ImH at tW Mhn Carte mm act Wmmm— t«ml ai iW paavaa taato 
•*eh 097 m yea* kAa*MlGafa1BBMMMtoya*«r*eta l.ata a-Calay BACIAKAT at *°at !.«*..«- iW Atari CoiMataaktM 
took ™.M— cola* a>aak«. aa* Q»eetkM.a aaaoal lUaa W IML ~ 



Price: S22.95 r'lllini 



GIN R1MMY (AppkditkttMMl*) 

TTii i Ttii li i it ■■ ■ ■ ■■ a. ■ ■ T ■ ■ i r aol n aii n uinin ItHTtrtY i Till m ap plan .pi m aaRy »,■ M j 

rW HIKI S oraoWc. are aaoark Wka* aaw car. W tate" 

POKER PARTY (Available for all towaf.cm) Mm S19.95 Cattctte S2J.95 Drakctte 

fl*l« PARTY n a aVa. poker xaaurM taiai a- aba Wok. POKER, kv Oer/eW Jetaky TtMa la Mat aa« 
I'aHaMa far taacrociraoariri TW pi<% c—eleto a* yearee" aori hi aCWr lc aaaaman otayw 
Fat fc ol ra m p layiri b; ■■ ■ « in lo a — R u ral a a i a eafJreeari p ml aalia, *» ah* W t aafa i an u p p r ip ■ naMy tahtotfa* 




a TWBLAC RJACKCOACHct 



• BLACKJA4 M iim )t' 



THOUGHT PROVOKERS 

MANAGFMf NT SIMULATOR (AtkilabkroralleMMpMicnl Price $2? 93Cattctic S29 95 Dttarttr 

n» prooraai at balk as *M*ll*at leeclMaej loot aa wall aa a •tMwhMMf laltttortool pawn Baioo 1 eat— .MiMlat |ian 
playeC at otaoaaM to n lo m acWila, eetk ptaya* ut teaaa c aMrae* a coaapeo* okarfc ■UnaaiWnn tfcree praeW la 
tack ataye. aMaaaaaa lo ao tp arfaiw kat naaaaajeart by irmoa aatkaa prteaa, p*oaW«oa m l— ill, ie*Wkaa **4 
a » ia» tu < M H a»i at. TW a*—* iai l iiatal jraa la Hat aaw aHtk rW kMpWat at 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR I Ava.labt* for all coatawmi Price: SltXfS/CM 




FROG MASTER (Atari oary) 

IW Alert APT X Aral t>ue »«« rROG MASITR 
i It tea 



of keck 
Price: S 17.95 Caaacttc S21 9! Dttkem 




FOREST PUbtl I Atari .-.I) I 



• an J toaato M rbfrkorey. 



CRANSTON MANOR ADVENTURE (Ncteth Star. Sti-cYBrataartd LP Mo«J)) Pr.ce .119.95 DiaActU 

At loal* A «t crti. i . h . Aaaoaa— oaaaa fat Mataa Urn aoo CP/M ra m aaaa t tlANSItW MANOR ADVf NTtWE 
lakrawaaiaiai CRAW»TOWItAWO«a*a.*^.ara^aa > « w l>< aa^|^ M i.., > 




Rl UK-SI I HI MHMR.A»a 1 Uhkf.wallc.-n P -«rr. l Prart $14 .95 < nwm SIB 95 Drafcrtw 121 4* D.U. 

Saa*aa t iW»kifca>.<a»-a*j.l*>«a«a«awlaa«>al > iilaliaiii t aaaw. alalia a'aa*a.aT taicaioaaaa. .akaUoia TW 
mjaUTS C tmt SOt Vt H amam vm. to Muaat ah. ataraNa(Ma*.a4ataI«la>H 4 .4aaa n nWaWcaka k BbaaaalnattHi 
aToataaaoa)aaaaearaiiaa»,oMkao«kaiaaiiaioo^o»o>^aa«4ila»alr^ h> 



AVAILABILITY 



ms*ioMf 




vcwrHMMiMi mmt nuoriraf VjMRRRaiiv Minmunxumiior^w 




DYNACOMP OFFERS THE FOLLOWING 

• Widest variety • Friendly service 

• Guaranteed quality • Free catalog* 

• Fastest delivery • Toll free order phone 






AND MORE... 



Prk»:SU.95Caaa««c/SI7.9S DrahtfU 

i -a'i -*-- J " -|[ J *"" a« rh* UvaacAit 

a TW CiapRtw etar a w ara aiaaaora fcajki an* k— >? 

• ANALOCM&, 



Ul' MEN FROM MARS t Atari o«l)) Price: S19.95 Ca«*etM/S23 93 

Dlhii t liliaa1lWka»aaw,| t aiol*araawaa<taaatyaoa , aaaaaalaairk..ofcr» . ThMiaar 

>a*t oaaaa wkwk eaordaaa aaaxk ol rW Atari* a* 



i t arWirkOS >aa n aa.a#TWCioakaaaa«avaal WaaWai 



ALVIN (Auri oea>) 
ALVINM aam 
(Maa. Yooan 
I'OtCMANO" «a 



Price: 117 9? Caaan**7S2l-93 Dtakenc 




w — « <ak *a« kava rW 
c k tf. ■ | ■ t tool r kt fcatt attatafj 
aa4 oaotluV rrttool la IW *W» A **■ a wn 

ESCAPE FROM VOLANTIUM I Atari o-r> I 



ALPHA FIGHTER (Atari oalyl Price: SI J.95 Ca*aetat/tl7 93 Drakette 

Ian eacaWl fraaWra oaal oc— O H Otaaw !■ a— ' ALTMA IrfaWTtW r t aa m oao to aVaway rW ak— ataraktoa 

|II1|-1-V-H*T - .^-,-.- | ajPHARASt «»rlw M rt l alo-al--(*0-vaa«-.latk«ll»e).o«k v 

a-C *W »aajM ea*V Botk «aa»M rao^ava rW MvaOc • ea^a^ a«a^aa»wt^ ia»«aAr»Vak aWI>H^-'»« »«»^ ALfHA 

riUmR «« mm a- I«K ryataea. 



Till RINGS OF THE EMPIRE (Atari <mI*) 



■ SI4.93 CMteite SlI 95 Daakenc 



lv) Price: SI3.93 Caa»ctie,SI9 93 Diakciie 

m atWck aaaiaa oaotooWiol H liataW -TJtoaCalar' kaawte (aal alolaa Ma at— a TW 

r»ilraW M iraiakaraa<aa<aaar»ia c la<ia»irtoa»oaataRraaa. Vaoiai t Ralaa* y n —aW>io.«aaa»i.krrat 

at— » flaa Irvoh at eamcolra ore p n . H i< INTRtlOCR ALfT » » ■— a loyawh oa4 aW too a- IkK ayaMr— 

Price: SI4.93 Caaacttc /SIS. 9 3 Dukettc 

Wrk MMkalao Rao* to IkK 

Price: SI7.93 C atactic Ul 95 DttActte 
Ta 




(.AMI S PACK I lAiailaktrfor all cotrtpMcrti Price: SI4.93 Catacne/SIS.93 DialeMc 

CA»£& PACK I c— aaaaa rW cloaatc c.-pal.i acoaaa ol BLAt-IUACK LUWAJI LAMrt-R CHAPS MORWRAt I 
•MrTTCHaoooMwa Ik era aaiw Wao Waociaabtoaeiloloooetotoaotoo.oa. to. a—a Wl ia » i | TWyacaiioktiaaRp 

~ a.oatacn—«a«nb-)-|-K.|o-l«rWOVT»A<:<>Mr««-« -*»LAt KJAI M 

GAMFS PACK II (Availcbk for all raracwMnl Price: 114.95 Ca»*cn« -S I B.93 Dnkctat 

IJ^MISI-At HllHarkMto.ah.aaow.LRA/WK41Ts J.ITTo A< I > 1M K IV I If I VAJRIPUk a-C orWn AaaMfc 
GAMES PACK I. aU rW oaaar. an kMHWI aa ooa oroajraaa oad a» c«M koa • a oaioa Yoo --I aorMroiatk/ — pav 
DYNACOMP. «w ol CRAZY UOHTS 
WW pay S* W or eaaro par Bragraaa .fc— y— c— Wp a OYPtACOMP t i |, t> i. to. mm* tll«' 

MOON PROBE (Atailabk kw all corafMiiertj Price: SI2.93 Caaaenc'Slk-95 D.Urtic 

Tkto to — aatoaeaalp ckoWoffMMj ~Wmm I— aW atoaroa* TW an aao*t *ao kaoi orkM to baaa at a pite«tirraloi< 
la*«M o* aW earan'a aanar* Yoo taotrol rW ihh. aaC ocaaataltoB ol yoo* era* aWt Ctrort rW tat. af Caa c eat aral 
aepropcfc aoota Raaia la I Ml Aaarv 

SPACE TRAP (Auri ortr}, UK) Price: SI 4.93 CaaaeUe/SIS.93 Difkcne 

TMa taiacnr "oWot aea a» _ tt»4i atw paac— yot> -ear a aaa«kk<Mk Ya«ca«efalfm«a>e<actaRaaa»«rW|oyoaick 



SUPER SUB CHASE (Atari o-Jyl 

SUTLH SUB CHAH at f to*.. a aaort h — rl C M * ay rataal.a Wtyaa 
yaolMaa i (a.iW W ieaa>aka«atlaa WtaWaW^ckareo .aolaatoaoi 
— aaVkcrK* a—w oancfc aaWa aaVaaaaoa oltW Atari". araaWi* oaal i 



Price: SI993 CaaacncS2L93 DrahetM 

cat— aoal 
Pktaalajasjj 

-4.eaae.il 



TWO PLAYER GAMES 



ky OYNACOMP I 

' a)to.—lySl**S4a 
■ataa— aa. 

Wt-I PANZf Raod BLIT/KRII*. 

PANZIR 

Ooto BSNo* IMS Place Savant aatrm • 



a.SH9S'aWa NyoakWow*. 



i nVNACOklPaaVtt IW*. 



■ Ate.— ..a^Hw 



atraartaa to ew t—at: F taare TW rraaaa Wcea kaa pr 

aaraa— at aW Ataa a S .aiio. p oMriao. ■■e rW aHaltaMa— .ataWFraa«karato.ttoaWtaaoliao t aRpaataal A 

rW aVlva — Parto 

Wi 'I STARSHIP TROOPERS and INVASION OF THE MUD PEOPLF 

SI AR SHIP TROOPtJIS 

Dear Fertlerk Ceawary Place AracraaM aaaaot of Skaol TW Wm aaVoot karate — aha ataaa* SWol .kick 




Sat -1 FALL OF THE THIRD REICH a«J ARMORCAR 
* AU Of THE THIRD HUM 
Dear kWck. I94S PUcr Raaaaaoa, Ganaaoy TW aaWa at 



CiWRWh TW 



ARieoeKAR 

IWtoSFak 1944 Plata kboak. Raa 

ft MOUNT SURIBACHI 

kKHJNTSI'MaVM HI 

Doar la»«. 1*4$ pu.. (.„. 



I taock ehaoi ahraapk |MWtlaa 



1 MIDDLE I ARTH 




MISCELLANEOUS 



CRYSTALS (Atari ortly I 



CRYSTALS km k 



Prke: SI4.93 Caaaene.SIB.93 DkAetie 



J aha AlaM Roaa to IkK 



NORTH STAR SOFTWARi FXCHANGt (SSM I LIBRARY 
DVHACO H P—a eialrtaaia. rW 1) ,.l,». NSSf kfctoty TWaa raakanaa 
oaralaaalli n vakat tor Car pavcWaa artca TWy th i ol aa pan af avary N 

DVHSCOMP to* aatao. n apiate n eh. c— wi . at ah. sssi .aatocra— 

fStea 19 H aackvtB 91 aatk 14 or ■aarel 

TW caaaeaara cabcW atay W pajtckaao*) to* Bl *• •* 



Ptk* 139 9V20 Dtakettca 



BUSINESS and UTILITIES 

h<fcM <*Mn m «i M ■*»»■■ aa.l ^OT ia^laMaOT *- r ^~-.^~ "~ 



PERSONAL FINANCE SYStl Mi A>»toM. to K mm 
ws«i «»M.n M ., w „ . w ,.,^,. 



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COPY. WLWUCL EMIT. MOW. LENGTH IRVt M UW (LEAR AiWmI^ A^Vsi . 
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IM M INK (4 



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•*~m*~mm<m»wrmtmiD*m4sari*tM 
Prta* SI X« Cmmoti S 1 7 «5 I 



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CIRCLE 158 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Modular Data Base for the Apple 



Mark Pelczarski 



The single application for which com- 
puters are most used is storage and retrieval 
of information. The type of program that 
accomplishes this task is a data base pro- 
gram. A data base program can turn a 
computer into an electronic filing system 
through which almost any kind of data 
can be stored for further reference, then 
retrieved in a variety of ways. 

The following program is an Apple data 
base that can handle thousands of pieces 
of information in each Tile" that you create. 
A RAM-based version of this program 
(one that holds all the data in memory, 
rather than on disk) appeared in a series 
called "The Developing Data Base" in 
Soft Side magazine last year. This version, 
which uses random access disk files, is 
significantly different, however, and those 
who typed in the previous version will 
probably find it easiest to start anew. 

Structurally, the program begins with a 
main routine (lines 10 through 600) that 
lists the available options. Each option 
has a corresponding subroutine, which is 
a module separate from any other part of 
the program. (See Figure I for the actual 
organization.) These modules can be easily 
changed or replaced with little concern 
about affecting other modules of the pro- 



Mark Pefc-nraU. 121* Kiaes Circle. Wcm Chk-atto. 
ILMHM.V 



gram. This makes it easy to update or 
customize the program. 

Data Storage 

The actual organization of information 
can be pictured as a table with rows and 
columns. Each row is a record. (Using a 
mailing list as an example, one record 



would be one person's name, address, city, 
state, and zip code.) Each column in the 
table has a heading under which there is 
information for each record. (The headings 
in the mailing list example would be Name. 
Address. City, State, and Zip.) To allow 
the most efficient use of memory, the 
items in only one of the columns are 



! Figure I. Subroutine Organization. ' 



INITIALIZE NEW FILE 




LOAD FILE 



MAIN ROUTINE 

(selections! 



/ p 


i 


CD 


PRINT 

INITIALIZE 






t 




SEARCH ROUTINE 




ADD ONE 
RECORD 



/ 



\° 



PRINT ONE 
RECORD 



CHANGE 

ONE 
RECORD 



DELETE 

ONE 
RECORD 



146 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



^IT 






jmtftwo^ 





has there been so much talk about printing) 



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in the world, gives a whole new perspec- 
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printer — TP-1. Gutenberg would surely 
approve of the TP-1, a microprocessor 
controlled, high duality daisy wheel 
printer, it produces perfectly formed, 
executive quality printouts at the speed 
of 120 words per minute. Typewriter 
quality printing at dot matrix prices. 



Simple, durable and dependable, TP-1 
may be used with word processing 
systems, microcomputers and most 
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Now, all your letters, documents, 
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Dont delay. Order your TP-1 TODAY at 
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Data Base, continued... 

stored in RAM at any time. When a par- 
ticular record is needed, the remainder of 
the information is pulled from disk. 

To make it possible to pull any given 
record from disk at any time, a random 
access disk file is used. A sequential file 
only allows you to read or write items in 
sequence (if you wanted the tenth record 
you would first have to read records one 
through nine). A random access file allows 
you to specify what number record you 
want, and the computer automatically 
calculates an offset and gets only the 
information needed. To allow calculation 
of the offset, however, each record must 
be identical in size. 

To avoid shuffling information around 
on the disk (when sorting a file, for 
example) one other set of information 
will be kept in RAM. IS is the array 
consisting of items under one of the head- 
ings; P% will be a corresponding array 
containing the number of each record as 
it appears on disk. In other words the first 
record in sequence in RAM. after sorting 
or whatever, may be the 16th on the disk. 
P%(1) would then contain the number 16. 

There are a few other observations I 
should make on storage. To conserve 
space, the zero element in each array has 
been used. Thus, heading 1 is stored in 
H$(0t. where H$ is the array that holds 
the heading names. Likewise, the first item 




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for TRS-80, APPLE II, PET 



MATH • LANGUAGE ARTS 

READING • SPELLING 
LITERACY •PROGRAMMING 



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is in I$(0), which means in our example 
above that it is actually P%(0) thai would 
contain the number 16. 

TIS is an array containing one record 
as it is being processed in RAM. When a 
record is sent to disk, it is sent from TIS. 
Likewise, when one is read from disk it is 
put in TIS. 



NI and NH are the number of items 
(records) and number of headings, respec- 
tively, except that the value of each is 
one less than the actual value since zero 
is counted. (Example: if there are eight 
headings, NH is 7. covering headings 
through 7). CH contains the number of 
the current heading for which the items 



1160 IF NI=-1 THEN 1180 
1178 FOR 1=0 TO Nil 
INPUT P*< I ■: 

NEXT 

PRINT Vf, "CLOSE" :F*+". HDG" 

PRINT Cf ; "0PEN";F*+". DhT.L" IB*<NH+1 > 

IF NI=-1 THEN 1229 

G0SUB 1306 

SS"H RETURN 

PRINT "FILE NOT FOUND* I GET H*: POKE 216,0: GOTO 110 

REM READ ITEMS UNDER HEADING CH 

PRINT: 

FOP 1=0 TO NI 

PRINT D#l "REhD";F*«-". DAT.R"lP5{<I>J ",BMB54<CH> 
INPUT I*. I i 

NEXT 

PRINT [■*: RETURN 

REM INITIALIZE SUBROUTINE VERS. 1 

INPUT "GIVE YOUR FILE A NhME : ":FS 



NhRi PELCZhFSf I 



1180 
1 1 96 

1200 

1210 
1220 
121.0 
1299 

1300 

1318 

1 320 
1330 
1 340 
1499 

i see 

10 PEMTHE DEVELOPING DHTh BASE 
20 REM COPYRIGHT 1981. 
100 D*=CHR*<4:.: REM C0NTR0L-D 
105 DIM C*<7>>Cl*<7).C2%<7>.F*<6>i CH=0 
116 HOME: PRINT "i I I INITIhLIZE h NEIjI DhTh SET" 
120 PRINT "<D LOhC' h PREVIOUSLY SAVED DhTh SET "•'": 
130 GET h*: PRINT hJ 
140 IF H*="L" THEN 

G0SUB 1000: GOTO 200 
ISe IF h*="I" THEN 

G0SUB 1500: GOTO 200 
160 GOTO 130 

HOME: PRINT "<S) SAVE CURRENT DATA" 
PRINT DHTH" 
HDD DhTh" 
CHANGE h RECORD" 

•<d> delete a record" 
■<t> sort" 

*<F> FILE NhMES" 
"<N> NEW DHTH FILE" 
"<Q> QUIT" 

PRINT NI + l; n RECORDS. ROOM FOR' "JHX-NI-II" MORE 1 
PRINT h«: PRINT 



'• H • 

•<C) 



200 POKE 216,0: 

i^D PRINT "<P) 

230 PRINT 

240 PRINT 

250 PRINT 

268 PRINT 

270 PRINT 

280 PRINT 

290 PRINT 

295 PRINT: 

300 GET Atl 

320 IF H*="S" THEN 

G0SUB 2000: GOTO 200 
330 IF h*="P" THEN 

80SUB 3000: GOTO 200 

340 IF H*="H" THEN 

G0SUB 4000: GOTO 200 
350 IF h*="C" THEN 

SB=3: G0SU6 8000: GOTO 200 
360 IF h*="D" THEN 

S6=4: FS=l: G0SUB 8000: GOTO 200 
370 IF H««"T" THEN 

G0SUB 7000: GOTO 290 
380 IF h*="F" THEN 

G0SUB 600: GOTO 200 
400 IF H*="Q" OR H*="N" THEN 500 
410 GOTO 200 
500 IF SS=1 THEN 530 
520 G0SUB 2000 

530 PRINT D»! "CLOSE" :F*+". DhT" 
540 IF H*="N" THEN 

CLEHR: GOTO 100 
550 END 

600 PRINT D*;"ChThL0G": GET H*: RETURN 
999 REM LOAD SUBROUTINE VERS. 1 
1000 INPUT "FILE NhME-' ":F* 
1010 0NERR GOTO 1230 
1020 PRINT D*:"0PEN"?F*:". HDG" 
1030 PRINT D*:"REhD":F*+ ,, .HDG" 
1040 INPUT NH.NI.HX.LI 

1130 DIN H*> nh-.bv nh+i ■• it'M:>,PV m:: ',ti*'Nh ■ 

1140 FOP 1=0 TO NH: 

INPUT Hf ■ I '-BV I ■: 

ne: :t 
1150 input bvnh+1 ■ 



CIRCLE 162 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



148 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 















T|/i 


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fcciPP 












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$P 


p**^ 


N 

1 


— 


« 


PRICE 


NAME :,'•' PRICE 




mm w^* ^^m% WW 


JNS-FORT DEFIANCE 


DK 


S21 


RUSSKI DUCK 


DK 


S3D 






M —eRR^^^T 




*^^^ 






HELLFIRE WARRIOR 


DK 


34 


SARGON II 


OK 


30 






■ ^m*^^^ ^ 


■^^* 


^f%t*» 






HOME ACCOUNTANT 


DK 


64 


SAVAGE ISLAND 


CS 


17 








^*' 




JL 




HOME MONEY MINDER 


DK 


30 


SNACK ATTACK 


DK 


26 






\*Zm*^^ 


f 




NAME 


-•' 


NUCE 


HORIZON V 


DK 


30 


SNAKE BYTE 


DK 


26 










COMP. STOCKS & BONDS 


CS 


S14 


INVASION ORION 


OK 


21 


SNEAKERS 


OK 


26 














CONTEXT CONNECTOR 


DK 


1S3 


JAWBREAKER 


OK 


26 


SORCERER OF SIVA 


DK 


26 








NAME 


* 


MICE 


COONT 

CPA #1 GEN. LEDGER 

CPA #2 ACCTS REC. 


CS 
DK 
DK 


17 
213 
213 


JOYSTICK 

KEYBOARD ENHANCER 
MAGIC WINDOW 


AC 
AC 
DK 


51 

116 

65 


SPACE OUARKS 

SPELLSTAR 
STAR BLASTER 


DK 
OK 
OK 


26 

176 
26 








30 GRAPHICS by BUD6E 


DK 


SM 








3D SUPERGRAPNICS 


DK 


34 


CPA 93 ACCTS PAY. 


DK 


213 


MAGIC WORDS 


OK 


60 


STAR THIEF 


DK 


26 








ACCTS PAY. by CONT. 


OK 


213 


CPA #4 PAYROLL 


DK 


213 


MAILMERGE 


DK 


106 


STRANGE ODYSSEY 


CS 


17 








ACCTS REC. by CONT. 


DK 


213 


CPA 85 PROP. MGMT. 


DK 


421 


MASTER TYPE 


OK 


34 


SUPERSCRIDE II 


DK 


111 








ADVENTORELAND 


CS 


17 


CRUSH.CRUMRLESCHOMI 


• DK 


26 


MATRMAGIC 


DK 


77 


SUPERSOFT 1 


DK 


176 








ALIEN RAM 


DK 


21 


CYBORG 


OK 


26 


MICRO MEMO 


OK 


34 


SWASHBUCKLER 


DK 


3D 








APPLE PANIC 


DK 


26 


D B MASTER 


DK 


1S5 


MICROWAVE 


DK 


30 


SWITCHPLATE 


AC 


16 








APPLE SPELLER 


DK 


H 


DATA CAPTURE 4 


OK 


■ 


MISSION IMPOSSIBLE 


CS 


17 


TASC COMPLIED 


DK 


14S 








ASTEROID by ON LINE 


DK 


1? 


OATA FACTORY 


DK 


128 


MOUSEATTACK 


DK 


30 


TAX MANAGER 


DK 


12R 








ATLANTIS 


DK 


34 


OATA REPORTER 


DK 


126 


MYSTERY FUN HOUSE 


CS 


17 


TEMPLE OF APSHAI 


DK 


34 








B-1 NUCLEAR BOMBER 


CS 


14 


OATASTAR 


DK 


251 


NEUTRONS 


OK 


26 


TNRESHOLO 


DK 


34 








BEER RUN 


DK 


26 


DOS DOSS 


OK 


21 


OLYMPIC DECATHLON 


DK 


26 


TIME ZONE by ON LINE 


DK 


65 








BORE 


DK 


26 


OONG BEETLE 


DK 


26 


OUTPOST 


OK 


26 


TRILOGY GAME by RODGE 


DK 


26 








BIG ATTACK 


DK 


26 


E 7 LEDGER 


DK 


51 


PAYROLL- DRODERRUNO 


OK 


213 


TWERPS 


OK 


26 








BUDGES 30 GRAPHICS 


DK 


34 


ELECTRIC DUET 


DK 


26 


PAYROLL- CONTINENTAL 


OK 


336 


ULTIMA 


OK 


34 








DODGE'S TRILOGY 


OK 


26 


ELIMINATOR 


OK 


21 


PFS: REPORT 


OK 


61 


ULYS & G010EN FLEECE 


DK 


36 








BUDGET PLANNER 


OK 


121 


EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 


OK 


213 


PES: PERS. FILING SYS 


OK 


166 


UTILITY CITY 


DK 


25 








CALCSTAR 


OK 


166 


FLIGHT SIMULATOR 


OK 


■ 


PLANETOIDS ASTEROIDS 


DK 


21 


VISICALC 3.3 


DK 


213 








CA STATE TAX PREP. 


DK 


64 


FORTE 


OK 


26 


POOL 1.5 


DK 


30 


VISIFIlf 


DK 


213 








CASTLE WOLFENSTEIN 


DK 


26 


FROGER 


DK 


30 


PIRATE'S AOVENTURE 


CS 


17 


VISISCHEDULE 


DK 


255 








CEILING ZERO 


DK 


26 


GAME PADDLES 


AC 


34 


PROF. EASYMAILER 


DK 


128 


VISITREND/VISIPLOT 


DK 


255 








COMPU-MATH/ARITN. 


OK 


43 


GEN. LEDGER by CONT. 


OK 


213 


PROF. EASYWRITER 


DK 


213 


VOODOO CASTLE 


CS 


17 








COMPO-MATN/DECIMALS 


OK 


34 


GHOST TOWN 


CS 


17 


PROPERTY MGMT -CONT 


. OK 


421 


WIZARDRY 


DK 


43 








COMPU MATH/FRACTIONS 


OK 


34 


GOLDEN VOYAGE 


CS 


17 


PYRAMID OF DOOM 


CS 


17 


WOROSTAR 


OK 


316 








COMPO-REAO 


DK 


26 


GRAFORTH II 


DK 


61 


RASTER BLASTER 


DK 


26 


WORDSTAR GUIDE 


BK 


17 








COMPUTER FOOSBAll 


OK 


26 


GRAPHIC PACKAGE 


OK 


51 


RICOCHET 


DK 


17 


ZERO GRAVITY PINSAll 


OK 


26 








COMPUTER COIF 


DK 


26 


GR060N 

ill 


OK 
i 


34 

r\l 


RUBIK CUBE UNLOCKED 

i-adi 


DK 


21 


ZORK 


OK 


34 








NAME 

3-D SUPERGRAPHICS 


* 

OK 


PRICE 

SM 


•IV 

NAME 

CRUSH.CRUMBLE&CHOMI 


At-*. ■-. ii Mi j'M.-r. ■,] 1 

$ PRICE 
> DK $26 


1/ 

N 
11 


UM 


* PRICE 


RASTER BLASTER 


OK 


PRICE 
S26 




STICK 


AC 


S34 








AOVENTIRELAND 


CS 


17 


CYPHER BOWL 


CS 


43 


LUNAR LANDER 


CS 


13 


RICOCHET 


DK 


17 








All DABA S 41 THIEVES 


OK 


26 


DDNG BEETLE 


OK 


26 


MATCH RACERS 


DK 


26 


SAVAGE ISLAND 


CS 


17 








ANDROMEDA 


DK 


34 


FROGGER 


OK 


30 


MISSION IMPOSSIBLE 


CS 


17 


SPACE INVADERS 


CT 


36 








APPLE PANIC 


OK 


26 


GALACTIC CHASE 


DK 


26 


MISSION: ASTEROID 


DK 


21 


STRANGE ODYSSEY 


CS 


17 








ASTEROIDS BY ATARI 


CT 


31 


GHOST HUNTER 


CS 


26 


MOUSEATTACK 


DK 


30 


TEMPLE OF APSHAI 


OK 


34 








B-1 NUCLEAR BOMBER 


CS 


14 


GHOST TOWN 


CS 


17 


MYSTERY FUN HOUSE 


CS 


17 


THE COUNT 


CS 


17 








BUG ATTACK 


DK 


26 


60LDEN VOYAGE 


CS 


17 


PAC MAN-BY ATARI 


CT 


36 


THRESHOLD 


OK 


34 








CAVERNS OF MARS 


DK 


34 


GRAPHIC COMPOSER 


CS 


34 


PADDLES by ATARI 


AC 


19 


VERSA. GRAPHIC TABLETS 


AC 


254 








CENTIPEDE BY ATARI 


CT 


36 


JAWBREAKER 


DK 


26 


PIRATE'S ADVENTURE 


CS 


17 


VISICALC 


DK 


213 








COMP. STOCKS S DONDS 


DK 


16 


JOYSTICKS (pair) 


AC 


16 


POOL 1.5 


OK 


30 


VOODOO CASTLE 


CS 


17 








CROSSFIRE 


DK 


26 


K-RAZV SHOOTOUT 


CT 


43 


PYRAMID OF DOOM 


CS 


17 


WIZ S PRINCESS 


OK 


26 








Radio /hack TRJ-80 


• Manufacturer Originals not copies 

• No extra cost for credit card orders 












NAME 


$ 


PRICE 


MYSTERY FUN HORSE 


CS 


PRICE 
$17 


• Fast shipping to your door 

o TYPE KEY: ^^^ 




^ 


ADVENTURELANO 


CS 


S17 


00 






B-1 NUCLEAR BOMBER 


CS 


14 


OLYMPIC DECATHLON 


DK 


26 


AC ACCESSORY 








^t 






BASIC COMPILER 


DK 


166 


PIGSKIN 


DK 


17 


BK BOOK 








^^ 


-\ 






COMP. STOCKS G BONDS 


DK 


16 


PIRATE'S AOVENTURE 


CS 


17 


CS CASSETTE 








.^ 


l«V- 






CRUSH.CRBMBUS CHOMP 


DK 


26 


PLANETOIDS ASTEROIDS 


DK 


17 


CT CARTRIDGE 






Z^mW^^ w%t 








DEFENSE COMMAND 
DUEl-N-DROIDS 


DK 
DK 


17 
16 


PYRAMID OF DOOM 
RICOCHET 


CS 
OK 


17 
17 


OK DISK^^- 






Brk^^^ 1«%%Y 












#»uiilV 


w 


<■*<*' 








ELIMINATOR 


DK 


17 


SARGON II 


OK 


26 




pBJB*^ 




CuW» 


\ o< 


*** 








FUGHT SIMULATOR 


CS 


21 


SAVAGE ISLAND 


CS 


17 






_«f1 


B- O** * «*«" 


ae» 










GHOST TOWN 


CS 


17 


SCARFMAN 


OK 


14 






»T/i> 


» % ^ **• st 












GOLDEN VOYAGE 


CS 


17 


SPACE INTRUDERS 


DK 


17 






KfP^^ ^L 


»1* 


»Jf m 


.**%*•• 




•»«*i>«j\ 








GUNS-FORT DEFIANCE 


OK 


21 


STAR WARRIOR 


DK 


34 








*° .< « 


\ 




,*.<«> ° 


n* 


«\7a> 








INVASION ORION 


DK 


21 


STRANGE ODYSSEY 


CS 


17 








^* 




mJ^' 


>•: ^\, 


*o 


o«> 








MATNEMAGIC 
METEOR MISSION II 


DK 
CS 


77 
14 


TANKTICS 
TEMPLE OF APSHAI 


CS 
DK 


21 
M 














-iftY 


•* ^» F 






2 
















MIDWAY CAMPAIGN 


CS 


14 


THE COUNT 


CS 


17 








^^o v° 




0\J ',A 


.1/ 


,X' 






uiccinu lUDficciRic 


PC 


41 


irnnnnn tactic 


re 


41 








■ J.,1 m-* 


A. 


r \ _a*L*> 




5 owA 






1 


NTIablUn irtirUaalDlt bu i> vwiwvw wwiu iaj ■# 






k^rnM 


ON READER SERVICE CARD 








r 






















CIRCLE 124 









)ata Base, continued... 

are stored in RAM. 

Lastly. B% is an array that reflects the 
length allowed for each heading. The actual 
values in B'X> tell which byte is the first in 
the record for each heading. This way it 
is possible not only to specify which record 
is to be read, but also to specify which 
item in that record is desired. The Apple 
statement that lets you read an item for 
record 11. for example, starting at byte 
15 of that record is: 

PRINT D$:'READfilename.Rll.B15" 
where D$ is set equal to Control-D. 

An added value of using B".. to show 
the beginning of each item is that the 
information under various headings can 
be of different lengths. The zip code, for 
example, can have fewer characters allotted 
than the name, saving storage space. 



Loading or Initializing 

The first routine you enter upon running 
the program is either the initialize routine 
(1500). which allows you to start a new 
file, or the load routine 1 10001. which 
loads data from a previously saved file. 
To initialize a file, a name and number of 
headings is specified, followed by the name 
of each heading and the maximum length 
for the items under it. This information is 
saved in a separate disk file under a name 
you give with *'.HDG" appended to it. 
(The computer automatically adds 
".HDG".l This heading file also contains 
the byte information from B",.. and is read 
and modified each time the data base is 
used. 

Loading a previously saved file requires 
loading all the information from file "name. 
HDG." then loading 1$ with the items 
from the first heading from file "name. 
DAT." which holds the actual data. An 
extra little subroutine is used to load the 
items from heading CH (which initially 
equals zero), because that function will 
be needed later in a few places. That 
routine starts at line I .MO. 



Adding, Saving, and Printing 

After you create a file, trie first thing 
you will want to do is add some data to it. 
Choosing "A" from the menu allows you 
to add a record through the add subroutine 
(4000). To add a record, enter information 
for each of the headings. The add sub- 
routine shares a small subroutine at line 
4500. which allows a single item to be 
input. After the information is entered. 
that record is put on disk with a ( r( )M li 
to 1800. another multi-used subroutine 
that saves Tl$ to record R on disk. A lew 
lines in the add routine use a variable LK. 
This will be explained later when we talk 
about deleting records. 

Once information is in the data base. 



1510 
1528 
1530 
1540 
1 560 
1570 
1586 
1 598 
1600 
1610 
1 626 

1636 

1 640 
1650 
1 660 
l^.a* 
1700 
1710 
1 720 
1730 
1740 
1 750 
1 79'? 
1 800 

1810 
I820 

1 830 

1*40 
1 999 

2000 

20 1 
2020 
2030 
2040 



2850 
2060 
2070 



£4t u 
2288 
2290 
2999 

3000 

3005 
3006 

3007 
3008 

30 1 
3020 

3030 
3040 

3050 
3 1 00 
3299 

3300 

3310 
3310 

3340 



3350 
36?-? 
3700 
3710 
371:0 
3730 
3740 
37-?? 
3:300 
3820 
3830 

3840 
3850 

3870 



IF F*="" THEN 1500 

INPUT "H0M MANY HEADINGS? ":NH 

IF NH 1 THEM 1520 

NH=NH-l: NI=-1: Lh=-1 

DIM HJ'HH '.E:\' HH+1 >,TI*<NH>I BVO>=0 

FOR 1=0 TO NH 

PRINT "HEADING *":I+l:: INPUT " : ":H*'I- 
INPUT "MAXIMUM LENGTH : "I J 
BV 1 + 1 •=£:'.' I .+.J+1 
NEXT I 

INPUT "WHICH HEADING IS THE LONGEST ON WHICH YOU WILL SORT? "Ijl 
J=J-1: IF .1 OR J NH THEN 1620 

.1=B\' J+l '-&•.' J. -l: m::=INT..'FPE'O'-~'000.' <J+2>> 
DIM It' NX '-PV 

PPINT D*t "OPEN" I Ft*". DaT,L":BV NH+1 > 
83=0: RETURN 

REM PEhD RECORD I INTO TI* 
PPINT: P=PV I i 
FOP J 1=0 TO NH 

PPINT D*»"READ">F**". DAT,R"JR|",B"JB5«J1 ■ 
INPUT TI*' Jl • 
NEXT 

PPINT [•»: RETURN 
PEN WRITE RECORD P FROM T* 
PPINT: 
FOP J1=0 TO NH 

PPINT C'*:"WFITE":Ff+".[. H T.P":P:".E:":eV Jl i 
PPINT TI*. Jl • 
NEXT 

PPINT [•*: RETURN 
PEN write SUBROUTINE '.'EPS. 1 
PPINT: 0NERR GOTO 2290 
PPINT D#l "0PEN"IF*>". HDG" 
PPINT D*l "WRITE": Ft+". HDG" 
PRINT NH: PRINT Nil PRINT NX I PRINT U 
FOP 1=0 TO NH: 

PRINT Hf. I •: PRINT BV I •: 
NEXT 

PRINT BVNH+1 ■ 
IF NI— I THEN 2278 
FOR 1=0 TO Nil 
PRINT PV I ■: 
NEXT 

PRINT [•*: "CLOSE" :F*+". HDG" 
SS=l: RETURN 

PRINT "DlSt ERROR* I GET At: GOTO 280 
PEMPPINT SUBROUTINE '.'EPS. 4 
IF NI=-1 THEN 

G0SUB 98001 RETURN 
PRINT "•;.> SELECT FORMAT. OR <D> DEFAULT":: GET A»l PRINT 
IF A*""S" THEN 

G0SUB 100001 FS"2l GOTO 3010 
IF h* "D" THEN 3005 
FS-1 

PRINT »<S> SCREEN. OP <P) PRINTER":: GET A*: PRINT 
IF h*="P" THEN 

3B-2I GOTO 3050 
IF A»<>"S" THEN 3010 

3B=l: PRINT: PPINT "AFTER EaCH RECORD ESC WILL RETURN TO": PRINT 
"THE MENU- ANY OTHER KEY CONTINUES." 
PPINT "PRESS ANY KEY>"! GET A*: 80SU6 8O10 
RETURN 

PEMPRINT ONE RECORD 
IF SB"2 THEN 

PRINT D*:"PR#1" 
ON FS 80SUB 3700-3800 
IF SB=2 THEN 

PRINT D*:"PP#0": GOTO 3350 
IF SB< 4 THEN 
GET Ht: 

IF A*-CHR*(27) THEN 
PS=1 
RETURN 

REM PRINT ONE DEFhULT '.'. 1 
PPINT: PPINT "RECORD ":I+1: PPINT 
FOR .1=0 TO NH 



PRINT H*. J>,TI*<J> 

ne::t .1 

RETURN 

REM PRINT ONE FORMAT '.'. 1 
J=l: T-01 BS="" 

;i-VAL<MID*<F*i T>.J. 1 ■ >i i=.i+l 
IF Jl 5 THEN 

N-VAL(MID*<F*< T '.!.:•• •: .i=.T+"' 
ON 11 GOTO 3850. 3860. 3870, 3890. 3910. 3970 
A*>H*<N>I GOTO 3950 
A*-TI*<N>: GOTO 3950 
B*=LEFT».Bf.N-l >l 
IF LEN'Bl ■ N-l THEN 



150 



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Data Base, continued. 

FOP J2=LEN<8»> TO N-2: 

B*=B*+ 

NEXT 
3888 Q0T0 3968 
3896 PRINT B*: 

IF Ml THEN 

FOP J2-2 TO Hi 

PRINT I 
NEXT 
5988 B*="": GOTO 3960 
3916 IF J LEM'FJ'T' i THEM 
T=T+l: J»| 



3928 

3930 

3940 
3950 

3960 

3965 
3970 
3999 
4000 
4005 
4010 
402O 
4030 
4040 

4050 

4060 

4070 
40S0 
4090 
4499 
4500 
4510 
4540 

4550 

4999 
5000 

5030 
SO40 

5050 
5055 

5060 

507O 

5075 

5080 

sees 

5090 
5095 
5100 



J2=J 

IF MID*<F#<T>»J2.1><>"!" THEN 

J2*J2+1I GOTO 3930 
A#-HID*<F*<T>, I.J2-.T •: W2+1 
BS=Et+Ht 
IF ;>LEN<F*<T) I THEN 

T-T+ll J=l 
GOTO 3820 
PRINT B*: RETURN 
PEN ADD SUBROUTINE VERS. 2 
3S=0: NI=NI+1 

PRINT: PRINT "RECORD "INI+Il PRINT 
FOR J=0 TO NH 

GOSUB 4500 
NEXT J 
IF LK=-1 THEN 

R=NI: GOTO 4080 
F'=LK 

PRINT D*:"READ":F*+". DAT,R";P 
INPUT LK: PRINT D* 

GOSUB 1800: PVNI>=R: I*<NI )«TI*<CH> 
RETURN 

PEN INPUT AN ITEM 
T=BV J+1>-B\U'-I 
PRINT H*<J>H INPUT " : ";TI*<J> 
IF LEN<TI*<J)>>T THEN 

TI*<J>-LEFT«(TI*<J).T) 
RETURN 

REM CHANGE SUBROUTINE VERS. 2 

PRINT: PRINT ■<« CHhNGE ITEM- <K> KEEP ITEM, OR": PRINT 
■ R i KEEP REMAINDER OF RECORD" 
"RECORD "11*1 



PRINT: PRINT 

cs-ii Rs-ei 

FOP J"8 TO NH 

PRINT: PRINT H*(J) 

IF RS=1 THEN 

PRINT: GOTO 5090 

GET A*: 

IF A»<>"C 

PRINT A*: 

IF A*="K" 

IF A*«"R" 

RS=l: GOTO 5898 

GOSUB 4500 

CS=0 
NEXT J 
PS=0 
IF CS=0 THEN 

GOSUB 1800: 
RETURN 

REM DELETE SUBROUTINE VERS. 2 
PRINT: PRINT "DELETE THIS RECORD? 
GET A«: 

IF A*<>"Y" AND A*<>"N" THEN 6070 
PRINT Ml 

IF A*="N" THEN 6150 
PRINT D*l "MPITE":F*+".DAT,R ,, :P5i(I) 
PRINT LKl PRINT D* 
Li =P , ;<I> 
FOR 11=1+1 TO NI 



ITI«<J>J' 



' AND A»<>"K" AND A*<>"R" THEN 5868 

THEN 5090 
THEN 



I*<I>*TI*<CH> 



CIRCLE 168 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



5110 

5999 

60OO PRINT: PRINT "DELETE THIS RECORD? "I 

6070 

6080 

6090 

6100 

6110 

6120 

6130 Itvll-l ;■ = !*• II ■•: P2<I1-1>-P%<I1) 

6135 NEXT II 

6140 NI»NI-l: SS»0: 1=1-1 

6150 RETURN 

6999 REM SORT SUBROUTINE V. 1 

7008 IF NI=-1 THEN 

GOSUB 9OO0: RETURN 
7010 PRINT: 

FOR J-0 TO NH 
7020 PRINT "<"U*ll"> "sH*<J> 
7030 NEXT J 

7040 INPUT "SORT ON WHICH HEADING?":J1 
7045 J1=J1-1 
7050 IF J10 OR J1>NH THEN 

RETURN 
7055 IF JIOCH THEN 

CH=Ji: GOSUB 1300 

152 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 




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CIRCLE 151 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Data Base, continued... 

you need some method for printing it out. 
The print routine allows you to print a 
record, or records, on the screen or the 
printer, in a default format or one that 
you define yourself. The print routine is 
automatically filtered through the search 
routine, so that you may selectively print 
almost any subset of your data. The search 
allows up to eight criteria to be specified. 
with ANDing or ORing. When all the 
restrictions have been entered (or before 
any have), select "Begin" to start print- 
ing. 

The formatter is a powerful routine 
that allows you to create special forms 
for printing your data. Line by line, you 
specify whether you want items, headings, 
tabs, or literal strings not dependent on 
your data. The format information can 
be saved on disk for future use under the 
format name you specify. This allows 
you to print mailing labels, sales receipts. 
invoices, or whatever form you desire. 

Data is automatically saved when you 
quit the program, but if you want to save 
a copy of your file in the midst of working 
(say. before you do a long sort), the save 
option saves a copy of your current heading 
and pointer file. The data itself is always 
saved automatically immediately after it 
is entered. 

Changing and Deleting Data 

Once you have information in the 
machine, it is important to be able to 
moilify it. The delete routine IMXMM lets 
you permanently remove records from 
the file. To remove a record, the number 
of items counted (NI) must be decreased 
by one. and the hole in the data file must 
be patched. One way to do this is to shift 
everything in the file down one record to 
fill the gap. but that requires shifting a 
great deal of data. 

Since we already have an array (P%) 
that points to the physical location of 
each record in the disk file, we just have 
to eliminate the number of the deleted 
record from the pointer list. If nothing 
points to the gap. the gap will be ignored. 
Unfortunately, after deleting a large 
number of records, there will be many 
ignored gaps, and each will occupy disk 
space that may be needed eventually. 

The solution is somehow to keep track 
of where all those gaps are. and to re-use 
them whenever possible rather than adding 
new data to the physical end of the disk 
file. LK. mentioned earlier, is a "link." It 
points to the first available gap that can 
be used for new data. When LK = -1. 
there are no gaps, and new data will go at 
the end. Each time another gap is created 
by deleting a record, the current value of 
LK is put in the position of that record 
(since it is now just blank space to us 
anyway), and LK is set to point at the 
newly vacated postion. When that gap is 
re-used, the number written to that gap is 



I*.. I >«T* 



7866 PRINT "(ft) ASCENDIN6. OR CD) DESCENDING"! GET h* 

7070 if M*=">r then 

AM: GOTO 7106 

7060 IF h!="['" THEH 

h=2: Q0T0 7100 
7090 GOTO 7060 

7100 FOP 1=0 TO NI-1 

7110 T=I 

7120 FOP I1=T+1 TO NI 

7122 PPINT II" ":ll 

712S ON ft GOTO 7150-7140 

7130 IF II' II ■ I!' T • THEM 

T=I1 
7135 GOTO 7145 
7140 IF It- II ■ II' T ■ THEN 

T=I1 
7145 NEXT II 
7150 IF T=I THEN 7180 
7160 r*-I*<T>! II' T' = I!' I 'I 
7170 J1=F'-.'T': F-.' T '=F-.' I ■: F ". ■ I ■ = J 1 
7180 NEXT I 
7266 SS"01 PETUPN 

7999 REN SEARCH SUBROUTINE! VERS, 2 
6806 IF NI=-1 THEN 

G0SUB 9600! PETUPN 
8010 11-01 12-NH J-01 Ll\'0'=-l: BS-1 
8015 HOME: PRINT "SEARCH CRITERIA! "I PPINT 
8020 PPINT "0) RECORD NUMBER" 
■ i FOP 1=0 TO NH: 

PPINT I + lJ '• • ":HJ 
NEXT I 
8635 PPINT: PRINT NH+21") BEGIN" 
3046 VTAB 2U INPUT "SELECT : "»Ii 

IF 10 OF I NH+2 THEN 8640 
8045 IF I=NH+2 THEN 

CIV I'=-l: GOTO 8150 
8050 CIV J • = I - 1 
8066 '.'TmB 22: PPINT "<1) 8MHLLEF (2) EQUAL '7 LARGER 

IF Ml "1" OR hI- "3" THEN 
8070 CJV J '='.'hL' hI • 

8080 VTAB 23: PPINT "COMPARED TO : "II 
IF CIV J ' = -1 THEN 8100 
• INPUT " "»C*< J •: J=J+l: 
IF j: THEN 8166 
: - GOTO 8015 
8100 INPUT " "til 

IF I 1 OR INI+1 THEN 8100 
8105 1=1-1 
8110 IF C2V J ' = 1 THEN 

12=1 
8120 IF C2V J'=2 THEN 

Il-Il 12=1 
8130 IF C2V J '=3 THEN 

11 = 1 
8140 GOTO 8015 
8150 IF J 2 THEN 8200 

8180 VTAB ^: PRINT "1' ITEM MUST MEET hLL CONDITIONS"! PRINT 
ITEM Mm',' MEET ANY CONDITION ": GET At I 
IF HI "1" OP hI "2" THEN 8180 
8170 BS-VAL' hI ■ 
8200 PS=0: Jl=Cr. 
8210 ['8=0: 

FOR J=0 TO 7 
8220 IF CIV T'=-l THEN 

.1=7: GOTO 8240 
8230 IF Jl CIV I ■ THEH 

Jl=-2 
8240 NEXT 

8245 IF Jl -1 hNC' Jl CH THEH 

CH=Jl: G0SUB 1300 

8246 IF Jl=-2 THEN 



•: GET hI: 



8250 



8251 

8252 
8255 

8280 

8270 

8285 
8290 
829S 

8288 



[•8=1 
I=Il-li 

FOR 13=11 TO 12: 
1 = 1 + 1 
IF ['8=0 THEN 

TII'CH' = III': GOTO 8255 
G0SUB 1700 
AS-01 
FOP J=0 TO ? 

IF C1VJ>=-1 THEN 
J=7: GOTO 8345 

ON C2VJ' GOTO S280. 8280- 8310 

IF TII'.CIV I • ■ =CI'J' THEN 8330 

GOTO 8340 

IF TII'Cl - .' J ■ '=CI' J> THEN 8330 

!F RIGHT!' CI' J ■• 1 ' "♦" THEN 

T=LEM' C!' J ■ '-1: 

if len' Tii'Cr.' ; • • ■ r then 3340 



154 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Data Base, continued... 

put back in LK. The result is a "linked 
list" of empty records, with the most recent 
empty record pointed at by LK. and each 
previous one pointed at by the record 
vacated after it. 

To change an existing record iby cor- 
recting an address, for example), the pro- 
gram once again funnels you through the 
search routine (print, delete, and change 
all use the search routine for finding the 
record, or records, that you want). The 
actual change subroutine starts at line 
5000. and allows the user to choose to 
keep each item in a record, change any 
item, or to keep the remainder of that 
record. A simple replacement of data is 
performed if a change is made. 

Sorting and Searching 

To keep the early version of the "Data 
Base" simple, the sort routine at line 7000 
is a simple insertion sort. Not recommended 
for large bodies of data, the insertion sort 
routine goes through the whole file lix>king 
for the smallest item, puts that at the 
beginning, then looks for the smallest item 
of those remaining, puts it second, and so 
on. Not the flashiest sort routine available, 
but relatively easy to understand. 

The search routine, referred to earlier 
because it is actually used for finding 
records for other routines, allows the user 
to look for items meeting up to eight 
separate conditions. Each condition tells 
whether la) the item under a specific- 
heading (b) should be less than, equal to, 
or greater than (c) a specified value. If 
there is more than one condition specified. 
the conditions can be ANDed (record 
must meet all conditions), or ORed (record 
may meet any condition for acceptance). 
The choices are stored in arrays Cl%, 
C2%, and C$. for a. b, and c above. 
respectively. If a record is accepted by 
the search routine, the appropriate sub- 
routine (print, change, delete i is called by 
checking variable SB. which is set to point 
at the appropriate routine. 

A note about sorting and searching using 
numbers is in order here. The program 
does not yet distinguish between string 
and numeric data, hence all data is assumed 
to be character strings. This leads to funny 
results when sorting numbers like 7. 15. 
and 273. As string data, the sorted order 
will be 15. 273. 7 (by first character). The 
only way to avoid this for the time being 
is to use leading zeroes on numeric data 
that will be sorted as such. Above, you 
would use 007. 015, and 273 to get the 
proper sequence. 

More Information 

If you'd like more information about 
the data base series, or if you would like a 
copy of the program already on disk, please 
write to the address given at the beginning 
of this article. Your comments about the 
program are most welcome. □ 



8316 
8328 
8338 



3345 
8358 



GET Hf. PRINT 



IF LEFT! T -LEFTJ'L*. T'.T • THEN 

SOTO 8348 

IF TU'CT..;.. =CJ • ;■ THEN 8338 

SOTO 8348 

IF BS-2 THEN 

AS-ll .'=7 
GOTO 8345 
IF BS-1 THEN 
AS-21 ' 
NEXT J 

IF AS-0 AND BS»t THEN 
IF h3 1 TH! 
8355 IF DS-0 THEN 

8366 IF SB 3 THEN 

80SU6 3388 
8365 IF 88*3 THEN 

SOS! IE 5888 
8378 IF 88-4 THEN 

G05UE 6888 
8375 IF RS-1 THEN 

13-12 
3330 NEXT 13 

3390 PRINT: PRINT "THAT'S hLL": GET nt: FPINT 
3400 RETURN 

8999 REM ERROR SUBROUTINE #1 
M88 PRINT "THERE" 3 NO C'HTH IN MEMORY." 
9818 FOP 1=1 TO 1000: 
NEXTl 
RETURN 
9999 REM PRINT FORMATTING. V. 1 
10000 IF F*<0>-"" THEN 10040 
10010 PRINT "SAME F0RMAT?"«« GET mJ: PRINT 
18828 IF A*-"Y" THEN 

RETURN 
10030 IF Hf "N" THEN 10010 

10040 PRINT "'L' LOAD FORMAT. OR <C> CREATE FOPMhT":: 
10050 IF A*-"C" THEN 10288 
18860 IF Ht "L" THEN 10040 
10898 0NEPR GOTO 10170 
10100 INPUT "FORMAT NAMEs'lAS 
10110 PRINT D*J"0PEN"»A»*". FMT" 
18120 PRINT DtJ "READ" »A*+". FMT" 
10130 INPUT NF 

10140 for j=0 to nf: 
input f#<j)j 
ne::t 
10150 print d*» "close "j as* ".fmt" 

18160 RETURN 

10170 PRINT "FOPMHT NOT F0UND"l GET A*l GOTO 280 

10288 NF-81 J=0: F*<8>-"" 

10210 HOME: PRINT "START IN THE UPPER LEFT CORNER hNC' W0RI ACROSS EhCH L. I HE. " 

18228 PRINT "HHEA0IN6. 2: ITEM. T:ThE- 4 i NEXT LINE- 5» STRING. 6«END"l INPUT 

.11 
10230 IF Jl 1 OR Jl>6 THEN 10220 
10240 Ft 'NF i-FSCNF '♦STRS< Jl>: J-J+l 

10250 ON Jl GOTO 10268. 18268. 18388. 10300- 18358. 10488 
10230 FOR T=0 TO NH: 

PRINT T+l:" i "JH*i T >i 

NEXT 
10270 INPUT "I.IHICH-" : T: T=T-l: 

IF T 8 OR T HH THEN II 
10230 GOTO 10310 
10300 INPUT "HOW NANY?"5TS 

IF T 1 OP T 99 THEN 

FPINT "OUT OF FhNGE. ": GOTO 10300 
10310 AS-STRS(T): 

IF T 10 THEN 

AS-"8"+A* 

10320 F*<NF)-FS<NF)+AS: .1=1+2 
10330 GOTO 1" 

10350 INPUT "STRING: M ,'AS: h*=h*+"'" 
10330 IF LEN<A*)+J 255 THEN 

NF-NF+1: J=0: F»<NF>-"" 
10370 F*<NF>-FS<NF)+A*l J-J+LENCAS) 
10330 IF J 252 THEN 

NF-NF+1 : J=0: F»<NF>-"" 
10390 GOTO 10 

10400 INPUT "FORMAT NAME«"«AS 
10405 0NEPP GOTO 184i 
10410 PRINT D*J"0P£N"«A»+". FMT" 
10420 PRINT D*» "WRITE* J A**". FMT" 
10430 PRINT NF: 

FOP .1=0 TO NF: 

PRINT Fl 

ne: :t 
10440 print d»; "close" j a**". fmt" 

10450 RETURN 

10430 PRINT "DISK ERR0F 3ET hJ: &0SUB 18 



156 



September 1982 5 Creative Computing 



BTsTsI 



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CIRCLE 122 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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How to Find It 



Searching Techniques 



Edward Mitchell 



"Sieve. vou really ought to use a hashing 
search." said Paul. 

"What do vou mean, 'hashing'.'"' Steve 
asked. "I had hash for dinner last week 
What are you talking about '.'" 

"Il'sa search technique." answered Paul. 
"I hat program youVe got running is 
driving the disk drive cra/v " I he floppy 
drive was humming and clicking rapidly. 
"Your program's reading every record in 
the lile until it linds the right one." 

"Well just what would you do?" asked 
Steve, rather indignantly. "How else could 
I search that tile'" 

"There are several ways. In your case. 
hashing would work pretty well, since you 
have just one name per record and you 
don't care what order they are in." 

"Okay." said Steve. "But how does it 
work?" 

"Hashing converts the name into a 
number. Then n uses the number as the 
record number on the disk, so it reads the 
nghl record the Inst time." 

"Vim mean there's no searching?" asked 
Steve. 

"Most ol the time." answered Paul, "it's 
jusl like magic you tell it the name, and 
it reads the record without searching." 

Steve had several questions. He 
wondered. "How do you convert the name 
into a number'.' What if two names convert 
to the same number? And what about 
deleting names?" I will try to answer some 
of them here. 

Searching arrays and tables lot specific 
data records is a frequent operation on a 
computer. Search routines are needed in 
such diverse applications as electronic 
telephone directories, inventory and 
accounting systems, and Basic language 



lilu.ml Mitchell, M* Wc»l Steven* Avenue. "I 
Sunla \na. t v »2707 



compilers. Often, a simple routine is coded 
to perform a sequential search, where the 
program loops through all the entries in 
the table until it finds the desired record. 
But as the lize of the table grows, from say 
less than 50 items to over several thousand, 
the lime to do the search increases dra- 
matically. In that case, our choices are 
to buy a faster computer or find a taster 
way ol searching the list. For obvious 
reasons, the latter solution is preferred. 

The first solution that comes to mind is 
seldom the best way to deal with any 
problem. There are several "algorithms" 



One way to search a 

list of names is to 

begin at the beginning 

of the list and scan 

until finding a match 

or until reaching the 

end of the list. 



lor searching through a table that are not 
so obv ious. An algorithm is a precise set of 
rules to follow when solving a particular 
problem. In a way. an algorithm is a road 
map which shows us how to get Irom out- 
point to another point. Frequently, if 
we study the geography carefully, a better 
route may become apparent. 

I he sequential search is certainly not the 
only way to search through a table ol 
names or a disk file. In fact, there arc 
numerous ways of performing a search on 
the computer I wo of them, binary search- 
ing and hashing are both described here. 



Even the basic sequential search can be 
improved by ordering the records so that 
the most frequently accessed records 
appear near the top of the list, figure I 
compares the relative performance of these 
three table searching methods. The speed 
of the hashing method is relatively inde- 
pendent of the total table size. Instead, the 
hashing technique is limited by how "full" 
the table gets to be. 

I his is part I of a 4 part series. Parts 2 
and ? of the series examine data structures, 
the study of organizing information. By- 
organizing data efficiently, difficult com- 
puting problems can become simple ones 
New techniques can be applied to prob- 
lems, as illustrated in Part 4. where we 
look at several sorting algorithms. 

Part 4 describes the simple Bubble Sort, 
the lirst sorting technique learned by most 
programmers, then moves on to some of 
the special sorts, such as Quicksort, which 
sort large amounts of data at high speed. 

The Sequential Search 

One way to search a list of names is to 
begin at the beginning of the list and scan 
until finding a match or until reaching the 
end of the list. This technique, known as 
a sequential search, is easy to understand 
and program. But for a long list, the 
sequential search can be time consuming. 
Foi example, a list of 1(H) names requires 
an average of SO Comparisons lor a success- 
ful search. In the worst case, when the 
name for which we arc searching does not 
exist, we must examine all 100 names 
before exhausting all possibilities. 

Consider the short list ol live names in 
Figure 2. To search this list for 
"DAM ION." we begin by checking the 
name stored at N$(l). Since "DAM ION" 
does not match NS(I). the search checks 
N$(2). Detecting a second mismatch, the 



160 



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Searching Techniques, continued... 

Figure I. A comparison ol 'three seari hing techniques. The graph shows that the hashing 
method is usually the fastest, requiring fewer comparisons than either the binary or 
sequential scan lies. 



Figure 2. 




Sequential Search 



Binar) 



Hashing 



liraph 1(a) 



16 32 64 128 256 512 2048 8192 .12768 

1024 4096 16384 65536 

(able size n. 



Graph 1(a) Data Points 

n 

4 

8 

16 

32 

64 

128 

256 

512 

1024 

2048 

4096 

8192 

16384 

32768 

65536 



Sequential 


Binary 


Comparisons 


# Comparisons 


2 


2 


4 


3 


8 


4 


16 


5 


32 


6 


64 


7 


128 


8 


256 


9 


512 


10 


1024 


II 


2048 


12 


4096 


13 


8192 


14 


16384 


15 


32768 


16 



Hashing 



constant 
at n 3. 



algorithm moves to N$(3) and finds the 
name "DAMION." 

In general, a successful sequential search 
of a list with n entries appearing in random 
order will require an average of n 2 com- 
parisons. The length of time required to 
perform the search is directly proportional 
to the size n. If the si/e of the list is doubled, 
the time to do the search also doubles. A 
list of 1000 names takes ten times longer to 
search than a list of 100 names. 

Adding a new name to the list is simple. 
If we let N equal the number of names in 
the last, then set N = N + I and assign the 



new name to N$(N). Algorithm 1 defines 
the sequential search in a Basic-like 
language. Listing 1 presents a sample 
sequential search program, written in 
Advanced Basic on an IBM Personal 
Computer. All program examples in this 
series should also run on the Radio Shack 
TRS-80 Model II and the Osborne I and 
on other computers using Microsoft Basic. 
As shown in Listing I. names are deleted 
from the list by locating the position of the 
name, sliding all of the remaining names 
down one place in the list, and setting N 
equal to N-l. 

162 



(a) |NS(l) = "JENNY"! = "DAM ION"' 
N$(2) = "GEORGE" 
N$(3) = "DAMION" 
N$(4) = "LISA" 
N$(5) = "BARBARA" 

(b)N$<l) = "JENNY 

|NS(2) = "GFORGI "h "DAM ION-.' 
N$(3) = "DAMION 
N$(4) - "LISA" 
NS<5) = "BARBARA" 

(c)NS(l) = "JENNY" 
N$(2) = "GEORGE" 
|NS(3) = "DAMION") = "DAMION" 
N$(4) = "LISA" 
N$(5) = "BARBARA" 



The sequential search in action. This 
searching method begins a search for 
"DAMION" at the first name in the list 
and scans until it finds the name or 
reaches the end of the list. At (a) the 
algorithm checks the name at N$(l). 
Since N$(l) is not "DAMION" the 
search advances to N$(2) as shown in 
(b). "DAMION" is finally found in(c). 



Algorithm I can be improved by a 
simple change that reduces the number of 
steps performed in the search loop. 

Add Step 0: 

Set N$<N+I) = S$ 

Remove Step 2. 

All searches will now stop when reaching 
N$<N+I) and the actual execution time is 
reduced because only two statements. 
rather than 3 must be executed each time 
through the loop. As part ol Step 3. a 
check must be made to see il I > N. in 
which case the algorithm should report 
that S$ was not found. 

Improving the Sequential Search 

If some names are searched for more 
often than others, we'll want those names 
to appear near the beginning of the list so 
they will be found fastest. If five names 

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Searching Techniques, continued. 



Figure i. 



(DAI \ \ 


(2) Al VIN 


(3) BARBARA 


(4i CHARI II 


(5) DAMION 


(6) DARI 1 M 


(7) ERIC 


(S) 1 RIKA 


(9) GEORGI 


(10) IOI1N 


(III 1 ISA 


(12) Mlkl 


(13) NA 1 HAN 


(14) pi iik 


(IS) RICHARD 



ih \ 1 \ \ 

(2) M VIN 

(3) BARBARA 


|(4| CHARI II | 


(5) DAMION 

(6) DARI 1 \l 
(7| ERIC 



(II Al AN 

(2) ALVIN 

(3) BARBARA 
<4i CHARI II 



(5) DAMION 
|<6) PARI I Nl 
(7) I RIC 



(a) 



(X) I RIKA 
(9) GEORGI 

(10) JOHN 

(III I IS\ 

(12) Mlkl 

(13) NA I MAN 

(14) 1*1 I I K 

(15) RIC HARD 



(b) 



(K) I RIKA 
(9) GEORGI 

(1(1) JOHN 

(11) I ISA 

(12) Mlkl 

(13) NATHAN 

(14) PI II R 

(15) RIC HARD 



(C) 



(1) Al AN 

(2) Al VIN 

(3) BARBARA 

(4) CHARI II 

(5) DAMION 

(6) PARI I Nl 
1(7) I RIC | 

(8) I RIKA 

(9) GEORGI 

(10) JOHN 

(11) LISA 

(12) MIKI 

(13) NATHAN 

(14) PI II R 

(15) RIC HARD 



<d) 



A "binary" search foi "I RIC" starts in (he middle ol the list. Since "ERIC" is less than 
"I RIKA" the algorithm discards all names greater than "I RIKA" and concentrates on 
the lust hall of the list. In (b) the search has gone ton low. so it doesn't have to search am 
names less than "CHARI II "lnki.it is still too low in the list, so it advances one name 
and finds "I RIC" in (d). 



ii 'il I TIJC L'C'_ 7" CflO ' C'_'_ 

fr i ufi~ir\L. '_><_ i J _"_"_» // //_ '_"__'/ ( uiK. /_<__'_* 



liom a list ol 1(H) are searched lor 50' < ol 
the time, it makes sense to place those live 
names at the start ol the list I hen we can 
expect 50', ol the successful searches to 
be satisfied by the fifth comparison. It 
we assume that the remaining 95 names in 
the list are distributed randomly, a success- 
ful search will require about 27 com- 
parisons, which is better than the 50 
comparisons expected when the names 
appear in random order. 

Since we may not know ahead ol time 
which names will be searched for fre- 
quently, the technique is best used lor 
tables that can be set up in advance to 
reflect the expected distribution of the 
search requests. But bv using a data struc- 
t in c- called a Ihl. it is easy to create a sell- 
ordering table that automatical!) orders 
the entries bv frequency ol occurrence as 
names are added or referenced. Lisl 
structures are described in the references 
given at the end ol this article and in 
Parts 2 and .1 ol this series. 

The Binary Search 

Using a binary search, the search time- 
can be decreased, with the added benefit 
that il we increase the size ol the table, the 



The binary search 

algorithm requires 

the names to appear 

in some sort of order. 



PERFECT WRITER 

LIVES UP TO 

ITS NAME." 

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164 



search time will increase at a much slower 
rate. I he binarv search takes its name 
from the way in which it repeatcdlv div ides 
the table into two pieces, until the desired 
record is located. 01 until each piece that it 
has let t to search can not be subdivided 
anymore. I he binarv search algorithm 
requires the names to appear in some sort 
ol order. In oui examples, the names are 
arranged alphabetical! v. 

Belore studying the details ol the binarv 
search, we will run through a search to get 
a leel loi how it works Instead ot starting 
the search at the beginning ol the list, the 
binar) search begins at the middle lo 
locate "P RIC" in the list shown in figure?, 
we compare "ERIC" to the name appear- 
ing in the middle ol the list. "1 RIKA." 
Since "I RIKA" is alphabetically greater 
than "I RIC." we can discard the entire 
hall ol the list with names gieater than or 
equal to "I RIKA." 

I he binary search makes its next guess 
by checking the name that appears midway 
between the middle ol the list and the 
beginning ol the list. Comparing 
"CHARI II " to "! RIC." we see that the 
search has gone too low. We can then 
eliminate all of the names less than or equal 
to "CHARI II 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



Next, we examine the name in the 
middle of the interval running from 
"DAMION" to "ERIC" placing the next 
guess at location 6, or "DARLENE." 
Recognizing that there is only one possible 
space left to try, the search finds "ERIC" at 
location 7. For the list in Figure 3, the 
binary search will find the name or deter- 
mine that it does not exist in four or fewer 
comparisons. The average successful 
search in a table of 16 names requires 
about three comparisons. This is fewer 
than the eight comparisons expected for 
the sequential search. 

The binary search provides a solution 
with so few comparisons because it 
repeatedly divides smaller lists in half. 
After the first comparison, there are only 
eight possible locations left to check. 
Following the next comparison, only four 
locations remain. Each time through the 
list it divides the number of remaining 
names in half. 

Finally, when the list cannot be split any 
further, the name is found or it doesn't 
exist in the list. Clearly, a search that 
eliminates one half of the list on the first 
comparison will be much faster than the 
sequential search. 

Binary Search Performance 

For a short list, like the one shown in 
Figure 3 with just 15 names, the saving in 



search time is negligible when compare 
to the sequential search. Besides, the 
actual time that the computer takes to 
search a short list is so small that it really 
makes little difference how long a partic- 
ular search takes. 

The computer overhead required for 
the additional comparisons and to do the 
arithmetic required of the binary search 
can actually make the binary search take 



The binary search can 

also be optimized by 

ordering the table 

by frequency of 

occurrence. 



longer than the sequential search when 
working with small lists. A theoretically 
fast algorithm may not be very fast at all 
when it is translated into a program, 
running with the constraints of a real 
computer. 

But as the size of the list grows, the 
advantage of the binary search is apparent. 
For a list of up to 65535 names, the 
binary search guarantees fewer than 16 



comparisons before terminating the 
search. That's two thousand limes better 
than the average successful sequential 
search for the same list. The maximum 
number of comparisons required for any 
list of si/e n is equal to the integer base 2 
logarithm of n. plus I. 

For those not familiar with logarithms, 
the number of comparisons is roughly 
equal to the number of times that n can be 
repeatedly divided by 2, while continuing 
to have an integer remainder (e.g. log 8 
base 2=3. because X 2=4. 4/2=2, and 
2 2=1. hence three divisions). 

Adding Names to the Ordered Table 

Adding names to an ordered table is a 
time-consuming and inefficient process 
(see Algorithm 3). To add a name, we first 
search the table to see if it already exists. 
If it does, the algorithm reports an error. 
Otherwise, the binary search has stopped 
at the point where it should be added. So 
all the names that follow are shifted over 
one entry in the table and the new name is 
inserted. 

For example, to insert "DAVID" into 
the list in Figure 4, we first call the binary 
search routine (Algorithm 2) to see if the 
name is in the table. Since the name is not 
in the table, we make a "hole" where the 
name should go. Algorithm 2 finishes the 
search with G having the value of the 



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Searching Techniques, continued. 

location just before the location at which 
the name should he inserted. 

Figure 4 illustrates the insertion in which 
the names that follow "DAK I I Nl "slide 
upwards in the array, and "DAVID" is 
inserted at location 7. Mgorilhm 3 may he 
improved by using "pointers" to strings. 



Figure -J. 



and then shitting pointers rather than 
strings. I he concept of pointers is intro- 
duced in Pari 2. and discussed further in 
Parts 3 and 4. 

I he binary search can also he optimized 
by ordering the tahle by frequency ol 
occurrence. I sing a "Dinar) tree. "the most 



NS(I) "MAN" 
\S<2) = "BARBAR V 
N$(3) "CHARI I s" 

NS<4) "1 RIC 
N$(5) MIKI 

N$(6) "I'M 

N$<7) "TOM* 

NSi.M \\ \| || R 

(a I 
Before inserting "DAV ID" 




N$(l) = "ALAN" 

N$(2) = "BARBARA" 

N$<3) = "CHARLI S" 

NS(4) "DAVID" 

NS<5) = "I Kl( " 

\S<(>) "\1lkl" 

NS(7) = "PAI I " 

NS(K) = TOM" 

NS<9) = "WALTI K" 

<b) 
Alter inserting "DAVID" 



Adding "DAVID" to an ordered tahle. Alter linding the correct position lor the new 
name, all ol the following entries are slided upwards in the list, as shown above. I hen 
N$<4) is assigned the value o! "DAVID." 



Figure 5. 




IMM I \ VMI 



"CHARLES" 



"MAGK BOX" 
HASH F\ M HON 



Ol TPUT 
LOCATION 



I he "hash function" works like a magic box, converting the name "CHARLES" into a 
number that is also the location where "CHARLES" is kept in the list. Actually, no magic- 
is involved. I he hash function uses simple arithmetic to convert the character string into a 
number Ol course, more than one name may hash to the same number, producing a 

"collision." 



frequently accessed name in the list 
appears at the center ol the table so that it 
is always examined first in any search. 
Binary trees are described in Parts 2 and 3 
of this series, and in several ol the refer- 
ences at the end ol this article. 

Listing 2 is a set ol sample subroutines 
to implement a binary search in Basic, 
lines I to 999 are omitted since they arc 
the same as the lines shown in listing I. 
Subroutine I (MX) adds the name SS to the 
table: subroutine 2(M)() searches the table 
tor the name SS. returning the location in 
variable (i. ami subroutine 4(MM) deletes the 
name at location Ci. I he program should 
(IOSI B 2(MM) belore lumping to 4(MM) so 
that (i will be set to the proper location. 

Hashing 

The best search would be a crystal ball 
that prophetically reveals the location ol 
the name that we seek Envision a magic 
box. like the one in Figure 5. that given a 
name, simply outputs the correct location. 
Such a strategy is called "hashing." 
literally turning the search name into a 
number that is the actual index ol an array 
ol names. 

lo see how hashing works, we invent a 
function HASH(STRING), which con- 
verts the string to an integer as lollows: 

I ocation = MASH (SS> 
where SS is the name that we arc looking 
for. A name is converted into a number by 
assigning a numeric value to each character 



The best search would 
be a crystal ball that 
prophetically reveals 

the location of the name 
that we seek. 



in the name and then summing the values. 
We will equate the letter A with the number 
65. the letter B with 66. and so on. up 
through the letter / which has the value ol 
90. I his letter-number Correspondence is 
used because these numbers are the ASCII 
codes that the computer uses to represent 
characters internally. Most Basics have a 
function such as 
C = ASC" (SS) 
which returns the ASCII code ol the lust 
character in SS. lor example, it SS : "D". 
then ASC'(SS) will yield 68. 

lo produce the hash, the hash function 
sums the character codes lor each of the 
characters in the string, lor example, to 
hash "DOUG." the values for each of the 
characters are summed as lollows: 

D O U Ci Sum 

6K + 79 + 85 + 71 = 303 

"DOUG" has a hash value of 303. 



166 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



WE REGRET 



I i\imv I. The Sequential Search Technique 

10 MAX-100 

20 DIM N»(MAX) 

10O PRINT "ENTER: A(DD L<00KUP PCRINT D(ELETE Q(UIT 7 -| 

110 C«-INPUT«(I) : PRINT C* 

120 ON INSTR (1, "ALPDQ", C»> + 1 GOSUB 100, 200, 300, 400, 5O0, 600 

130 GOTO 100 

TOO REM 

210 REM - ADD NAMES 

220 INPUT "ENTER NAME TO ADD 7 " , S» 

225 IF S» - "" THEN RETURN 

230 GOSUB 2000 

240 IF F-0 THEN GOSUB 1000 

250 IF F-l THEN PRINT S»; " IS ALREADY IN THE LIST.": RETURN 

260 IF F-2 THEN PRINT "TABLE IS FULL AT ";MAX|" ENTRIES.": RETURN 

270 RETURN 

300 REM 

310 REM - LOOKUP A NAME 

320 INPUT "ENTER NAME TO LOOKUP 7 " , S« 

330 GOSUB 2000 

340 IF G-0 THEN PRINT "NOT FOUND" ELSE PRINT "FOUND AT LOCATION ";G 

350 RETURN 

400 REM 

410 REM - PRINT OUT THE TABLE 

420 GOSUB 3000 

430 RETURN 

500 REM 

510 REM - DELETE A NAME 

520 INPUT "ENTER NAME TO DELETE 7 " , S* 

53ii GOSUB 2000 

540 IF F - O THEN PRINT "NOT FOUND" ELSE GOSUB 4000: PRINT "DELETED" 

550 RETURN 

600 REM - QUIT 

610 GOTO 32767 

1 000 REM 

1010 IF N»MAX THEN F-2: RETURN ELSE F-0 
1020 N - N + 1 
1030 N» (N) - S* 
1040 RETURN 

20O0 REM 

2010 REM - LOOK UP A NAME 

2020 G - 1 

2030 IF G > N THEN F-0: RETURN 

2040 IF S» - N* <G> THEN F-l: RETURN 

2050 G - G + 1 

2060 GOTO 2030 

30OO REM 

3010 REM - PRINT OUT TABLE OF NAMES 

3020 FOR I - 1 TO N 

3030 PRINT N« (I), 

SO40 NEXT I 

3050 PRINT 

-.070 RETURN 

4000 REM 

4010 REM - DELETE NAMES 

4020 N - N - 1 

4030 FOR I - G TO N 

4o40 N» (I) - N»(I ♦ 1) 

4050 NEXT I 

4060 RETURN 

32767 END 



II the names arc stored in an array 
defined as DIM N$(100), then there is a 
slight problem: How do we use the number 
303 as an index to \S() when the index 
must he less than or equal to 100? I o scale 
the hash value to the range I to 1(H). 303 is 
divided b\ 100 and the remainder ol 3 is 
used as the actual hash value. 

lor example, it we define R as the 
remainder ol \ Y. then in most Basics, we 
could write. 

R=MOD (V Y) 
or R=X MOD Y 
or R=(X/Y-INT(X/Y))» \ 

September 1982 e Creative Computing 



lo place "DOUG" in the hash table. 
N$<3) is set to -DOUG." later, when 
searching lor "DOUG" the same hash 
index ol 3 is produced, immediate!) find- 
ing the name at NS(3). 

Handling Collisions 

A problem arises when we give the hash 
function another name that hashes to 
location .V For example, the name "Dl B" 
also hashes to 203. 



I) 

68 



I 

69 



B 

» 66 
167 



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Searching Techniques, continued... 



Listing 2. Binary Search Subroutines. 



1000 REM 

1010 REM - ADD NAMES 

1012 IF N=MAX THEN F-2: RETURN ELSE F-0 

1015 N - N ♦ 1 

1020 FOR I ■ N TO B ♦ I STEP -1 

1030 N« (I) - N»(I - 1) 

1040 NEXT I 

1060 N» (Q ♦ 1) = S* 

1070 RETURN 

2000 REM 

2010 REM - LOOK UP A NAME 

2020 L - 1: R - N 

2030 Q-INT< <L+R>/2> 

2040 IF R < L THEN F-0: RETURN 

2050 IF S» - N« (G) THEN F - 1: RETURN 

2060 IF S» < N* (G) THEN R - G - 1 ELSE L 

2070 GOTO 2030 

3000 REM 

3010 REM - PRINT OUT TABLE OF NAMES 

3020 FOR I - 1 TO N 

3030 PRINT N« (I), 

3040 NEXT I 

3050 PRINT 

3070 RETURN 

4000 REM 

4O10 REM - DELETE NAMES 
4020 N - N - 1 
4030 FOR I - G TO N 
4040 N* (I) - N»(I + 1> 
4050 NEXT I 
4060 RETURN 

5000 REM 

5010 REM - QUIT 
32767 END 



Listing J. The Hashing Technique. „ 

1000 REM 

1010 REM - ADD NAMES 

1030 IF N >- MAX - 1 THEN F - 2: RETURN 

1O40 N-N+ It F • 

1050 GOSUB 6000 

1060 IF N» <H> - "" OR N«(H) - "*" THEN N«(H>-S*» RETURN 

1070 H - H - 1 

1080 IF H - O THEN H - MAX 

1090 GOTO 1060 

2OO0 REM 

2010 REM - LOOK UP A NAME 

2020 GOSUB 6000 

2030 IF N« <H> - "" THEN F - Oi RETURN 

2040 IF N« «H> • S» THEN F - ll B - Hi RETURN 

2050 H - H - 1 

2060 IF H - THEN H - MAX 

2070 GOTO 2030 

30O0 REM 

3010 REM - PRINT OUT TABLE OF NAMES 

3020 FOR I - 1 TO MAX 

3030 IF LEN(N»(I))>0 THEN IF N» ( I > <> "«" THEN PRINT N* ( I > , 

3040 NEXT I 

3050 PRINT 

3070 RETURN 

4OO0 REM 

4010 REM - DELETE NAMES 
4020 N« <H> - "*" 
4025 N-N-l 
4030 RETURN 

5000 REM 

5010 REM - QUIT 
5020 GOTO 32767 

6000 REM 

6010 REM COMPUTE H - HASH <S») 

6020 H - O 

6030 FOR I - 1 TO LEN <S«> 

6040 H - H ♦ ASC(MID«(S«, I, 1>> 

6050 NEXT I 

6060 H - H MOD MAX ♦ tl REM H - REMAINDER OF H/MAX 

6070 RETURN 

32767 END 



The hash of 203 is scaled to the range of I to 
100 giving it the value of 3. On checking 
N$(3). we see that the name "DOUG" is 
already in the table. The algorithm detects 
a "collision" whenever two or more names 
hash to the same location. There are 
several ways of dealing with collisions, 
but only one simple method is shown here. 

When "DEB" hashes to an index that is 
already used, the algorithm decrements 
the hash value and tries the next entry at 
location 2. If NS(2) is not in use then the 
algorithm sets N$(2) to "DEB." But in the 
case that NS(2) is already used, the algo- 
rithm decrements the index again. The 
hash index continues to decrement until a 
free entry is found. Upon reaching 0. the 
index "wraps around" to 100 and con- 
tinues decrementing until finding a free 
spot in the table. 

In the worst case, the hashing algorithm 
can degenerate into a sequential search 
of the list, looking for the next to the last 
Iree spot. For this reason, a hash function 
should tend to eliminate collisions and 
avoid any tendency for names to cluster 
about a particular area within the table. 
lor maximum efficiency, the table should 
never fill up to more than about 80% of its 
maximum size. 

At' about SO', ol table capacity, the 
hashing method will require about three 
comparisons for a successful search. 
irrespective of the table si/c. For an unsuc- 
cessful search, even in a large table, only 
13 comparisons are expected. 

Searching the Hash Table 

When searching for "DEB," the same 
process that was used to add "DEB" to the 
table is repeated. "DEB" is hashed to loca- 
tion 3. Finding a mismatch, the index 
value is decremented to 2 and the name 
is found. 

The search finishes when the algorithm 
finds the name or when the index points to 
an unused slot in the table. If the name 
doesn't appear in the table and there are no 
unused slots, then the search will loop in- 
definitely. Therefore, a table of size N can 
onlv hold VI names; there must always 
he at least one empty slot in the table. 

Removing Hash Entries 

Deleting names from the hash table is 
not as simple as it first appears. For 
example, if we remove the name "DOUG" 
from location 3, the first time that we 
search for "DEB," we'll hash to location 3, 
and seeing it empty, conclude that "DEB" 
is not in the table. To solve this problem, 
we mark location 3 as "deleted," rather 
than unused, so that the search will cor- 
rectly continue on to location 2. 

listing 3 shows the addition, deletion 
and searching of data records in a hash 
table. As with the previous listings, SS 



168 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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Aestheometry teaches the topic of 
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Teacher Utilities-Volume 1 

MECC-715. $24 95 

The TEACHER UTILITIES diskette is 
designed to aid the teacher and would 
not be used by the student unit- 



teacher creates questions usin 
REVIEW program This program 
the teacher to set up a list of que 
which can be used either by the RT 
VIEW program or the TEST GENFRA 
TOR program The teacr ■. 
make CROSSWORD puzzles WORD 
FIND puzzles BLOCK LETTER banners 
and POSTERS using this pr-i 
FREQUENCY and PERCENT < 
used to calculate grades and to - - 
tistical analysis A printer 
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The PROGRAMMER s AID di 
provides help for the programn- 
grams to be able to UPLOA( 
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grams that work with text files mi 
FP TO TEXT RANDOM EDITO' 
QUENTIAL EDITOR and 
along with programs to work witr> 
tiles BINARY FILE INFO BINAH- 
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create change and merge gi 
shapes tor use in a prog 
SPACE will tell the amount of spai 
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will locate control character STA 
will put standard routines such as 
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ceivable and (4) inventory control 

Shape Tables-Vol 1 
MECC-724 $24 95 

The SHAPE TABLES f— lull 
eludes 12 tiles ot 187 shapes than can 
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Also included are aids needed to work 
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Searching Techniques, continued. 



Algorithm I 

Sequential Search Algorithm 

I el \S( ) he an array of character strings containing the list of 
names to he searched. Let N be the number of names in N$(). 
Example: If there are five names, then they appear in N$(l) 
through NS(5). and N is equal to five. Let S$ be the name for 
which the algorithm is to search. I is used to keep track of the 
current position in the list. 

Step Action 

1) Set I = I 

2) IF I > N THEN terminate search. S$ not found 

3) IF S$ = N$(l) THEN terminate search. S$ found at 

location I 

4) Set 1 = 1+1 and GOTO Step 2 



Algorithm 2 

I he Ordered Table Binary Search 

1 el N$() be an array of names appearing in alphabetical order. 
I et N be the number of names in the list. Let L mark the lowest 
bound of the interval of names to look at, and let R mark the 
upper bound. Let G be the "guess" appearing midway between 
I and R. S$ is the name to be searched for in table N$(). 

Step Action 

1) Set L=l and R=N 

These are the initial bounds of the interval. 

2) G = INT«L + R) 2) 

Make a guess midway between L and R. 

4) If S$ = N$(G) THEN terminate search. SS found at G 

5) If SS < N$(G)THEN R = G-l 

I I SE L = G + I Set new boundaries. 

6) GOTO Step 2 

Algorithm 3 

Inserting a New Name Into An Ordered Table 

\S( ). S$. N. and G are the same as for Algorithm 2. I is a dummy 
variable used as a FOR NEXT loop control value. 



Step Action 

1 ) Perform Algorithm 2. 

2) If S$ was found then terminate with an error 

already exists in the table. 



the name 



3) 
4) 



5) 



N = N + I 

FOR I = N TO G + I STEP- 1 

N$(l) - NSfl-1) 
NEXT I 

Shift the names over one place in the table. 
N$(G+I) = S$ 
Place the name into the table. 



Algorithm 4 

Searching the Hash Table 

Let SSbe the name to search for in the table of names N$(). The 
function HASHO is as described in the text. S is equal to the 
tize of the array N$(). 

Step Action 

1) H = HASH ( S$ ) 

2) IF N$(H) - " " THEN exit. SS was not lound 

3) ELSE IF N$(H)=S$ THEN exit. SS found at location H 

4) H = H-l Decrement and try next position 

5) IF H = OTHEN H S 

6) Goto Step 2 



Algorithm 5 

Adding New Names to the Hash Table 

S is equal to the maximum table lize 
MAX = 100. then S = MAX - I. or 99. 



I Fot example, if 



Step Action 

1) IF N = S THEN error, the table is lull 

2) N = N + I Increment total entries 

3) H = HASH (SS) Compute Hash 

4) IF N«H)= " "OR N$(H) = "*" III! \ 

N$(H) - SS: Exit with the name inserted 

5) H = H-l Collision occurred, so decrement 

6) IF H = OTHEN H = S 

7) Goto Step 4 

Algorithm 6 

Deleting Names From the Hash Table 

Step Action 

1) Call Algorithm 4 

2) If SS was not found then error 

Else N$(H) = "*". Mark it as deleted. 



holds the name to add to or search for in 
the table. To delete a name, call sub- 
routine 2000 and verify that the name 
exists, and then GOSUB 4000 to actually 
delete it. 

It is not necessary to sum all of the 
characters in the name. If you know that 
there are only a lew names, you might form 
the hash from just the first few characters 
of each name. This technique is vers useful 
in a compiler or interpreter's keyword 
symbol table, or as a command recogni/er 
in a program. As an example, consider a 
small Basic interpreter having the key- 
words IF. THEN, GOTO. GOSUB. FOR. 
NEXT. RETURN. PRINT, and INPUT. 
It we hash all of those keywords by their 
first letter, the only collision that occurs is 
between GOTO and GOSUB. 

Summary 

Algorithms describe the precise set of 
rules that a computer follows in order to 



solve a problem. The sequential search 
algorithm is just one of many methods 
available for searching through an array or 
file of records. The binary search and 
hashing algorithms show that big improve- 
ments can be made to a simple problem 
like searching a table of names. And of 
course, there are many more algorithms 
and still more variations on each. 

Programs spend a large part of their 
execution time manipulating data struc- 
tures; therefore, our programs should use 
the best methods available to organize 
information within the memory of the 
computer. Parts 2 and 3 of this series 
expand on the subject of data structures 
and show how "lists" and "trees" can be 
programmed in Basic. 

Part 2 presents the design of a simple 
data base system used to produce geneo- 
logical pedigree charts. The program 
source, written in Basic, will appear in 
Part 3. Part 4 concludes the series with a 

170 



look at five different sorting methods, 
including the fast Shellsort and Quicksort 
algorithms. 

References 

Gotlicb. C. C. and L. R. Gotlieb. Data 
Trpes and Structures, Prentice-Hall. Inc.. 
Englcwood Cliffs. VI. I978. 

Knuth. Donald I .. "Algorithms." Scien- 
tific American. April I977, Vol. 236. No. 4. 
p. 63. 

Knuth. Donald I . The Art of Computer 
Programming: Sorting and Searching. 

Addison-Weslev Publishing Co.. Reading. 
MA. 197.1. 

Standish. Thomas A.. Data Structure 
Techniques. Addison-Weslev Publishing 
Co.. Reading. MA. 1980. 

1. 1 nne ha ii m. Andrew S.. Structured Com- 
puter Organization. Prentice-Hall. Inc.. 
Englewood Cliffs. \.i. 1976. □ 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 




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Atari Diskfile Tutorial 



Jerry White 



Many new computer owners are anx- 
ious to learn how to write their own useful 
programs. After reading the literature 
packed with the machine, the new owner 
is often overwhelmed. Realizing that one 
does not learn any programming language 
overnight, a seemingly endless periixl of 
trial and error usually follows. The 
"hacker" is often seen burning the mid- 
night oil and arguing with a defenseless 
TV or monitor. 

If he perseveres long enough, reason- 
ably simple programs are written. The 
new programmer is now ready for bigger 
and better things. 

Assuming he has a disk drive, our 
"hacker" gains experience with DOS and 
the loading and raving of programs. Now 
he is ready to write a database program. 

The datafile may consist of a simple list 
of record albums for a start, to be fol- 
lowed by the inevitable Personal Finance 
System. If you are at this point in your 
programming career, or think you might 
be in the near future, read on. 

Start with something very simple. Don't 
try to write that financial package yet. 
There is much to learn first about file 
structure and I/O. I/O stands for Input/ 
Output. Input is data being read by a 
program. Output is data being created by 
a program. A file consists of one or more 
records, and a record is an item within a 
file. Records may be broken down further 
into fields. We will be using simple rec- 
ords containing a single 20-character field 
as our record, and create a sample 10- 
record datafile. 

To understand data processing tech- 
niques, it is often easier to grasp reality 

Jerry White. IK Hickory Lane. Levittown. NY 

117.So. 



than it is to learn by reading. I have found 
that doing is the best way to learn, and 
that Atari Basic can be easy to understand 
if it is explained in English. 

Atari Basic allows variable names of 
any length, plus REM or remark state- 
ments. Remarks or comments within a 
program help identify routines and 
explain exactly what the program is 
doing. 

Meaningful variable names also make 
program reading much easier. For exam- 
ple, the sample Diskfile program uses the 
variable RECNUM to store the current 
total of records. RECNUM is an abbrevi- 
ation I used to mean record number. So 
why didn't 1 use the variable RECORD- 
NUMBER you ask? RECNUM is a com- 



promise between that 12-letter name and 
the other extreme which could have been 
R. 

The RECNUM variable is used often. 
The tradeoff is readability against the 
programmer's keystrokes and sometimes 
program efficiency. If R is used instead of 
RECORDNUMBER, and that variable is 
used ten times, using R saves 110 key- 
strokes. In a tutorial program such as this 
one, RECNUM is the acceptable 
compromise. 

The Diskfile tutorial program demon- 
strates many of the common functions 
required in a simple database type pro- 
gram. By using the program and studying 
the program code, you will learn how 
datafiles may be handled in Atari Basic. 



REM FILES <c> 1981 by Jmrry Whit* 

1 REM ATARI DISKFILE TUTORIAL DEMO 

2 REM 

100 DIM DRIVE*(3),FILE*(12>,0RIVEFILE*(13>,RECORD*(10),ANSWER*(l> 

110 DIM SECTOR (20), BVTE (20), DIRECTORY* (20) I REM DIMENSION STRINGS AND ARRAY8 

111 REM 

120 GRAPH I CB l POKE 82, 2 l POKE 83, 39 l REM CLEAR SCREEN AND SET MARGINS 
130 POKE 201,3iREM SET PRINT TAB WIDTH TO 3 SPACES 



140 
ISO 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 



I? 
i? 
i? 



i? 



"TYPE OPTION NUMBER THEN PRE66 RETURN" 
'(1) CREATE A DISK FILE"iREM GOTO 1000 
'(2) READ A DISK FILE" i REM GOTO 2000 
'(3) ADD TO A DISK FILE"lREM GOTO 3000 
I? ,"(4) UPDATE A DISK FILE" i REM GOTO 4000 
■? ,"(3) DISPLAY DISK DIRECTORY" t REM GOTO 5OO0 
"(6) END PROGRAM"! REM GOTO 9140 
"YOUR CHOICE" i iGOBUB 7000 

220 TRAP 8OO0lLINE-120iHIGHNUMBER-6iNUMBER-VAL<ANSWER«> 

230 IF NUMBER<1 OR NUMBER >6 THEN GOTO 8000 

240 ON NUMBER GOTO 1000,2000,3000,4000,3000,9140 

230 REM 

1000 LINE-6IOO1GOSUB 7100lTRAP 9100IGRAPHIC8 

1010 CLOSE OliOPEN •1,8 I 0,DRIVEFILE* 

1020 ? 1? "CREATING "|DRIVEFILE*I? ■ RECORD*-" 1234367890" 

1030 FOR DEMO-1 TO 10 

1040 ? «1 1 RECORD* 

1050 ? "WRITING RECORD NUMBER " I DEMO 

1060 NEXT DEMO 

1070 ? 1? "10 RECORD DEMO FILE CREATED" 

1080 7 1? "CLOSING " | DR I VEF I LE» 

1090 CLOSE «1 

1100 GOTO 6100 



172 



September 1 982 c Creative Computing 



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Atari Diskfile, continued... 

Once you have entered the program and 
corrected any typing errors, run through 
each of the options beginning with num- 
ber one. 

It is important to understand the termi- 
nology used here. CREATE means just 
that. In this case it means create from 
scratch. Note that the create routine 
actually begins at line 1000 and that line 
1010 contains an OPEN command. The 
number 8 in that command means write 
only. If a file is opened using this variable, 
and a file with the exact same name is 
found on your diskette, the old file will be 
deleted automatically. 

Using option two, a file is read from 
disk and displayed on the screen. This 
does not in any way alter the disk file. 

Option three is used to ADD data to an 
existing disk file only. The term APPEND 
is often used in this case. In plain English, 
the term APPEND means, "add to the 
end of this file." 

Option four is used to UPDATE the 
records of an existing file. This means 
you will alter, correct, or change a record. 
This procedure is a bit more complicated 
than the others since we do not know in 
advance which record the user may 
choose to update. The technique used in 
this demo program is known as Random 
Access Updating. An index consisting of 
SECTOR and BYTE locations is created 
and stored in an array. This gives us the 
exact spot at which each record begins. 

Since we are using fixed length records 
of 20 characters each, we can read a 
specific record into a string, change it in 
the string, then rewrite the string onto the 
disk. This becomes a real time saver when 
many records must be updated in a large 
disk file. 

Option five is used to READ and dis- 
play a specific file called the 
DIRECTORY FILE. This DOS-generated 
file contains the table of contents of your 
diskette. This file is also known as the 
VTOC or Volume Table Of Contents. 
For display only, this routine does the 
same thing as DOS option A. 

Although some error trapping has been 
built in, many possible error conditions 
are not corrected or fully explained by 
this program. Error trapping and human 
engineering account for a great deal of 
planning and program code. This is not a 
cop out on my part. I plan to cover this 
subject in a future article. The point here 
is to provide an example of diskfile 
handling. Accounting for all possible 
errors could easily double the size of the 
program. 

That's about it for now. I suggest you 
use my program as is. then experiment by 
making minor changes and noting the 
results. When you're ready to write your 
own diskfile handling program, feel free 
to use these routines. □ 



it 10 REM 

2O0O LINE-6IOO1GOSUB 7l00lTRAP 9100l GRAPH I CB 

2010 CLOSE «ll0PEN »2, 4, O, DRI VEFILE*l RECNUM-Ol L INE-6100 

2020 INPUT «2, RECORD* 

2030 RECNUM-RECNUM* 1 

2040 7 "RECORD NUMBER "i RECNUM i 

2050 7 .RECORD* 

2060 00T0 2020 

2070 REM 

3000 LINE-3O0OI GOSUB 7100iTRAP 9 1 00 ■ GRAPHICS 

3010 CLOSE Ml OPEN #3,9,0, DRIVEFILE* 

3020 GRAPHICS Oi ? i? , "ADD RECORD(S) ROUTINE!" 

3030 7 i 7 ."ENTER 10 CHAR ACER RECORD" 

3040 7 i? , "OR JU8T PRESS RETURN TO EXIT"|7 iGOBUB 6000 

3030 RECLEN-LEN (RECORD*) i IF RECLEN-0 THEN 3200 

30*0 IF RECLEN-10 THEN 3090 

3070 FOR BLANK-RECLEN+1 TO lOi RECORD* (LEN (RECORD*) *1 ) -" " l NEXT BLANK 

3090 PRINT #3 | RECORD* 

3100 7 ■ 7 "PRESS START TO ENTER ANOTHER RECORD" 

3110 ? i 7 "PRESS OPTION FOR OTHER OPTIONS... "i 

3120 IF PEEK (33279) -6 THEN 3020 

3130 IF PEEK < 53279) -3 THEN 3200 

3140 GOTO 3120 

3200 7 i? i7 ."ADDING RECORD(S) TO DISK"iCL0SE «3iGGTO 120 

3210 REM 

4000 LINE-41O0iGOBUB 7100iTRAP 9100i GRAPHICS 

4010 CLOSE »4|0PEN «4. 12, 0, DR I VEFILE*! LINE-4100 

4020 7 i 7 ,, "CREATING INDEX" ■ RECNUM-0 

4030 NOTE 04, SECTOR, BYTE 

4040 RECNUM-RECNUM+l 

4050 SECTOR ( RECNUM ) -SECTOR i BYTE (RECNUM) -BYTE 

4060 INPUT «4, RECORD* ■ 7 , " RECORD " I RECNUM, RECORD* 

4070 7 ."SECTOR-" | SECTOR, "BYTE-" | BYTE 

4080 7 i GOTO 4030 

4100 RECNUM-RECNUM-1 

4110 7 ■ 7 "PRESS START TO UPDATE A RECORD" 

4120 7 i? "PRESS OPTION FOR OTHER OPTIONS"! 

4130 IF PEEK (53279) -6 THEN 4200 

4140 IF PEEK (53279) -3 THEN CLOSE #4 i GOTO 120 

4150 GOTO 4130 

4200 GRAPHICS OlREM RANDOM ACCESS RECORD UPDATE ROUTINE 

4210 7 I? ."DISKFILE CONTAINS "|RECNUM|" RECORDS" 

4220 7 1 7 "ENTER RECORD NUMBER TO BE UPDATED"! 

4230 TRAP 42201 INPUT UPDATE! TRAP 40000 

4240 UPDATE-INT (UPDATE) i IF UPDATE< 1 OR UPDATE >RECNUM THEN 4230 

4250 POINT «4, SECTOR (UPDATE) , BYTE (UPDATE) 

4260 INPUT •4.REC0RD*!? i 7 RECORD* 

4270 7 i 7 "ENTER NEW RECORD •" I UPDATE 1 1 INPUT RECORD* 

42SO RECLEN-LEN (RECORD*) l IF RECLEN-10 THEN 4300 

4290 FOR BLANK-RECLEN-M TO lOl RECORD* (LEN (RECORD*) *1 ) - NEXT BLANK 

4300 POINT *)4, SECTOR (UPDATE) , BYTE (UPDATE) 

4310 PRINT •4|RECORD«l7 l? ."RECORD HAS BEEN UPDATED" 

4320 GOTO 4110 

4330 REM 

50OO SRAPHICB O I POKE 201,101 7 1 7 , " DISK DIRECTORY"!? I TRAP 9100 

5010 CLOSE «5iOPEN #5,6,0, "Di ». *"|REM OPEN DISK DIRECTORY FOR ALL ENTRIES 

5020 L INE-6100 

5O30 INPUT «5, DIRECTORY* 

3040 7 .DIRECTORY* 

5050 GOTO 5030 

3060 REM 

6000 RECORD*- POKE 764.235iREM RECORD STRING AND LAST KEY PRES8ED-NULL 

6010 INPUT RECORD* I RETURN 

6020 REM 

6100 FOR FILE-1 TO SiCLOSE «FILE|NEXT FILEiREM CLOSE ALL FILES 

6110 POKE 201, Si 7 i? , "PRESS RETURN FOR OPTIONS"! 

6120 GOSUB 70OOI80T0 120lREM PAUSE TO READ SCREEN THEN GO TO OPTIONS 

6130 REM 

7000 ANSWER*-"" i POKE 764, 2S5l INPUT ANSWER* l RETURN l REM 1 CHARACTER INPUT 

7010 REM 

7100 GRAPHICS OlREM DRIVE NUMBER AND FILENAME INPUT ROUTINE 

7110 7 17 "TYPE DISK DRIVE NUMBER ( 1-4) "| |HI8HNUMBER-4| GOSUB 7OO0 

7120 LINE-7110ITRAP BOOOl NUMBER-VAL (ANSWER*) i TRAP 9100 

7130 IF NUMBER<1 OR NUMBER >4 THEN BOOO 

7140 DRIVE*-"D" i DRIVE* (LEN (DRIVE*) *1 ) -ANSWER* 

71SO DRIVE*(LEN(DRIVE*)+1 )-"l " 

7200 7 i? "TYPE FILE NAME"! I INPUT FILE*! IF LEN(FILE*)>0 THEN 7200 

7210 DRI VEFILE*- DRIVE* 

7220 DRIVEFILE* (LEN (DRIVEFILE*) ♦1>-FILE*I RETURN 

7230 REM 

BOOO 7 i 7 "PLEASE TYPE A NUMBER FROM 1 THRU " I H I GHNUMBER I REM ERROR ROUTINE 

B010 GOSUB 9000lGOT0 LINElREM GO BACK TO LINE NUMBER (LINE) 

9000 7 CHR* ( 253 ) 1 REM RING ERROR BELL 

9010 FOR COUNT-1 TO SOOlNEXT COUNT 1 RETURN 

9020 REM 

9100 IF PEEK(19S)-136 THEN GOTO LINElREM ERROR WAS END OF FILE 

9110 REM DISPLAY ERROR NUMBER AND LINE AT WHICH ERROR OCCURRED THEN END 

9120 7 !? " ERROR " I PEEK ( 195) | " AT LINE " I PEEK ( 186) *PEEK ( 187 ) *256 

9130 LIST PEEK ( 186) +PEEK( 187) (236 I GOSUB 9000 

9140 TRAP 400O0IEND IREM ELIMINATE ANY PREVIOUSLY SET TRAP AND END PROGRAM 



174 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 




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letting Along Without TAB 
—An Atari Translation 



Fred Pinho 



The lack of a TAB command in Atari 
Basic is a source of irritation to many 
Atari users. The most common problem 
occurs when outputting formatted text; 
cumbersome programming is necessary 
to accomplish what is relatively simple in 
other Basic dialects. 

It can also be a problem in other areas 
such as games where a given character 
must be printed at varying locations on a 
line. To illustrate this, the car race pro- 
gram shown in Listing 1 was translated 
into Atari Basic. This program originally 
appeared in the November 1980 Creative 
Computing as a translation from DEC 
PDP/1 1 to PET Basic. The game depends 
on the printing of the walls of the road 
and of the car under control of the TAB 
command. 

The Atari does have a keyboard-con- 
trolled tab function which can be used in 
the programming mode by printing it in 
properly configured strings. However, 
running the game in that manner would 
be difficult. Fortunately there is another 
way. 

The Atari does not print at the key- 
board-set tabs unless specifically request- 
ed to do so by an imbedded tab request 
within the string to be printed. Rather it 
prints at standard "print positions" posi- 
tions 0. 1 1. 21, 31 on a 38-character line). 

Separating the desired strings by a 
comma causes each string to be printed 
starting at a standard position. The width 
between each print position is controlled 
by memory location 201. Don't be fooled 
by its name in the Atari reference manual. 
Although it is called the "Print Tab 
Width." it really controls the width of the 
print positions (sneaky). 

The Atari translation is shown in Listing 

Fred Pinho. 676 RollinKwood Way. Valley CoIUkc 
NY 10484. 



Listing I. 



10 Bl-20 


50 62=61+10 


60 T-21 


80 REM 


90 GET C» 


100 


IF C»=" " THEN S-S+i:iF S<2 THEN 90 


101 


S=0 


120 


IF M-<> H 1" AND C»<>"2" THEN 110 


130 


ON VAL<C«>GOSUB 220,230 


M0 


IF <B1=T> OR (B2*T) THEN 100 


ISO 


PRINT TAB<Bl>5D»;TAB<T)i"«";TAB(B2> JD« 


160 


A=INT<RND<1>*5)*1 


170 


ON A GOSUB 200,210,210,210,200 


180 


ON B GOSUB 250,210 


190 


m-m+i:goto 80 


200 


B- It RETURN 


210 


B=2t RETURN 


220 


t«t-i:return 


230 


t=t+i:return 


210 


GOSUB 350 : RETURN 


250 


Y=INT<RND<1>«3>+1 


260 


IF X=Y THEN 250 


270 


X=Y 


280 


IF X-l THEN D«»"/" 


290 


IF X-2 THEN D«»"I" 


300 


IF X=3 THEN D«="\" 


310 


GOSUB 350 


320 


RETURN 


350 


Bl=Bl+X-2 


360 


IF BK1 THEN Bl = l 


370 


B2=B1M0 


380 


IF B2>39 THEN B1=29:G0T0 370 


390 


RETURN 


100 


PRINT TAB(T>;"« CRASH''"' 


110 


PRINT "YOU SCORED "!H; " POINTS." 


120 


M = 


130 


FOR 1=1 TO SOOtNEXT I 


160 


GOTO 10 



2. The parameters to be used in control- 
ling the width of the print positions are in 
line 40: Bl (left side of the road). B2 
(right side of the road) and T (the car). 
The actual printing is controlled by lines 
150-153. Here location 201 is POKEd with 
the width for the left side of the road. 
Then printing a blank followed by a 
comma spaces the invisible cursor to the 
second print position (controlled by Bl). 

176 



DS, which forms the sides of the road, is 
then printed. 

Since the cursor has now moved down 
to the start of the next line, location H4 
(current cursor row) is decremented by 1 
to cause a return to the original line. The 
procedure is now repeated with the width 
set for the car (line 152). Here a graphics 
heart is used for the car. It doesn't show 
on the listing so type control-comma 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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in the SOUND statement gives a very 
realistic sound. 

For the inevitable crash (Mario 
Andretti I'm not), I turned to the January 
1981 issue of Creative Computing for a 
"percussive sound generator." Modifying 
the explosion routine slightly worked well 
(lines 403-408). 

For the visual portion of the explosion, 
a simple rapid rotation of the screen 
colors was effective (lines 401-402). Note 
that the SETCOLOR had to be reset in 
line 402 to return the screen to the 
original color. 

Finally I added a crude scoring system 
(lines 410-414) and a method of playing 
repetitively under player control. In line 
420, location 764 had to be POKE with 
255 otherwise the last direction key 
pressed, prior to a crash, would be printed 
after line 60 was executed. 

If you get too good for the program, 
reduce B2 in line 40. Happy racing! D 



AND R. F0RSEN 



Without TAB, continued.. 

between the second pair of quotes in line 
152. The procedure is repeated once more 
for the right side of the road. 

The keys N, M and space were used to 
move the car. Rather than "opening" the 
keyboard and using a GET command, 
memory location 764 (last keyboard key 
pressed) was used. If you PEEK this 
location, you'll find an entirely different 
character set code is used instead of the 
one detailed in the Atari manual. This 
code is read and converted for use in 
lines 120-129. Finally, line 140 checks 
whether the car has collided with the side 
of the road. If so, it branches to the end- 
of-race routine. 

Once I had the program working prop- 
erly, like most programmers. I could not 
resist the urge to improve and upgrade it. 
What better way than to make use of the 
built-in sound and color capabilities of 
the Atari. The sound of a race car was 
easy (line 154) since a distortion level of 2 

Listing 2. 

1 REM ATARI TRANSLATION BY FRED PINH0 

2 REM FROM PET TRANSLATION BY D. LUBAR 

3 ■> »>" 

5 DIM D*(1>,A*(3) 
10 POKE 752,1 

20 s=o:m«o 

40 Bl«20:B2=Bl+7!T-24 

45 ? " INDIANAPOLIS SPEED TRIALS" 

50 ? " SPEED DEMONS HANTED" 

60 ? " ARE YOU HILLING TO GIVE IT A TRY";: INPUT 

70 IF A*<>"Y" AND A«0"YES" THEN END 

80 ? :? :? "PRESS N TO GO LEFT,M TO GO RIGHT," 

81 ? "AND SPACE TO GO STRAIGHT" IFOR P-l TO 2000:NEXT P 
85 ? ">" 

90 IF PEEK<764>«255 THEN S»S+ltIF S<2 THEN 90 
100 S»0 
120 IF PEEK<764><>33 AND PEEM764) 

129 I=PEEK<764>-32 

130 ON I GOSUB 235,235,220,220,230 
140 IF B1>=T OR B2<=T THEN 400 
150 POKE 201, 62:? " ",D« 

152 J-PEEK<84>:P0KE 84,J-i:P0KE 201, T:? " ","" 

153 J*PEEK<84>:P0KE 84,J-i:P0KE 201, bi:? " ",D» 

154 SOUND 0,70,2,7 
160 A=IN1(5»RND(1))+1 
170 GOSUB 250 
190 M»M+i:G0T0 90 

220 t«t-i:return 
230 t*t+i:return 
235 t-t:return 

250 X=INT<3«RND(1))+1 
280 IF X»l THEN D**"/" 
290 IF X«2 THEN D»»" I" 
300 IF X-3 THEN D««"V 
350 Bl-Bl+X-2 

360 IF BK1 THEN Bl-1 

361 IF Bl>26 THEN Bl=2 
370 B2-B1+7 
390 RETURN 

400 POKE 201, T:? ••","» 

401 FOR K-l TO 10:FOR 1-1 

402 setcolor 2,9,4 

403 nte»20o:gosub 405:sound i,o,o,o:sound 2,0,0,0 

404 GOTO 410 

405 SOUND 2,75,8,15:iCR"0.79*7/100:Vl=15:y2»15:u3«15 

406 SOUND 0,NTE,8,Wi:SOUND 1 ,NTE*20 ,8,W2 :S0UND 2 , NTE+50 ,4,W3 

407 U1=U1*ICR:V2«U2*<ICR+0.05>:V3-U3»<ICR+0.08>:IF W3>1 THEN 406 
4 08 SOUND 0,0, 0,0: RETURN 

410 ? "YOU SCORED ";m;" POINTS." 

411 IF M<-20 THEN ? "TRY AGAIN HITH A SLOWER CAR" 

412 IF M>20 AND M<50 THEN ? "YOU'RE GETTING BETTER. KEEP PRACTICING' 

413 IF M>=50 AND M<80 THEN T "YOU'RE A HOT ROD!" 

414 IF M>-B0 THEN ? "MOM' 1 ! LET'S GO TO THE DRAG STRIP'"' 
420 FOR 1-1 TO 700:NEXT i:P0KE 764,255 

430 ' ">":G0T0 20 



A* 



35 AND PEEKC764) 37 THEN 140 




•crash' '"•: sound 0,0,0,0 

to io:setcolor 2,i,i4:next i:next k 



CIRCLE 203 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



178 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 238 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Formatting Lister for Basic Programs 



The submission ol this program was 
greeted with great toy by the editors ol 
Creative Computing. Coping' with 
untidy line listings is one of our least 
favorite occupations. II all authors 
would use Mr. Doering 's programming 
to list the programs they submit lor 
publication, we would he a much 
happier lot. ami we would he able to 
provide wore legible listings lor our 
readers. 

Mr Doering has thoughtfully pro- 
vided suggestions lor modifying the 
program lor other machines, ami we 
respectful/} suggest that all prospective 
authors consider using an appropriate 
version on the programs ihev submit. 

EBS 



Paul F. Doering 



The IBM Personal Computer, like most 
others, offers the 1. 1. 1ST command to 
dump a Basic program to a printer. 
"Dump" is the right word. Who can 
explain why so primitive an operation has 
survived this long without evoking a 
rebellion? Just look at the typical LLIST 
product in Listing 1. 

What's wrong? The line numbers are 
unaligned. Character groups are split 
arbitrarily at the righthand margin, only to 
resume among the line numbers at the left. 
Comment lines are lost in the operating 
statements, even if festooned with garlands 
of asterisks. If the example were long 
enough, you would see the text continuing 
right across the page perforations, too. 
Considering that it has come from a 
machine as versatile as a computer, the 
LLIST output is shameful. 

listings serve two purposes, of which 

Paul F. Dticnng. 56 t'lmorc Koad. Rochester. \Y 
I4MS. 



I I 1ST addresses only one. If you seek 
some errant digit, a character-by-character 
scan of your program will require an 
unadorned dump. We do need that 
capability. 

The other purpose of a listing, though, is 
to communicate the logical flow of a 
program: and for this LLIST fails us. We 
need something better, something that 
throws up fewer barriers to compre- 
hension. We need something that yields a 
work of prose, something that promotes 
understanding of the author's reasoning. 

1 have addressed that aspect with Lister, 
a program written for a cassette-based 
IBM PC, that honors the constraints of the 
physical line of the printer without doing 
violence to the internal structure of the 
Basic line itself. Listing 2 gives you an idea 
of what Lister can do. 

The formatting lister is a program that 
accepts other programs as its data. 
Therefore, the program to be listed must be 
an ASCII file, a succession of untokeni/ed 



Listing 1. 






1" 'This is a deliberately awful example of what the traditional LLIST command w 




ill do to you, when all you want is a legible listing. 

MAXIMUM. SIZE=20: DI M A* (MAX IMUM. SI ZE) , B« (MAX IMUM. SI ZE) , C* (MAX I MUM. SI ZE > , I)* 
(MAXIMUM. SIZE) 




INDX = TO MAXIMUM. SIZE: A« ( INDX ) =INKEY»: IF A* ( INDX ) ="P" GOTO 4<> ELSE B 
*( INDX) =A*( INDX) : NEXT 




40 "I think you get the point.... 



180 



September 1982 ' Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 182 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE 181 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




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CIRCLE 163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Lister, continued... 

strings. The IBM Personal Computer lets 
you save a program in either tokeni/ed 
(SAVE "progname") or untokeni/cd 
(SAVE "progname". a) form, so this 
restriction is unimportant. 

Format Of The Listing 

You determine the format of the listing 
at run time. The program expects to be 
talking to the standard IBM printer or an 
Epson MX-80, so the set of control codes 
can invoke the standard, the double-width 
standard, the compressed, and the double- 
width compressed fonts for maximum line 
lengths of SO. 4<>. 132. and 66 characters, 
respectively. 

You can set the left and right margins 
almost anywhere on the page. The 
program will complain if the margin 
settings and line length are incompatible. 
A "bottom blanks" parameter lets you set 
the number of blank lines that will straddle 
the perforations in the paper. 



Aligning the line 

numbers is so easy that 

you wonder why the 

feature isn't common. 



Listing 2. A horrible example cleaned up by "lister. ' 



10 


'This i^ « deliberately «iw+til example oi what the traditu 




1 t 1ST command will do to von. whi-ri all you want i 




1 eui hi e 1 i sting. 


20 


MAXIMUM. 81 ZE-201 




DIM A* (MAXIMUM. SIZE) , B« (MAXIMUM. SIZE) , C*(MAXIMUM. 




D* (MAXIMUM. SIZE) 


SO 


FOR INDX = TO MAXIMUM. SIZE: A* < INDX > 1 Nt F Y*: 




IF A*<INDXi="l 40 ELSE B« < INDX) -A* < INDX) I NEX1 


40 


'I thinl von qet the point.... 



listing J. 



10 ' lltttr, to list MSIC prints saved in .A foreat. 820222.2130 

20 ON ERROR 6010 

30 SCREEN 0: KEY OFF: CIS: OEFINT «-Z 

40 DIN PREFERN20) 

SO LINE INPUT'Today's date: '; TODAY* 



Selecting single- or double-spacing is as 
easy as touching one key. You can also 
choose a descriptive phrase to he printed as 
a header adjacent to the page number at 
the top of each page of the listing. 

Part of the length of Lister concerns 
actions governed by the ten programmable 
keys on the IBM keyboard. I have used 
these extensively to make format choices 
easier. There is something satisfying about 
the power of a single keystroke. The 
unscrolled line of function labels on the 
screen makes it practical to change key 
meanings dynamically. II yon haven't 
experimented with the technique, maybe 
you will spot some tips in this program. 

Aligning the line numbers is so easy that 
you wonder why the feature isn't common. 
It takes exactly one Basic statement. Since 
it inserts leading spaces, we do it before 
judging the suitability of the length 
of the line. 

Programs don't need comments, but 
programmers do. A virtue of lister is that 
it highlights your comment lines without 
taking up memory with attention-getting 
Hags You get an automatic blank line 
not even a line number ahead of any set 
of one or more comment lines. I his simple 
feature breaks the program into para- 
graphs without costing you anything. The 
listing of lister itself shows how this 
introduces some organization. 



Formatting "lister" for IBM *0 ' Set mitul parameters. 

70 L.N6N=5: R.N6N=72: ».N6N=8: LN.SPAM: r6.LEN=66: P6.NID--80: 0BL.NI0=2O 
cassette Basic programs. B0 Km ._... mm %-- DENT«--SPACE»<8I 

90 ' Initialize the printer, coeplain if it's off-line. 
100 ON ERROR GOTO 1310 

110 LPRINT CHRt(24l; CHMII27); CHRtllS);: NIDTN 'lpth'.BO 
120 ON ERROR GOTO 

130 ' Define F-keys. 

140 KEY 1,'Lt ear gin it :' 

ISO KEY 2,'Rt nargin it :' 

160 KEY 3,'Bottoe blinks:' 

170 KEY 4,'Nidth (lit'*):' 

ISO KEY 5, 'Single spictd'<CHR«(l3> 

190 KEY 6, 'Double spactd'«CHM(l3> 

200 KEY 7,'P'or» "«: ' 

210 KEY 8, 'Header: ' 

220 KEY 9,'R(«ira'«CHRt(l3) 

230 KEY 10," Begin' 

240 KEY ON: LOCATE 23,1 

250 ' Call attention to F-ktys. 

260 ARR0NS»=STRIN6»<20, , -'I 

270 PRINT ARRONSt;: COLOR 0,7 

280 PRINT" Use F-keys to set the listinq foreat ":: COLOR 7,0: PRINT APRONS! 

290 RESTORE: FOR 1=0 TO 9: READ FKEYtdl: WIT 

300 DATA Lt,Rt,lo,Ni,Si,Do,P',He,Re,' V 

310 ' Set up list o< preferred breakpoints. 

320 FOR IP = TO 20: READ 7»: IF 7I< >'EN0' THEN PREFERI(IPI=7»: NEIT IP 

330 IP=IP-1 

J40 DATA ' ELSE ', ■ THEN ', ': ', ' PRINT" 

350 DATA " IF ", " '", " OR ", " AND ", V 

360 DATA ■«•, " ", "♦', T, ',*, END 

370 ' Loop <or adjusting runtiee pirieeters. 

380 LINE INPUT It 

390 FOR 1=0 TO 9: IF LEFT!(Zt,2)-FKEYtl!> GOTO 400 ELSE NEIT: GOTO 380 

400 ON 1*1 60T0 420,430,440,570,480,490,510,460,670,780 

410 ' Margin-setting routines. 
420 G0SUB 1370: L.N6MNUNBA: 60T0 380 
430 60SUB 1370: R.NGMNUHBA: GOTO 380 
440 G0SUB 1370: B.NGN=NUNBA: 6010 380 

450 ' Establish page header. 
460 HEAD£RMHID»(2»,9): GOTO 380 

470 ' Single- or double-space output. 
480 IN. SPA* Is GOTO 380 
490 LN.SPA«2: GOTO 380 



500 ' Get naee of prograe. to be listed. 

510 FLNM-HIDt(H,13) 

520 IF LEFTHFLHH,!!*' " THEN FLNM=HID»(FLNHI,2>: 



GOTO 520 



530 ' If there's no header yet, fake it uith the file a 
540 IF HEADERS" THEN HEA0ERl=CHR»<34i«FLNHI»CHR«<34) 
550 60T0 380 



182 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



Accounting Plus II 

It Figures 




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CIRCLE 248 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Lister, continued. 

Splitting Lines 

The formatting lister earns its name 
when a program line won't tit on the 
printed page intact. It tries to identify a 
sensible place to split the line, in the hope 
that the result will be readable without 
strain or confusion. The key to the plan is a 
string array called PREFERS, which 
contains a set of words and characters apt 
to represent plausible breakpoints. This 
set is arranged in order of decreasing 
preference. 

The scheme is simple. Using the INSTR 
function, the program seeks the rightmost 
occurrence of one of the elements of 
PREFERS within an acceptable portion of 
the oversize line. Finding a match, it stores 
everything to its left in a buffer and checks 
the length of the remaining righthand 
segment. This cycle repeats until the 
offending line has been neatly sectioned. 

Since the pending line resides in a buffer, 
lister knows whether the line will fit on the 
current page. No line is split across a page 
boundary; that would make it harder to 
understand. 

None of the specifications and principles 
I have discussed here is novel, but together 
they make a program listing clearer. That 
is a nice goal. If you want to modify Lister 
for a different computer, here are some 
considerations. 

Modification For Other Computers 

The IBM version of Basic requires that 
keywords be set apart from other text by 
delimiters: usually these are spaces. Many 
other Basics allow (or force) compression 
to squeeze spaces out, conserving memory 
at a double cost. Legibility suffers, and 
keywords must not be embedded inad- 
vertently in variable names. SCORE, for 
example, becomes invalid bv reason of the 
buried OR. 

This trait complicates the conversion of 
the program. The array of plausible break- 
points. PREFERS, has several keywords 
(ELSE. THEN, PRIM. IF. OR. AND) to 
which the bounding spaces are important. 
Omit them, and the program will split 
variable names such as NIELSEN and 
CANDOR. 

Another sacrifice involves the function 
keys. You can substitute control codes 
pretty successfully, but you must provide a 
reminder of their meanings. 

The entire section on font choice may 
need to be re-done, if you don't have an 
MX-80. 

Incidentally. IBM users, don't omit 
line 50. There is a bug in IBM Basic that 
won't allow you to change the string for 
key 2 without first executing a keyboard 
input statement. Temporarily convert 
line 50 to a comment, then start the 
program by hitting the RUN function key 
to see the bug in action. If you know a fix 
that doesn't demand user action, please 
write to me. □ 



Piss iix-pige-nidth parameter to thf HI80 printer . 
570 SOSUB 1370 

380 IF NUHBAH32 THEN POINT'lUuiui page .idth is lltlttd to 13? characters': 60TD 380 
590 IF NUWA>80 AND NUHBA<133 THEN LPftlUT CHRK20); CHRKI5);: MIOTM "Iptl:*, 152 ELSE NIOTH 'lptlj',80 
600 IF NUHBA>66 AND MJNM<81 THEN LPRINT CHMIIBI; CHRK20I; 
610 DBL.NID-20 

620 IF NUIUAXO AND NUNIA<67 THEN LPRINT CHRII15I;: DBL.NIDM4 
630 IF NUHIA<4I THEN LPRINT CHRtllSI;: DBL.NIDM4 
640 P6.NID=NUHBA 
6S0 60TD 380 

660 ' Display tht current par meters. 

670 POINT: PRINT'Lfft targin it';L.NGN 

680 PRINT'Right aargin at';R.IMjN 

690 PRINT NID«(STRt(B.N6N),?);' blink lines it pige bottoe 

700 PRINT'Hiiiaut pine mdth is';P6.NID 

710 IF LN.SPA=2 THEN PRINT'Double'; ELSE PRINT 'Smqle'; 

720 PRINT ' line spicing' 

730 PRINT'Proqru mm: ';: IF FLNH»=" THEN 60SUB 1410 ELSE PRINT FLNHI 

740 PRINT'Heider: '|l IF HEADER**" THEN 60SUB 1410 ELSE PRINT HEADER! 

750 PRINT 

760 EOT0 380 

770 ' Check piriieters before actual ly trying to list the progrie. 
780 LN.LEN=R.H6N-L.H6N»l: 

IF L.H6IK1 OR L.N6H>R.H6N-20 OR R.H6N<L.H6N»20 OR R.t*BM>PG.HID-2 OR 8.H6N<5 OR P6.NID<LN.LEN 

OR LENIHEADERt) >LN.LEN-10 

THEN BEEP: PRINT'CAN'T BEGIN. CHECK THE HARGIN I NIDTH SPECIFICATIONS or LEN6TH OF HEADER': SOTO 270 
790 FLMK*'Cifll'«FLM< 

800 ' Open the cassette Hit, cotolain it not possible to do it. 

810 ON ERROR 60T0 1340 

820 OPEN FLNHI FOR INPUT AS II 

830 ON ERROR 60T0 

840 LPRINT 

850 ' Title the first pige with the header ind -it available- the dite. 

860 LPRINT CHRt(DBL.NID); TAB(L.NGN); HEADER!;: IF TODAY!*" THEN LPRINT ELSE LPRINT', listed *; T0DAVI 

870 LPRINT: LPRINT 

880 ' Fornt the header to appear it upper right on liter piges. 
890 HEADER»=SPACEI(LN.LEN-LEN(HEADER«l-10l»HEADERI 

900 ' Set the neit BASIC line, quit it end o< tilt. 

910 P6.NUHM: LN.CNT--4 

920 s IF EOFtll 60T0 1430 

930 LINE INPUT II, TAPEI: IF TAPE!*" 60T0 930 

940 ' Right- justify the line nuaber. 

950 TAPEI=SPACE»(6-INSTR(TAPEI,' '))»TAPEI 

960 ' CHNT.SH governs the blink line ahead of cotatnt lines. 
970 IF NIM(TAPE«,7,1)<>'" THEN CrWT.SIMO 

980 ' Break the BASIC line into printer lints. 
990 FOR 4=0 TO 9 
1000 IF CHNT.SN=0 AND HIDIfTAPEI,7,l)'"' THEN LMMl***l W»Il CHNT.SNM 

1010 ' It's easy H tht *holt line fits it once. 

1020 IF LENUAPEIK'LN.LEN THEN LMIJI'TAPEt: GOTO 1180 

1030 ' Else, check for preferred breikpoints. 

1040 FOR K'O TO IP 

1050 SITE=0: KOPREFERIIK) 

1060 HI.S1TE=SITE: IF SITE<9 THEN SITE=9 

1070 SITE=INSTR(SITEM. TAPEI, «) 

1080 IF SITE>0 AND SITEOLN.LEN GOTO 1060 

1090 IF HI.SITE'O THEN NEIT K 

1100 IF HI.SITE'O THEN HI.SITE'LN.LEN 

1110 ' HI. SITE no* points to the righttost, best breakpoint. 
1120 ' Split the line there and indent ill but the first one. 
1130 LNI(J)=LEFH(TAPE»,HI.S1TEI 
1140 TAPEi=MD»(TAPE»,HI.SIT£«H 
1150 TAPEI'INDENTt«TAPEt 
1 160 NEIT J 



1170 ' Kill tht pack of printer lints fit on this page" 1 
1180 IF LN.CNKPS.LEN-B.tKN-LN.SPAKJM) 60T0 1250 
184 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



1190 ' No, so begin i ne« one, coaplctc mth htidrr I pi;e nuibrr. 

1200 Pt.NUH^PG.NWM 

1210 LPOINT CHMI12I 

1220 LPRIKI CMt«(DH..MIDl : TAKL.WNI; HEADER!; ", pige - ;P6.*Uri 

1230 LPRIKI: LPRIKI: LN.CKI-4 

1240 ' Everything is guaranteed to lit. Print It ill. 

1250 FOR 1=0 TO J: LPRIKI CHRIIDM..KIDI; TABIL.IWK); LK«ILI: IF LK.SPA=2 IHEK LPRIKT 

1260 KIT L 

1270 ' Update the line count for this page, and cycle again 
1280 LK.C»T=LK.CKI«(J«1)ILK.SPA 
1290 6010 920 



1300 ' The operator-alert for in off-line printer: 

1310 PRIKT: BEEP: PRIHT'The line printer isn't ready. Check 

1320 RESUHE 110 



■: PRIK1 



1330 ' The operator-alert for a lack of cassette data: 

1340 CLOSE: PRIKT: BEEP: PRIHT'Problei mth the cassette. Check it..." 

1350 RESUHE 820 

1360 ' Subr to decode a nuceric paraaeter input. 
1370 KUHBA=V«UHID<(Zt,l5M 

1380 IF KUKBA=0 IHEK BEEP: PR1KT'« NUMBER REQUIRED »' 
1390 RETURK 

1400 ' Subr to note the lack of a file nate or header. 

1410 COLOR 0,7: PRIKT' K0KE SPECIFIED ';: COLOR 7,0: PRIKT: RETURK 

1420 ' Orderly Hit. Reset the printer t F-keys. then emt. 

1430 LPRIKT CHRtllBI; CHR«(20): KIDTH 'lptl:',80: BEEP: CLOSE: KEY OFF 

1440 KEY I, "List ': KEY 2,-RunVCHR»(13l: KEY 3,'Load-»CMR»(34): KEY 4, , Save , *CHRl<34>: KEY 5,'Edit 

KEY 6,CHR»l34l*",a" 
1450 KEY 7,'LprmtvCHR»(13): KEY B,'Cls-»CHRI(13l: KEY 9,": KEY 10,'Screen 0,0,0"»CHR»(13I 
1460 KEY OK: EKD 



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CIRCLE 164 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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September 1982 c Creative Computing 



185 












The Electronic Saltcellar 



In 1956, Jack Finney wrote a short 
science fiction story entitled "Cousin 
Lens Wonderful Adjective Cellar." It was 
published by Rinehart in a collection 
called "The Third Level," and was about 
> a writer who happened upon an amazing 
saltcellar. 

Unlike its tabletop counterpart, how- 
ever, the adjective cellar would sweep up 
all extraneous adjectives from a manu- 
script page and store them as a heap of 
colorful bits. (They could be sprinkled 
onto dry writing to add sparkle.) 

A word processing program or machine 
is an early electronic version of Cousin 
Lens wonderful machine. It can help you 
"sweep in" better style by "sweeping out" 
misused words and overused punctua- 
tion. 

You can do this because every word 
processing system, whether dedicated or 
on a personal computer, has a Search 
function to find any "string" of one or 
more letters and/or numbers you specify. 
For example, if you want to change Smyth 
to Smith, you can find every occurrence 
of Smyth and correct it. 

I used the Third Edition of Strunk and 
White's The Elements of Style 
(MacMillan Publishing Co., New York) 
to set the framework for this column. 
Any good work on grammar, however, 
would serve as well. 

Here are just a few ways a word proces- 
sor can help you write better prose: 

A very common mistake is to confuse 
"its" and "it's." One is possessive, the other 
a contraction of "it is." Search for "it." 
You'll find words such as "with" and 
"writing"— any word with the "it" string 
inside it— but you can skip those and 
correct the others. 

Dale Archibald. 1817 Third Ave. N.. Minneapolis, 
MN 55405. 



Dale Archibald 



Note: Some Search functions can't find 
words beginning with capital letters. If 
you look for "men" and it begins a sen- 
tence, it will be ignored. To prevent this, 
you might Search for the last characters 
in the word, e.g. "en." 

White says statements should be posi- 
tive. Use the Search function to delete 
"not" from your sentences unless you are 
making a direct denial. That is, instead of 
writing "John is not nice," write "John is a 
jerk." 

Remove "the fact that," "who is" and 
"which was." 

Prevent paragraphs from degenerating 
into a series of what White calls "loose 
sentences." Search for instances of ". and" 
or ", but". Other weak comma links that 
require frequent attention are a comma 
with who, which, when, while and where. 
If you've linked too many of these togeth- 
er in your writing, change them. 

The Search function can also help you 
keep to one tense. If you are writing about 
a person in the present tense, for example, 
check to be certain you alway write "says" 
rather than "said." 

The Search function can help detect 
overuse of exclamation points and 
hyphens. It can also help you standardize 
hyphenation and usage. That is, if you 
are "feather-headed" at one place in the 
document, don't be "feather-headed" in 
another. 

Writers have a tendency to develop pet 
words and phrases, such as those listed in 
Elements of Style under "Words and 



Expressions Commonly Misused." After 
a time, you'll use them wherever they 
may— almost — fit. Read through what you 
have written: those repeaters will jump 
out at you. Put them on your Search list 
for removal. 

White warns against tacking "ize" (to 
make a noun into a verb), "oriented." and 
"wise" at the ends of words. 

You can even go "which-hunting" as 
White suggests. (This, one instructor of 
beginning composition informs me. is the 
most misused word he sees.) "Which" is 
used, too often, in place of "that." "That" 
is a restrictive pronoun, and refers to a 
particular noun. On the other hand, 
"which" is nonrestrictive. and a paren- 
thetical phrase beginning with it should 
almost always be set off by commas. 

Other strings I would add to the list to 
be examined are "ly" and "eous." You 
can eradicate your own favorite adverb 
endings as you become a more proficient 
writer. 

Keep away from adverbs (and, of 
course, adjectives) as much as possible. 
White says you should write with nouns 
and verbs. 

If you like, you can check your "ie" 
and "ei" words, "i before e except after c" 
isn't always true. See feint and feign. 

Writing is hard work, and owning the 
world's finest word processing program 
or machine won't transform you into a 
second Shakespeare. It will, however, let 
you search out some of the most common 
problems with your writing. You can then 
change or strengthen weak spots. 

The wrong choice of words clutters 
and clogs writing, slows it to a trickle 
(and sometimes turns it purple). Careful 
editing leads to good writing, be it a novel, 
short story, magazine article, school 
report, or business letter. □ 



186 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



THE VOICE OF THE FUTURE 



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rest. With nearly 400 grammatical rules contained in the system, your computer can properly pronounce most 
correctly spelled words. Simple commands allow you to select from: 
< Entire words pronounced or spelled letter by letter • 63 different pitch levels 

> Different volumes • Words spoken monotonically or with intonation 

• Spoken punctuation if desired • Fast or slow speech output 

The applications of the ECHO speech synthesizer are virtually unlimited, ranging from business and education 
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CIRCLE 243 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE 126 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



v •■"■ " f. ■:■'.. v J." m 



cetpcst : atari 





# 



Continuing the discussion of DOS menu 
options that we began in the August 
column: 

F. Lock file. A file that is locked may 
not be altered or deleted. This is a safety 
feature: I lock the editor and assembler 
files on my disks that have them. This 
prevents something like a wildcard delete 
from destroying them or something in 
DOS from accidentally modifying or 
destroying them. 

G. Unlock file. The reverse of F. 

H. Write DOS files. This option writes 
DOS.SYS and DUP.SYS on the current 
disk. I You are asked which drive number 
to write the files to. I Remember, you must 
have the DOS files on a disk to be able to 
power up using that disk, for the disk 
operating system must load at that time. 

I generally use this option after modify- 
ing DOS (lets say with the "fast write" 
POKE) or after formatting a disk. By the 
way. old DOS files on the disk will be 
deleted. And in answer to a question 1 
received, the DOS files do not need to be 
any place in particular on the disk. They 
can be put in any time. 

I. Format disk. This option takes a new 
or used disk and completely blanks it out. 
putting "formatting information" onto the 
disk. It also sets up a blank directory and 
other information needed by the Atari to 
access the disk. And here we go on a 
short detour: 

Fast Format Chips 

A disk is laid out with the sectors in 
which data is saved in a particular order. 
As the disk spins at 290 rpm these sectors 
are accessed one by one. Now, depending 
on how the sectors are laid out. the Atari 
can access them more quickly. Atari has 
two popular sector layouts— the B and C 
layouts. The B layout is the original and 
is quite slow: there is a discernible pause 

David and Sandy Small. 1I.M4 Yucca Drive. 
Ausnn. TX 7K7.St». 



David and Sandy Small 



between disk reads ( beep — pause — beep — 
pause— beep, where each beep is one 
read.) 

The C format is about 20% quicker 
than the B format, because the disk is laid 
out more efficiently. Disks that come from 
Atari use the C layout. 

When you format a disk, the way your 
disk was set up at the factory determines 
whether it uses the B or C layout. Most 
drives today have the B layout, but all 
new drives shipped from Atari have the C 
layout. Thus, disks formatted on new 
drives (using the C layout) will do every- 
thing 20% more quickly than disks for- 
matted on B drives. 

By the way. if you reformat a disk, the 
new format will be the one laid out by 
your disk drive, so don't reformat Atari- 
formatted disks. Instead, if you want to 
delete old infomation from them, use 
Delete V. 

A group of users in Chicago modified 
the B layout to what is called the Chicago 
layout. This layout is 30% quicker than 
the B format and indeed is 10% quicker 
than Atari's own C layout. However, a 
price is paid: the disks become rather 
sensitive. 

Atari disk drives have difficulty main- 
taining a given rpm. which causes several 
problems, including lots of read-write 
errors. If you install the Chicago format, 
and your disk spins at more than 288 rpm. 
it will skip sectors, doing a complete spin 
between reads. This is quite slow and has 
a distinctive "Beepbeepbeep (pause i beep- 
beepbeep (pause)" sound. If you get this, 
check your disk. 

One other thing about the Chicago 



chips is that they may be illegal. Atari 
copyrighted the B format in the ROMs 
used in the drive. It would annoy them 
considerably if users didn't buy the new C 
chips, complete with installation charge, 
but used the Chicago chips instead. 

The legal question about copying the 
chips, then modifying them, is not one I 
would care to test. Yet many users have 
installed Chicago chips in their drives. 
and some groups even hold swap parties 
where hardware experts install Chicago 
chips into other people's drives. Someone 
with pretty good hardware knowledge and 
an EPROM copier is needed even to 
make the Chicago chips from the avail- 
able instructions (which have shown up 
in many newsletters), so this choice may 
not even be available to you. 

Yet another consideration is that the 
difference between the B and C chips 
available from Atari does not consist 
solely of the formatting change. The chips 
are much different, and supposedly other 
improvements have been incorporated 
into the C revision. You may be missing 
out on these improvements if you install a 
Chicago chip. 

Another goodie installed by Atari on 
later drives is a piece of hardware called 
a "data separator." The story is this: Atari 
uses a floppy disk controller chip from 
Western Digital called the 1771. The 1771 
is a fine chip, but has a weakness in 
clarifying data read from the disk, a 
process called data separation. Even the 
manufacturer's own literature tells the 
user not to rely on the internal data 
separation of the chip. 

So what did Atari do? They didn't use 
an external separator. Result: bad disk 
reliability and lots of errors. Soon the 
more sophisticated users of Atari drives 
figured out the problem and began instal- 
ling TRS-80data separators in their Atari 
drives. 

It seems that the makers of the TRS-80 
had done the same thing (not used an 



188 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 




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' Atari is Trademark of Atari Inc 



CIRCLE 221 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Atari, continued... 

external separator) and that TRS-80 disks 
had very poor reliability as a result. So 
outside companies began supplying data 
separators for the TRS-80. Since this 
machine also used the 1771 controller, 
the data separators for the TRS-80 fit the 
Atari. 

1 installed one some time ago and have 
been very pleased with the increase in 
reliability. The cost is $29.95 from one 
source. Percom. which now supplies kits 
for the Atari. 

You need a soldering iron for two very 
minor solder touchups and a phillips head 
screwdriver to remove the cover of the 
machine. While the modification will 
violate the Atari warranty, it is worth it. 

I recommend it to anyone who doesn't 
have the Atari data separator, which is 
everyone with a drive made before 
January 1, 1982. Percom can be reached 
at (214) 340-7081. You should call for 
new pricing and availability information. 

Depending on your local dealer, parts 
availability, and other factors, you may 
be eligible for a deal whereby you send 
your drive in for installation of a C 
formatting chip and an Atari data separa- 
tor and a general check-up. The Atari 
separator seems to be pretty good, so you 
may want to look into this option to 
upgrade your drive. 

A late breaking rumor is that Atari has 



released yet another add-on board to help 
control the drive. I don't know whether 
this is true, but it sounds likely: drive rpm 
has caused many headaches. 

DOS Menu Again 

J. Duplicate Disk. (I know, you thought 
I'd never get back to the DOS menu. 
Right?) This option allows you to dupli- 
cate an Atari disk completely. What it 
does is read each sector from 1 to 720. 

The user can either duplicate from 
drive to drive or with one drive by swap- 
ping disks. Use "1,1" at the prompt to 
duplicate a disk with one drive, and 
differing numbers to duplicate between 
drives. 

Duplicate Disk is more or less identical 
to a copy using *.*. However, the disk 
duplication is complete, so errors in the 
disk will also be duplicated. Should you 
get an ERROR 14 or 164 on the disk. 
Duplicate Disk may not work, and you 
should copy individual files from disk to 
disk to recover what can be recovered. A 
discussion of sector chaining and what 
causes an Error 164 is beyond the scope 
of this article, but can be found in the 
April and May 1982 issues. 

K. Binary Save. This is an option for 
the advanced user which saves a given 
area of memory to disk as a binary file. It 
is an assembly language entity used by 



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CIRCLE 123 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



190 



the machine. Since this is a beginner's 
guide, and hexadecimal input is required. 
I'll leave it at that. See the DOS 2 manual 
for a lengthy, painful disussion of what 
happens. 

I.. Binary Load. This is an option to 
load a binary file from disk into memory 
and to execute it directly. Beginners may 
use it. although they may not understand 
what is going on. The Macro-Assembler 
Editor is only accessible by loading it 
from a binary file, for instance. And 
Microsoft Basic is just another binary load 
file. (Think of a cartridge as a binary load 
frozen into the cartridge which appears 
in memory when you plug the cartridge 
in. and a disk load as data that appears in 
memory loaded from disk. This will give 
you an idea as to how the two relate. I 
And no. you can'i copy a cartridge using 
the Binary Save option — Atari DOS 
checks for this to prevent people pirating 
the cartridges. 

M. Run at address. Again, this is an 
advanced-user-only option. It enables 
DOS to jump directly into a program 
loaded in memory. It is handy for ad- 
vanced users who want to run programs 
without a cartridge, but not so helpful for 
beginners. Again, knowledge of hexadeci- 
mal is required. 

N. Create MEM.SAV. This is used to 
create the initial MEM.SAV file. To 
-v eliminate it. use the Delete option. You 
cannot create MEM.SAV any other way. 
although a disk that is Duplicated will 
have the MEM.SAV on the new copy if 
the FROM disk had it. 

O. Duplicate file. This is used to copy a 
file from one disk to another without using 
two drives. Wildcards can be used to copy 
an entire disk. 

Disk drives are relatively high-speed 
mass storage devices. Alas, the 5 1/4" 
mechanisms represent a tradeoff between 
reliability and cost. The 8" drives, which 
are more reliable, also cost much, much 
more. Atari probably couldn't market an 
8" drive for less than $900; so they went 
with the 5 1/4" mechanism and enabled 
many more to have disk drives. It was a 
good tradeoff. 

Unfortunately, the way in which Atari 
designed their drives is developing into a 
controversy. The number one topic of 
conversation in many user's groups seems 
to be peeves about Atari disk drives. The 
drives are neither reliable nor fast — even 
compared to the rest of the industry. 
Apple disk drives, for example, run up to 
20 times faster. 

Something will undoubtedly be done; 
Atari has not been deaf to the complaints. 
For the moment, they have issued several 
patches to the drives— data separators, 
rpm fixes— but they may not be able to 
correct what might be simply a bad 
design. 

See you next time! □ 



September 1982 ' Creative Computing 



ARTWORX SCORES ANOTHER 
TECHNICAL KNOCKOUT. 




Scene from GOLDEN GLOVES 



HODGE PODGE: by Marsha Meredith 

(Atari and Apple) 
NOW AVAILABLE FOR ATARI!!! This captivating 
program is a marvelous learning device for children 
from 18 months to 6 years. HODGE PODGE consists 
of many cartoons, animation and songs which appear 
when any key on the computer is depressed. A must 
for any family containing young children 
PRICE $19.95 diskette 



n PM EDITOR: by Denn.s Zander (Atari. 16K) 

Create your own fast action graphics game for the 
Atari 400 or 800 using its player missile graphics fea 
tures By using player data stored as strings, players can 
be moved or changed (for animation) at machine Ian 
guage speed All this is done with string variables 
(PO$(Y)=SHIP4) This program is designed to permit 
creation of up to 4 players on the screen, store them as 
string data and then immediately try them out in the 
demo game included in the program Instructions tor 
use m your own game are included PM EDITOR was 
used to create the animated character^ in ARTWORX 
RINGSOF THE EMPIRE andENCOUNTERATQUESTAR IV 
PRICE $29 95 r assette $33 95 diskette 

ROCKET RAIDERS t>v Richard Petersen (Atari 24K) 
Defend your asteroid base against pulsar bombs, roc 
hets, lasers, and the dreaded stealth saucer ' as aliens 
attempt to penetrate your protective force field Precise 
target sighting allows you to fire at the enemy using mag 
netic impulse missiles to help protect your colony and 
its vital structures 
PRICE $1995cassette $2395 diskette 

FOREST FIRE TWO: by Richard Petersen (Atari 24K) 
FOREST FIRE has been enhanced and now offers a two 
player mode for head to head competition to see who can 
r damage and put their fire out first 
User input now determines landscape, wind and weather 
conditions, offering limitless game vanatmn. FOREST FIRE'S 
i color graphics have been made even better, turning 
your computer into a super-detailed fire scanner 
PRICE $16.95 wm it. $20.95 diskette 

FORM LETTER SYSTEM (Atari, North Star and Apple) 
This is the ideal program for creating personalized form 
> j to use text editor for pro 
ducmg fully justified letters Addresses are stored in a 
separate file and are automatically inserted into your 
form letter along with a personalised salutation Both 
'etter lik ,ire compatible with ART- 

WORX MAII i ' ' tndTEXTEDITORprograms 
PRtCE $39.95d.skette 

THE PREDICTOR by T nomas Barker 
(Apple Atari TRS 80 North Star and CP'M(M BASIC) 
This is a complete package that covers least squares 
fitting of parameters for two or more variables THE 
PREDICTOR can be used for predicting sales and pro 
cess behavior, trend analysis, model building and many 
other uses calling tor multilinear regression techniques 
Each option m the program is prompted with simple 
YES/ NO commands making it vary easy to use 
PRICE $2995d.skette 



□ PILOT: by Michael Piro (Atari. 16K) 

Pilot your small airplane to a successful landing using 
both (oysticks to control throttle and attack angle PILOT 
produces a true perspective rendition of the runway 
which is constantly changing Select from two levels of 
pilot proficiency 

PRICE $16.95cassette $20.95 diskette 

DTEXT EDITOR: (Atari and North Star) 

This program >s very user friendly" yet employs all 
essential features needed for serious text editing with 
minimal memory requirements Features include com 
mon sense operation, two different notification techm 
ques. automatic line centering and straightforward 
text merging and manipulation TEXT EDITOR files are 
compatible with ARTWORX FORM LETTER SYSTEM 
PRICE $3995d.skette 

: I MAIL LIST 3.0: (Atari. Apple and North Star) 

The very popular MAIL LIST 2 2 has now been up 
graded Version 3 offers enhanced editing capabilities 
to complement the many other features which have made 
this program so popular MAIL LIST is unique in its 
ability to store a maximum number of addresses on one 
diskette (typically between 1200 and 2600 names') 
Entries can be retrieved by name, keyword(s) or by ?ip 
codes They can be written to a printer or to another 
tile tor complete file management The program pro 
duces 1. 2 or 3 up address labels and will sort by zip 
code (5 or 9 digits) or alphabetically (by last name) Files 
are easily merged and MAIL LIST will even find and 
delete duplicate entries' The address files created with 
MAIL LIST are completely compatible with ARTWORX 
FORM LETTER SYSTEM 
PRICE $49.95diskette 

a THE VAULTS OF ZURICH: by Felix and Greg Herl.hy 
(Atari. 24K. PET) 
Zurich is the banking capital of the world The rich and 
powerful deposit their wealth in its tamed impregnable 
vaults But you. as a master thief, have dared to under 
take the boldest heist of the century You will journey 
down a maze of corridors and vaults, eluding the most 
sophisticated security system in the world Your goal is 
to reach the Chairman's Chamber to steal the most trea 
sured possession of all THE OPEC OIL DEEDS' 
MICE $21.95cassette $25.95 diskette 

i BRIDGE 2.0 by Arthur Walsh (Atari (24K) Apple 

TRS 80 PET. North Star and CP/M(MBASlC) systems) 
Rated »1 by Creative Computing, BRIDGE 2 is the 
only program that allows you to both bid for the contract 
and play out the hand (on defense or offense') Interest 
mg hands may be replayed using the duplicate" bridge 
feature This is certainly an ideal way to finally learn to 
play bridge or to get m»o a game when no other (human) 
players are available 
PRICE $17.95cassette $2 1.95 diskette 

n ENCOUNTER AT QUESTAR IV: by Douglas McFarland 

(Atari. 24K) 
As helmsman of Rikar starship. you must defend 
Ouestar Sector IV from the dreaded Zentanans Using 
your plasma beam, hyperspace engines and wits to avoid 
Zentanan mines and death phasers. you struggle to stay 
alive This BASIC Assembly level program has super 
sound full player missile graphics and real time action 
PRICE $21 95 :assette $25 95 diskette 



NEW PROGRAMS! 



GOLDEN GLOVES: by Douglas Evans (Atari 24K) 

Use your |oyslick to jab. block and duck as each 
player attempts to land the knockout punch This 
unique realtime program brings all ot the excitement 
of ringside to your Atari GOLDEN GLOVES is a one or 
two-player game, or you can be a spectator as the 
computer controls both fighters. 
PRICE $22.95 cassette $26.95 diskette 

CRAZITACK: by Peter Adams (Atari 16K) 

The Crazies are attacking us and the only defenses 
are three MX bases. Missiles can be launched singly 
or in a salvo, but it is doomsday when you run out of 
missiles. 
PRICE $17.95cassette$21.95diskette 

DOMINATION: by Alan Newman (Atari 24K) 

Between one and six players compete for power via 
economic, diplomatic and military means in this 
award-winning game. You must make decisions 
quickly, exercise skillful hand-eye coordination, out- 
guess your opponents and cope with random events. 
PRICE $17.95cassette$21.95diskette 

POKER TOURNEY: by Edward Grau 

(Atari 32K, Northstar) 
You are entered in a high stakes Draw Poker 
Tournament facing six opponents including Lake- 
wood Louie. Shifty Pete and Dapper Dan Each has 
his own styleof play and of bluffing. POKER TOUR- 
NEY utilizesthe Joker, has true tablestakes play and 
each hand is played based on pot odds. The Atari 
version's graphics and sound are superb of course 
(programmed by Jerry White) making POKER 
TOURNEY the class program of its type. 
PRICE $18.95 cassette $22.95 diskette 

HAZARD RUN: by Dennis Zander (Atari, 16K) 

The sheriff has spotted you and you must make the 
treacherous run through Crooked Canyon past 
Bryan's Pond to the jump at Hazard Creek and safety. 
You can even put the joystick-controlled GEE LE E car 
up on two wheels to make it through some tight spots. 
A lead foot is not always the answer as you dodge 
trees, rocksand chickens in this nerve-racking game. 
HAZARD RUN employs full use of player/missile 
graphics, re-defined characters and fine scrolling 
techniques to provide loads of fast action and visual 
excitement. 
PRICE $27.95 cassette $31.95 diskette 



ORDERING INFORMATION 



Call ARTWORX toll-free number to order 

direct: 

800-828-6573 

In New York. Alaska. Hawaii call: 

(716) 425-2833 

All orders are processed and shipped 
within 48 hours. 

Shipping and handling charges: 

Within North America: Add $2.00 

Outside North America: Add 10% (Air Mail) 

New York State residents add 7% sales tax 

Quantity Discounts: 

Deduct 10% when ordering 3 or more 

programs 

Ask for ARTWORX at your local computer 
store. 

Write for FREE Catalogue listing more 
information about these and other quality 
ARTWORX programs . 




150 North Main Street Fairport, NY 14450 












imsges...ibffl images... ibm im 



Will Fastie 



Happy birthday to you, 
Happy birthday to you, 
Happy birthday dear PC, 
Happy birthday to you. 



NEW YORK. August 12— IBM Corporation today announced 
its smallest, lowest-priced computer system — the IBM Per- 
sonal Computer. 

Designed for business, school and home, the easy-to-use 
system sells for as little as 57.565. It offers many advanced 
features.... 

IBM Press Release 
August 12, 1981 



NEW YORK - International Business Machines Corp. has 
made its bold entry into the personal-computer market, and 
experts believe the computer giant could capture the lead in 
the youthful industry within two years. 

Yesterday the company introduced several versions «t a 
small computer.... 

The Wall Street Journal 
August 1. 1 I'M I 

The International Business Machines Corporation, the giant 

of the computer industry, is thinking smaller: Yesterday it 

introduced a personal desk-top computer for use at home, in 

schools and in business. 

Although the announcement had been expected for 

months.... 

The New York Times 
August 1.1 1981 



So the IBM Personal Computer is a 
year old. Well, my IBM Personal Com- 
puter isn't a year old. but I think I've 
already told that story. To celebrate, I 
have cooked up something special. 

There is one burning question I just 
can't seem to get a handle on: How many 
PCs have been sold? And what do they 
look like? 

Last month I mentioned some guessti- 
mates, but I'm not satisfied with the data 
yet. So I've decided to bite the bullet and 
do my own survey, which is included in 
this column. Here's the deal. You fill out 
the survey (PC owners only, please!), and 
I'll do the dirty work and report back as 
soon as I can. I make no claim that my 
results will be perfectly statistically valid, 
but they are sure to be interesting. 

W. H. Faslie. 7110 Sheffield Road. Baltimore. 
MD 21212. Correspondence can only be acknow- 
ledxed when a stamped self-addressed envelope 
has been provided. Source address: TCP394. 



Mail your completed survey to me at 
the address shown below. Please mark 
the envelope SURVEY. Please don't 
include other correspondence with the 
survey submission — I'm not necessarily 
going to open these things right away. 
Deadline for submission is September 30, 
1982; surveys received after that date will 
not be included in the tally. 

If I end up with 10,000 surveys. I guess 
I'll find out how many good friends I 
really have. 

IBM Announcements 

I was going to spend some time this 
month griping about the limited capacity 
of my disks. One of the things IBM 
announced this month makes that com- 
plaint ring hollow, although I guess I 
could still complain about my disks— 
they're still small! 

A very significant announcement was 
for disk drives of increased storage capa- 



city. The new disks are double-density, 
double-sided, and will allow 320.000 bytes 
to be stored on one diskette. With these 
drives, the storage capacity of the IBM 
Personal Computer is doubled, and 
although I would prefer at least 500.000 
byte disks, the new size allows consider- 
ably more flexibility. The new disks retail 
for $650 from IBM. At the same time. 
IBM reduced the price of the 160K drive 
from $570 to $450. 

The new disk prices are still not com- 
petitive with the general market. The 
single-sided disk is usually available for 
under $300 (e.g.. the Tandon model 100- 
1 ) and has been advertised as low as $269. 
Double-sided drives (e.g. the Tandon 
model 100-2) usually cost about $325. and 
my friend Tom just bought a pair for $299 
each. Once again, it appears that IBM is 
twice the price. 

Accompanying this was the announce- 
ment of a new version of IBM DOS. 



192 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



"Only VR Data can offer you a Winchester 
Hard Disk Drive for your IBM Personal Computer. 



A 




...with the same level 
of excellence and 
state-of-the-art technology 
you'd expect from IBM.' 

Warren Rosenkranz. President, VR Data 

We arc tremendously impressed with 
the IBM Personal Computer. When we set out 
to increase its capability- with our exclusive, 




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and Memory Board, we dedicated ourselves 
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Some very knowledgeable dealers and users 
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As with our Winchester Hard Disk Drive, 
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1 



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MICROCOMPUTER EXCELLENCE SINCE 1972 

CIRCLE 253 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



IBM, continued... 

Version 1.1 of DOS includes support for 
both the old and new disks, which can be 
mixed on a system. Enhancements include 
a speedup of the reading and writing of 
diskettes and the ability to direct parallel 
printer output to a serial printer. Also 
included is Basic version 1.05. which has 
the now-famous bug repaired. It costs $40. 
and 1 gather that it will now be the 
standard issue. 

I have only seen a list of enhancements 
so far. as opposed to trying them out. but 
the improvements are very nice and much 
needed. One very important point is that 
160K diskettes can be read in the larger 
drive, because the information regarding 
the disk format is stored on the disk itself. 
That means you can upgrade and still use 
single-sided media. 

The most significant of the announce- 
ments concerned the printer. The same 
printer which sold for $755 will now sell 
for $555. Although an Epson MX-80 can 
be purchased for under $500, the new 
IBM price is much more competitive and 
reasonable. The printer. I'm told, will be 
exactly the same as the current machine. 
This means it will not include the 
Graftrax-Plus option recently announced 
by Epson. 

I'm happy to see the price reduction, 
but I regret that IBM has not seen fit to 



Table I. New Authorized IBM Personal Computer Dealers. 



ASD Office Systems 


Poughkeepsie. NY 


CBM Inc. 


Lexington, KY 


Compushop, Incorporated 


Richardson, TX 


Compushop of Georgia, Inc. 


Atlanta, GA 


Computer City 


Brea, GA 


Computer Concepts 


Beaumont, TX 


Computer Depot. Inc. 


Minneapolis, MN 


Computerworks 


Westport, CT 


Computer Systems Specialist 


Wappinger's Falls, NY 


Entre Computer Centers 


McLean, VA 


Frederick Computer Products 


Frederick, MD 


General Microcomputer, Inc. 


South Bend. IN 


Personal Business Computers 


Salt Lake City, UT 


Photo & Sound Company 


San Francisco, CA 


The Computer Mart. Inc. 


Troy, MI 


The Computer Room 


Kalamazoo. MI 



provide the graphics option with the 
printer, or to provide a character set 
which exactly matches the complete 
character set of the display. 

There were three software announce- 
ments. Most important is the Microsoft 
Basic compiler, for $300. The program 
processes a Basic program and produces 
a version which can run considerably 
faster. Because the most common com- 
plaint about systems written with Basic is 
performance, this announcement will be 



of great interest to software developers. 
The other two packages are from BPI: 
Inventory Control and Accounts/Receiv- 
able, both $425. 

In other announcements, IBM added 
retailers to their distribution network, a 
list of which appears in Table 1, and 
changed the software submission plan. 
The changes in software submission 
include the elimination of the royalty 
ceiling and revisions in the agreements. 
However, the royalty terms are no longer 




dBASE II' 

*495 



WORDSTAR' 
*239 

For IBM/PC 



SuperCalc 

*199 



PERFECT WRITER" 



*229 



80D-521-HS31 GETS V0U THE 8EST FOR 



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Word Star $199 $239 

CalcStar $119 $199 

MailMetge $69 $79 

SpellStar $119 $169 

DataSter $169 $199 

SuperSort $119 . $169 

dBASE II™ $495 

SUPERCALC " $199 

SPELLGUARO '.". $199 



PERFECT SOFTWARE " 

Perfect Writer $229 

Perfect Speller $129 

Perfect Mailer $129 

SMARTERM .'" $49 

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 
medical $595 

dental $595 

CBASIC.'T $99 



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accounts payable $99 

$289 accounts receivable $99 

$279 payroll $99 

$169 all lour above $249 

$579 inventory management .$99 

trsdos accounting package $199 

S239 MBAStC" $279 



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CIRCLE 127 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







IBM, continued... 

fixed at 15% but are negotiated individ- 
ually. I certainly feel that these changes 
represent an improvement, but until I see 
the new agreements I will have to reserve 
judgment. There is still a two-step pro- 
cedure involving a "simplified" submission 
agreement. The original submission agree- 
ment was too restrictive, in my opinion. 

Programs 

I've included a couple of programs that 
might be of interest. Listing 1 is a "lander" 
program written by my friend Rich. It is a 
very simple-minded game, the object of 
which is to land the plus sign in the goal 
at the bottom. A reasonable terminal 
velocity is required. The game has no 
error checking, and so aborts if the "ship" 
goes off either side or the top. Thrust is 
applied by pressing the arrow keys on the 
cursor keypad, resulting in the application 
of thrust such that the ship moves in the 
direction of the arrow pressed. 

I provide this game because it illustrates 
several good points. First, the game is 
rather entertaining. The office staff 
enjoyed it, and my secretary almost wore 
out the machine playing it. Second, the 
program is relatively short given the 
problem, attesting to the power of this 
Basic. Finally, the performance is more 
than acceptable. I would have never 
thought to write the program, simply 
because I would not have believed it 
would be fast enough. 

Here are some challenges: 1) Fix the 
program to either a) crash against the top 
and sides or b) bump off of them. 2) 
Modify the program to show the rockets 
thrusting. 31 Modify the program to 
include obstacles, or to move the terrain 
below if the ship moves off to either side. 
(Note: the answers are not available from 
me!) 

The second program, shown in Listing 
2, is provided to demonstrate a technique 
that may be of use to software developers. 
An irritation of mine is that the keyboard 
has nothing to indicate which state the 
keypad is in. This program can actually 
change the state of the pad from numeric 
to cursor control or vice versa. 

For demonstration purposes, I have 
written the program so that it announces 
the code for any key depressed, and 
switches the keypad whenever the plus 
sign < + ) is depressed. The technique 
illustrated can be used by a program to 
force the keypad into a particular state. 
The information I needed to devise this 
program was found in the Technical 
Reference Manual in the BIOS listing. 

Games— (Mini-Reviews) 

As you may remember, I have been 
languishing waiting for games. This 
month, things finally broke loose. 



Listing la. Lander Game Using Graphics (Color Board required). 



LANDERC 



100 
I 10 
1 20 
I SO 
140 
150 
160 
1?,, 
ISO 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
540 
350 
360 
370 
380 
390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 



'LANDER by Richard Foard 

'requires BASICA. Color/Graphics Adapater; assumes C/BA engaged' 

'use cursor control keys to move ship 

KEY OFF: CLS: SCREEN 1 

DIM CUR7.<20) 

GOSUB 430 

FUEL-25J GRAVITY-. 2» TINC-.3 

WHILE CY < 180 

TIME-TIME+TINC 

PUT <CX-4,CY-4>, CURX.XOR 'erase current ship 

CX-CX+VX: CY-CY*VY 

VX-VX*AXl VY=VY*AY*GRAVITY*TINC 

AX-0: AY-0: VX-VX-M -SGN( VX) *. 05«TINC*ABS <VX > > 

PUT (CX-4,CY-4>, CURX.XOR 'place ship in new position 

GOSUB 320 
MEND 

LOCATE 7,13: PRINT "Time "; TIME 

LOCATE 9,13: IF CX>165 OR CX< 155 THEN PRINT "Off target" 
LOCATE 11,13 

IF VY2 THEN PRINT "Enormous "» 
IF VY>1 THEN PRINT "Crash!!!" 
LOCATE 1 , 1 l END 

' Get input key - apply thrust 

A*=INKEY*l IF A*-"" THEN RETURN 

IF LEN(A«)<>2 THEN RETURN ELSE A = ASC (RIGHTS (A*, 1 ) ) 

FUEL -FUEL - 1 « T I NC 

RETURN 'out of fuel 
SOUND 14i'm.i.2 'low fuel 
cursor up key 
cursor down key 
cursor left key 
cursor right key 



IF FUEL-.-0 THEN SOUND ISO, 3: 

IF FUEL<5 THEN SOUND 1100,1: 

IF A - 72 THEN AY-AY-1 (TINCl GOTO 330 

IF A = 80 THEN AY-AY* 1*T INC: GOTO 330 

IF A - 75 THEN AX-AX- 1 «T INCi GOTO 330 

IF A - 77 THEN AX-AX+1 *T INC: GOTO 330 

GOTO 330 

' Initialize 

LINE <0,4)-(8,4): LINE (4,0>-<4,8> 

GET <0,0>-(8,8>, CURX: CX-4: CY-4 

LINE (0, 180>-(319, 185), .B 

LINE (155, 175) -< 155, 185) 

LINE (165. 175) -(165, 185) 

RETURN 



CIRCLE (4, 4), 4 



Listing lb. Lander Game for the Monochrome Display. 

LANDERM 

lOO 'LANDER by Richard Foard — adapted for character display by Will Fastii 

110 'requires BASICA, Either Adapter in 80 column mode. 

1 20 'use cursor control keys to move ship 

130 KEY OFF: WIDTH 80: CLS 

140 SHIP*»CHR*(127> 

ISO GOSUB 4SO 

160 FUEL-25I GRAVITY-. 5: TINC-.3 

170 WHILE CY < 24.5 

180 

190 

200 

210 

220 

230 

240 

250 

260 



'erase current ship 



for touchdown to avoid error 



TIME-TIME+TINC 

LOCATE CY.CX: PRINT " 

CX-CX+VX: CY-CY+VY 

IF CY>25 THEN CY-25 'adjust 

VX-VX+AX: VY-VY*AY*GRAVITY*TINC 

AX-0: AY-Oi VX-VX+(-SGN(VX)*.05*TINC»ABS(VX>> 

LOCATE CY.CX: PRINT SHIP*; 'place ship in new position 

FOR D-l TO 200: NEXT 'delay 

GOSUB 340 
270 WEND 

280 LOCATE 7,33: PRINT "Time "; TIME 

290 LOCATE 9,33: IF CINT(CX)<39 OR CINT(CX)>41 THEN PRINT "Off target" 
TOO LOCATE 11,33 

310 IF VY>2 THEN PRINT "Enormous "| 
320 IF VY>1 THEN PRINT "Crash!!!" 
330 LOCATE 1 , 1 1 END 

340 * 6et input key 

350 A4-INKEYS1 IF As-"" THEN RETURN 

'SO IF LEN(A»)<>2 THEN RETURN ELSE A 

370 FUEL=FUEL-1»TINC 

380 IF FUELOO THEN SOUND 150,3: RETURN 'out of fuel 

390 IF FUEL<5 THEN SOUND 1100,1: SOUND 1400,2 'low fuel 

4(iii IF A = 72 THEN AY-AY-1 1TINC: GOTO 350 'cursor up key 

80 THEN AY-AY+1*TINC: GOTO 350 'cursor down key 



appl y thrust 



ASC (RIGHT* l AS. 1) ) 



410 IF A - 

420 IF A - 75 THEN AX-AX- 1 *T INC: GOTO 3SO 'cursor 
430 IF A - 77 THEN AX-AX-H *T INC: GOTO 350 'cursor 
440 GOTO 350 

450 ' Initialize 

460 CX-1: CY-1: LOCATE CY.CX: PRINT SHIPS; 

470 LOCATE 25, 1: PRINT STRING* (79. 205) ; 

480 LOCATE 25.38: PRINT CHR*(207>;: LOCATE 25.42: 

490 RETURN 

6888 RUN 



left key 
right key 



PRINT CHR*(207)J 



196 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



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IBM, continued... 

The first game I got was Compucube 
from Stoneware. The program is a Rubik's 
Cube manipulator that can either obey 
your commands as you try to solve the 
cube, or show you the solution. In addi- 
tion, Compucube allows you to describe 
the particular cube configuration you 
wish solved, and then proceeds to solve 
it. The program requires a disk-based, 
48K system with the Color Graphics 
Adapter, and costs $29.95. 

I'm not a Rubik's Cube fanatic; I 
bought one of the books very quickly 
after I got the cube. I did enjoy playing 
with the program, however. It runs very 
well, and the graphic display is nicely 
done. You should be aware that the 
program does not rotate the cube faces. 
It simply redisplays the cube in the resul- 
tant configuration. If you liked the cube, 
you'll get your money's worth here. 

Next I received a veritable blitz from 
Infocom, and if I ever get my hands on 
Marc Blank I'll strangle him! Why? 
Because I quickly became addicted to 
these games and spent too much time 
playing them and not enough time doing 
other things, like eating and sleeping and 
talking to my family— you know, little 
things like that. 

The games are Zork I (The Great 
Underground Empire), Zork II (The 
Wizard of Frobozz), and Deadline. The 
Zorks are Infocom's adventure games. 
Now I am not a big fan of adventure 
games, for a variety of reasons, but I did 
enjoy playing these. One thing that helped 
me was that Marc sent along the Zork 
Users Group (can you believe it?) maps, 
which show you the entire layout. This 
saved me a lot of time, because I did not 
have to map the empire and could con- 
centrate on playing and figuring out how 
to solve some of the problems. 

It was fun, and I'll play some more for 
sure. However, I won't play them again 
until I solve the Deadline mystery. Dead- 
line is a very, very good game, and it has 
some features that I have simply never 
seen before. 

Deadline is a mystery "adventure" in 
which you are a detective charged with 
solving a murder case. I hesitate to use 
the label "adventure" because although 
the game works like the Zorks in the 
sense of player-computer interaction, it is 
totally different. For one thing, you play 
against the clock rather than for a score. 
For another, the game is a "real" situation, 
one you can identify with and under- 
stand. 

Your intuition will work better here 
than in Zork. You are also not going to 
be eaten by a giant spider or something as 
you turn a corner. Another important 
factor is the dynamic quality of the game. 

People do things whether you see them 



Listing 2. Keypad Mode Control Demonstration Program. 



KBFLAO 

1O0 'KBFLAG - Demonstration of NUMLOCK funtion under program control 

110 Will Fasti • — 28 May 82 

120 'Depress the escape key (ESC) to terminate program 

130 'For these memory address definitions, see Tech. Ref . pg. A-2 

140 DATASE6MENT - &H40 

ISO KBFLAG - &H17 

160 NUMSTATE ■ «rH20 

170 'Main Program 

180 KEY OFF: FOR I - 1 TO 10: KEY I."": NEXT: CLS 

190 ">EF SE6 = DATASE6MENT 

200 GOSUB 460: GOSUB 360 

210 'repeat 

220 GOSUB 460 

230 IF NEWSTATE <> OLDSTATE THEN GOSUB 360 

240 OLDSTATE = NEWSTATE 

250 'Decode keyboard, interpret ♦ to mean NUMLOCK toggle. NumLock also works 

260 C*-INKEY»: IF C»="" THEN 60T0 210 

270 FUNCTIONKEY = 0: IF LEN(C»>"2 THEN FUNCTIONKEY - 1: Cs-RIGHTs (Cs, 1 ) 

280 C - ASC<C*> 

290 LOCATE lO, 1: PRINT SPC<39); 

300 LOCATE 10,1: PRINT USING "Key code is «««"|C| 

310 'Some characters in the range to 31 may cause strange display effects 

320 IF FUNCTIONKEY THEN PRINT ", a function key" 

ELSE PRINT ", the character ";C» 
330 IF NOT FUNCTIONKEY AND C»-"*" THEN GOSUB 410 
340 IF NOT FUNCTIONKEY AND C*=CHR«(27> THEN END 
350 GOTO 210 

360 'Subroutine to display state of keypad 
370 LOCATE 25,1: PRINT SPC(39); 
380 LOCATE 25.1: PRINT "Keypad mode is "; 
390 IF NEWSTATE THEN COLOR 8,7: PRINT ••Numeric";: COLOR 7,0 

ELSE PRINT "Cursor": 
400 RETURN 

410 'Subroutine to toggle NUMSTATE 
420 GOSUB 460 

430 IF NEWSTATE THEN NEWSTATE ■ ELSE NEWSTATE - NUMSTATE 
440 POKE KBFLAG, (PEEK (KBFLAG) AND (NOT NUMSTATE)) OR NEWSTATE 
450 RETURN 

460 'Subroutine to get current state 
470 NEWSTATE = (PEEK (KBFLAO AND NUMSTATE) 
480 RETURN 



or not. You might miss a clue if your 
timing is off. For example, once I was the 
last one to arrive for the reading of the 
will, but I was not late. When I was seen, 
someone said that everyone was present 
and we got started. But one time I was 
very late, and someone yelled angrily at 
me that I had kept them waiting. Terrific*. 

Deadline is tough, and enormously 
entertaining. I can't remember when I 
have enjoyed a computer game more. It 
does still have some rough edges, but 
Marc told me that most problems are 
gone and that the smoothing process is an 
on-going one. Good news, because the 
wrapper on Deadline says "First of the 
Interlogic Mystery Series from Infocom." 
I'm going to languish again waiting for 
»2. 

The three Infocom games require a 
48K system and work on any display. By 
the way, unlike most adventure games I 
have tried, these games speak English. 
For example, if you wanted to pick up the 
coins and the diamonds, you could say 
just exactly that. It's a lot more natural 
and intuitive. 

Very close to my deadline (no pun 
intended) I got Temple of Apshai from 
Automated Simulations. This is funda- 
mentally an adventure game, but it has a 
twist which will have me playing it for a 
while at least. The twist is animated 



graphics, which aren't bad, especially for 
a program written in Basic. 

I played it just enough to get the idea, 
so I lack sufficient experience to com- 
ment fully. It was fun, but not enough to 
drag me away from Deadline. I'll say more 
after I've spent more time, but I enjoyed 
what I saw, even though I got killed pretty 
fast. You'll need a color graphics adapter 
for this game. 

New Products 

There are two more graphics screen 
dump programs available. RaTrax is from 
Ratcom, Inc., and costs $25. The 
Graphics Hardcopy System is from Versa 
Computing, Inc., and costs $24.95. 

Rick Thomas, of Ratcom, kindly lent 
me a set of Graftrax-80 ROMS. I promise 
(I really do) to try all the packages for 
next time and let you know how they are. 

Microsoft Corporation has announced 
their first hardware product for the IBM 
Personal Computer. It is the RAMCard, 
an add-in memory card supplied in 64, 
128, 192, and 256K byte sizes. Prices range 
from $495 to $1095, in $200 increments. 
The board is expandable with 64K up- 
grade kits called RAMChip, costing $200. 
Also supplied is software called RAM- 
Drive, which allows the memory to emu- 
late a disk. The board is shown in 
Photo I. 



198 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



c 



IIITO 







Microsoft's RAMcard Memory Expansion Card. 



There are so many add-in memory 
manufacturers that it is becoming difficult 
to mention them all. At the end of the 
column I have listed all the companies I 
know of. Look for my comparative evalu- 
ation of memory cards in the upcoming 
Creative Computing Buyer's Guide to 
Personal Computers. Peripherals and 
Electronic Games. 

Davong Systems, Inc. has announced a 
second hard disk for the PC. The DSI-514 
provides 12 megabytes of storage capacity 
for the price of $2695. Software supplied 
includes a diagnostic program, the hard 
disk formatter, an installation/config- 
uration program, and utilities. The soft- 
ware support is for IBM DOS, although 
Davong said support will be available for 
other operating environments as well. 

Davong has also announced the DSI- 
ASYNC, an add-in board containing two 
asynchronous serial ports. The price of 
$199 includes software, including a set-up 
program and a full duplex terminal emu- 
lation program. The device is shown in 
Photo 2. 

Ensign Software has announced four 
packages. They offer an ISAM Database 
package for $69.95, a Bowling League 
Statistics Manager at $99.95, and a Basic- 
Cross Reference program for $24.95. The 
fourth package is Games Package I for 
$29.95, a collection of ten games: Qubic. 
Othello, Kingdon. Cribbage, Black Box. 
Space Trek. Black Jack, Master Mind, 
Americans Quiz, and Presidents Quiz. 

Lifeboat Associates has announced the 
Lattice C Compiler for the IBM Personal 
Computer. Compatibility is claimed with 



the Kernighan and Ritchie specification, 
with Unix V7, and with the BD C Com- 
piler. The compiler supports the IBM 
DOS environment, can support the 8087 
or invoke library functions, and produces 
relocatable machine code. The compiler 
costs $500. 

An almost identical paragraph could 
be written for Computer Innovations' C86 
C Compiler. At the time of this writing, 
certain features were still being imple- 
mented but the compiler is available, and 
updates are available at a nominal ($20) 
fee. 

The big difference between this and 
the Lifeboat version is that the price of 
the compiler is $250, and George 
Eberhard says that he intends to hold this 
price, even when the compiler can gen- 
erate in-line 8087 instructions. In addition, 
he claims the compiler and library will 
provide support for the IBM DOS, IBM 
CP/M-86, Compuview CP/M-86, and 
standard CP/M-86 (for the Display Writer, 
I guess) environments. The price for each 
is the same. 

Applied Analytics, Incorporated, has 
announced microSpeed. They have pro- 
vided microSpeed for the Apple II for 
several years and will soon be making it 
available for the IBM PC. For the Apple, 
Applied Analytics supplies an extended 
version of the Forth programming lan- 
guage and an add-in board using the Intel 
8231A Arithmetic Processor. 

The combination for IBM will be the 
software and the Intel 8087 Numeric 
Processor. Some current applications of 
microSpeed include real-time simulations 



of the displays on the Space Shuttle, and 
a Navy flight simulator. 

I got a real surprise when I opened my 
mail to find an announcement from 
BYAD Inc. The product is the DS1 
Expansion Circuit Board and Software 
Package. Guess what? The Xedex Baby 
Blue CPU + has some competition. This 
is an add-in board with a Z80B CPU and 
64K bytes of memory. The DS1 costs 
$660, including software. The DS2 is a 
DS1 with the addition of a serial port, and 
lists for $760. 

BYAD handles their Z80 differently 
than Xedex. CP/M 2.2 is supplied and 
"no special tasks.. .such as translation or 
adding headers" is required to run a 
CP/M program. This is a direct volley at 
Xedex, which does require translation of 
the CP/M program. 

However, BYAD does not allow execu- 
tion of the CP/M programs from the IBM 
DOS environment. Instead, their system 
disk must be booted, at which point the 
Z80 is engaged and CP/M takes control. 
The transparent operation of the Xedex 
product is a strong selling point. Like the 
Baby Blue, the DS1 acts as IBM memory 
when the Z80 is not active. 

The presence of the serial port increas- 
es the value of the board. More important, 
however, is the fact that the system can 
be configured to allow the Z80 to control 
the serial port and act as an intelligent 
communications processor for the Person- 
al Computer. In other words, you can 
have both processors running indepen- 
dently in such a configuration. 

Media Systems Technology, Inc., has 
introduced a format module for their line 
of desktop diskette copiers. The module 
enables the copiers to automatically mass- 




Davong System s Dual Asynchronous 
Serial Card. 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



199 



IBM, continued... 

produce IBM diskettes. This product is 
of greatest interest to software manu- 
facturers who typically have a require- 
ment for volume diskette production. The 
format module costs $450. 

This next item might interest a few of 
you. I have been looking for someone 
who supplies continuous form, pressure 
sensitive labels on a 9 1/2" carrier. Most 
suppliers can provide labels on an 8 1/2" 
carrier, but my problem is my IBM 80 
CPS printer modified with my Compu- 
Cable friction feed kit. 

Once modified, the pin wheels 
(tractors) do not move, and are (you 
guessed it) 9 1/2" apart. Two sizes of 
label, both on the 9 1/2" carrier, are 
available from Misco. They are on page 
58 of the Summer 1982 catalog. 

A product called The Answer has been 
announced by North American Business 
Systems. The program is an information 
handling system. I call it that because the 
manufacturer objects strongly to the use 
of the term "data base" to describe his 
product. In fact, he is quite right because 
the Answer seems to be a totally unique 
and very flexible product. 

I have seen the demo, but have yet to 
try the- program out. I understand the 
underlying concept, however, and if half 
of what is claimed is true, this could be a 
very important software package. It costs 
$250. 

Avalon Hill has announced their entry 
into the IBM market. Five of their games 
are now available for the IBM Personal: 
Midway Campaign, Stocks & Bonds, 
Galaxy, Voyager, and Draw Poker. I've 
played Stocks & Bonds, which is just like 
the board game, and it's enjoyable. The 
games range in price from $21 to $25. 

Finally, I'm sure everyone has heard of 
Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC) 
entry into the personal computer market. 
One of the three machines they 
announced, the Rainbow 100, uses both 
the Z80 and the 8088 CPU. The machine 
is touted as both an 8- and 16-bit CP/M 
system, running either CP/M-80 or CP/M- 
86. 

This machine is obviously aimed at the 
IBM PC market, and has the advantage 
of competing in the general CP/M market 
as well. The significance to me is the 8088 
CPU. the same one used in the IBM, and 
thus it can, and in fact does, run the same 
operating system used in the Personal 
Computer. 

This is good news for IBM PC owners. 
First, the software market is richer as a 
result of the greater 8088 CPU population. 
Second, competition in this market is 
needed and can be effective, even against 
IBM. It'll keep 'em honest. 



Firms mentioned in thb column: 

Stoneware Incorporated 
50 Belvedere St. 
San Rafael, CA 94901 
(415)454-6500 

Infocom, Inc. 
55 Wheeler St. 
Cambridge, MA 02138 
(617) 492-1031 

Zork Users Group 
P.O. Box 20923 
Milwaukee, WI 532200923 

Automated Simulations, Inc. 

P.O. Box 4247 

Mountain View, CA 94040 

Ratcom, Inc. 
7620 S.W. 147th Ct. 
Miami, FL 33193 
(305) 382-3947 

Versa Computing, Inc. 

3541 Old Conejo Rd., Suite 104 

Newbury Park, CA 91320 

Microsoft Corporation 
10700 Northup Way 
Bellevue, WA 98004 
(206) 828-8080 

Davong Systems, Inc. 
1061 Terra Bella Ave. 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
(415) 965-7130 

Ensign Software 

2312 N. Cole Rd„ Suite E 

Boise, ID 83704 

(208) 378-8086 

Lifeboat Associates 
1651 Third Ave. 
New York, NY 10028 
(212) 8600300 

Computer Innovations, Inc. 
75 Pine St. 
Lincroft, NJ 07738 
(201) 5300995 

Applied Analytics, Incorporated 
8910 Brookridge Dr. 
Upper Marlboro, MD 20772 
(301)627-6650 

BYAD Inc. 

5345 North Kedzie Ave. 
Chicago, IL 60625 
(312) 539-4922 



Xedex Corporation 
1345 Avenue of the Americas 
New York, NY 10105 
(212) 489-0444 

Media Systems Technology, Inc. 
17991 Fitch Ave. 
Irvine, CA 92714 
(714) 9570240 

Misco, Inc. 
Box 399 

Holmdel, NJ 07733 
(800) 631-2227 

North American Business Systems, Inc. 

677 Craig Rd. 

St. Louis, MO 63141 

(800) 325-1485 

(314) 432-6106 (in Missouri) 

The Avalon Hill Game Company 
Microcomputer Division 
4517 Harford Rd. 
Baltimore, MD 21214 
(301) 254-5300 

Digital Equipment Corporation 
Maynard, MA 01754 
(617)897-5111 

The following companies manufacture 
add-in memory boards for the IBM 
Personal Computer: 

Microsoft Corporation 
10700 Northup Way 
Bellevue, WA 98004 

Intermedia Systems 
10601 S. De Anza Blvd. 
Cupertino, CA 95014 

Davong Systems, Inc. 
1061 Terra Bella Ave. 
Mountain View, CA 94043 

IBM Corporation 
System Products Division 
P.O. Box 1328 
Boca Raton, FL 33432 

Xedex Corporation 

1345 Avenue of the Americas 

New York, NY 10105 

CTI 

965 W. Maude Ave. 

Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Quadram Corporation 
4357 Park Dr. 
Norcross, GA 30093 



200 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



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SERVICE CENTER 



COMPUTERTIME, INC. 

P.O. Box 216 
Kentflcld. CA 94914 




CALL TOLL-FREE 
In California 



800-227-2520 
800-772-4064 



CIRCLE 142 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SOUTHWESTERN DATA SYSTEMS 

is proud ro announce its recenr appointment as 
the official sales representative for the planer Earth 
for the ?5?FI|3 Software Co . Inc Of greorest 
interest is the information that they hove recently 
released the first Apple II arcade game wnrten 
by an alien. -^?5?C-c? 

Unfortunately, due to US. Postal limitations the 
translated version of the gome and manual hove 
been lost in transit S.D.S. therefore asks your 
assistance in determining rhe actual rules for the 
gome by translating the alien text of the instruc- 
tions presented during gome play 

Although you moy see odds from -?<??Rh 
Software Co Inc you moy wish to get a copy 
directly from your dealer, to avoid unnecessary 
delays to interplanetary shipments imposed by 
US Customs 

Remember, for the latest in exciting gome software 



J34.95 ASK FOR IT DY NAME! 



southuuestrBRn 
cJata svstems 

PO DOX 582 • SANTEE CA 92071 • 714/562-3671 



CIRCLE 240 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SOFTWARE TREE 

PROUDLY PRESENTS 

CORPORA TE STRA TEG Y 

A GAME OF MAKING MONEY IN BUSINESS! 

YOU ARE THE TOP EXECUTIVE 
OF A COMPANY THAT BUILDS 
ROBOTS. IT IS YOUR JOB. AS 
WELL AS YOUR OPPONENTS, TO 
BUY LOW AND SELL HIGH TO 
MAKE MONEY. FOR 2 TO 6 
PLAYERS. 

PRICESAPPLE II. ATARI 400/800 OR 

COMMODORE/PET (ALL VERSIONS 16K) 

S21.95 -CASSETTE 

S29.95 - DISKETTE WITH 

CURRENT DOS RELEASES FOR EACH. 

CALIF. RESIDENTS ADD EITHER 6% 

OR 6.5% SALES TAX. 

MAKE CHECK/MONEY ORDER 

PAYABLE TO: 

SOFTWARE TREE 

P.O. BOX 51354 

SAN JOSE, CA 95151 • 5354 

ATARI. APPLE II AND COMMODORE/PET 

ARE TRADEMARKS OF ATARI INC.. 

APPLE COMPUTERS AND COMMODORE 

BUSINESS MACHINES. 

CIRCLE 235 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^IBM, continued... 

Zobex 

7343-J Ronson Rd. 

San Diego. CA 921 11 

Macrolink. Inc. 

1 150 E. Stanford Ct. 

Anaheim. CA 92806 

Bitstream. Inc. 
P.O. Box 809 
Loxahatchee, FL 33470 

Micro Match 

10343 Commerce Ave. 

Tujunga. CA 91042 

DG Electronic Developments Co. 
700 South Armstrong 
Denison. TX 75020 

Personal Systems Technology. Inc. 
22957 La Cadena 
Laguna Hills. CA 92653 

AST Research. Inc. 

17925 Sky Park Circle, Suite B 

Irvine. CA 92714 

TecMar, Inc. 

23600 Mercantile Rd. 

Cleveland. OH 44122 



Datamac Computer Systems 
680 Almanor Ave. 
Sunnyvale. CA 94086 

Chrislin Industries. Inc. 
31352 Via Colina, # 101 
Westlake Village, CA 91362 

Seattle Computer Systems 
1 1 14 Industry Dr. 
Seattle. WA 98188 

Ratcom. Inc. 
7620 S.W. 147 Ct. 
Miami. FL 33193 

Maynard Electronics 
P.O. Box 3322 
Long wood, FL 32750 

Daystar Systems, Incorporated 
10511 Church Rd.. Suite A 
Dallas. TX 75238 

(PC) 2 (Plug Compatibles for Personal 

Computers) 

1250 Oakmead Parkway 

Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Sigma Designs, Inc. 
3866 Eastwood Cr. 
Santa Clara. CA 95055 




LET YOUR APPLE SEE THE WORLD! 

The DS-65 Digisector opens up a whole new world for your Apple II. Your computer 
can now be a part of the action, taking pictures to amuse your friends, watching your 
house while you're away, taking computer portraits ... the applications abound! The 
DS-65 is a random access video digitizer. It converts a TV camera's output into digital 
information your computer can process. The DS-65 features: 

• High Resolution — a 256 x 256 picture element scan 
• Precision — 64 levels of grey scale 
• Versatility — Accepts either NTSC or industrial video input 
Economy — A professional tool priced for the hobbyist 

The DS-65 is an intelligent peripheral card with onboard software in 2708 EPROM. 
Check these software features: 

• Full screen scans directly to Apple Hi-Res screen 

• Easy random access digitizing by Basic programs 

• Line-scan digitizing for reading charts or tracking objects 

• Utility functions for clearing and copying the Hi-Res screen HIRES PICTURE USING THE DS-65 

AND PICTURE SCANNER SOFTWARE 

Use the DS-65 for precision security systems; computer portraiture; robotics; fast to slow scan conversion; moving target indicators; 
reading UPC codes, musical scores and paper tape and more! GIVE YOUR APPLE THE GIFT OF SIGHT! DS-65 Price: $349.95 / FSII 
Camera Price: $299.00 / Combination Price: $599.00 

ADDITIONAL SOFTWARE FOR THE DS-65 
—Picture Scanner Provides a variety of different dithering algorithms for compressing the digitized image into the Hi-Res 
screen. Available on 13-sector disk. Price: $39.95 

— Superscan: Enables you to enhance the DS-65's Hi-Res pictures with colors! Choose from 21 different colors and assign them 
to grey scale values, modify pictures, zoom, enhance contrast, etc. Print routines for the Anadex and Paper Tiger' are provided. 
Comes on a 13-sector disk. Written for The Micro Works by Magna Soft. Price: $79.95 

—Portrait System Software: This program includes captions and a credit line, reverse printing for T-shirt application and the 
option to save portraits on disk. Specifically for use with a Malibu 165 printer. Call or write for more information. 

'Paper Tiger 15 a trademark of Integral Data Systems. Inc. 
MasterCharge/Visa Accepted 

714-942-2400 




THE 



mi@^2) 



P.O. BOX 1110 DEL MAR, CA 92014 



CIRCLE 192 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
202 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 




'-? : - 



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.^* 



Good reasons why you should 
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Every month Creative Computing provides 
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gives you things to 
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games— some of the applications and soft- 
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discusses business 
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If you're a business person who needs to 
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turn to Creative Computing We clarify 
such business applications as investment 
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editing, word processing and simulations 
And all the software available for business 
people 



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We've got a soft spot for the computer 
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est to learn? Require the most skill' Offer 
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Contain a new twist 9 Creative Computing 
brings you the answers 




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Bill Budge's 



Real 
pinball flippers 

make this a game of strategy 
& skilled shot making. 

Animated shields 

can shoot a lost ball back into play 

Raster Blaster 

for the Atari 800 and Apple 
may be the first personal computer 
game that is copied for the arcade 
machines. It is so technically 
sophisticated and fun to play that 
it is sure to attract the big arcade 
manufacturers. But you can get it 
right now for your Apple or Atari! 




Three animated claws 

trap the ball if they are enabled. 
When three balls become 
trapped, all are released for 
exciting multi-ball play. 

Three sets of targets 

test your aim and timing. 

Hit all of them to enable the claws. 

Plus kickers, 
thumper-bumpers and 
an animated spinner help to 
provide unmatched realism. 

Dealer inquiries invited 
BudgeCo, 428 Pala Ave. 
Piedmont. CA 94611 
(415)658-8141 

VIDEO 
PINBALL 
FOR THE 
APPLE II & 
ATARI 800 



Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. Atari is a registered trademark of Atari. Inc. 
CIRCLE 121 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



C BudgeCo 1982 



3 PRODUCTS TO ADD A 4 th DIMENSION 
OF POWER TO YOUR APPLE. 



I^MBt-16 



The one 16-K memory 
1 (to* «ta m sinta'i expansic ) n card for 
your Apple that requires no unnecessary surgery. 
This board just plugs in with no strap or additional 
connections. In spite of its quality, the Ramex-16™ 
costs just $139.95, complete with a one year 
limited warranty. 

A complete turnkey 
memory management 
system on a disk — 
using either one or two 

16K cards. HIDOS™ loads DOS onto one RAM 

card and with the second card loads an 

alternate language onto another. 

SOLIDOS™ turns a 16K 

card into a fast. 



45-sector disk-drive emulator. At your local 
dealer or direct for just $34. 95. 

CONSOUDATOf? 



FOKVBKALC 
HLES 





WvV 

OAAEGA AAICROWARE, INC 

222 SO. RIVERSIDE PLAZA 

CHICAGO, IL 60606 

312-648-4844 



If you use VisiCalc™, 
then you must have 
THE CONSOUDATOR. It 
will save you hours of keyboard time, by allowing 
you to manipulate totals of separate files without 
reentering them. Easy to use, invaluable to 
own. Just $4995 at your dealer or direct. 

All three of these together help make your Apple 
l a more complete business system — giving 
you expanded memory, extra convenience, 
sure control. MasterCard 
and Visa holders order 
toll-free, 1-800-835-2246. 



Aopk 1> i rt-jpsirrrd iradrmwk >4 tapir i jxnpulrr Inc 
VWQrii r« jrnBSMrrdtraoVrnark</rVfv>rulN4t«irr Irx 



CIRCLE 267 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Creative Computing IBM Personal Computer Survey 

(lor owners only, please) 



How many IBM Personal Computers arc represented by your answers 
to this survey? 

I- 



Xan: If you are answering for more than one system, please answer 
the questions below for an average configuration, that is. one which 
is most reprcsentati\c of your systems. If your systems are very 
different, complete separate survc\v 



Where did you buy the systems? 

2-0 IBM Product Center 

3-D IBM Direct Sales 

4-D Computerland 

5-D Sears 

6-D Other. 



How old is your system? 

7- 



months 



Please indicate the configuration of your system(s) 

IBM Equipment 

System Memory (main board) 
9-D Monochrome Display Adapter 
I0-O Color Graphics Adapter 
Expansion Memorv 
II-D32KB 
1 3-D 64KB 
Diskettes 
1 5-D 160KB How many drives? 

17-D 320KB How manv drives? 



x- 



KB 



How many boards? 12- 
How many boards? 14- 



16- 
18- 



19-D Asynchronous Communications Adapter 

How many boards? 20- 
21-D Printer Adapter 
22-D 80 cps Printer 
23-D Game Control Adapter 

Non-IBM Equipment 

Color Display Monitor 
24-D RGB 
25-D NTSC 
26-D Black & White Monitor 
27-D RF Modulator Modem 

28-D Hayes Smartmodem 

29-D Universal Data Svtsiems (I031.P) 

30-O Other: 

Diskette Drives 



3 1 -D Single-Sided 

33-D Double-Sided 
Hard Disk 

Manufacturer 

Capacity 
Line (Matrix) Printer 

Manufacturer 

Model 
Letter Quality Printer 

Manufacturer 

Model 



How many? 32- 
How many? 34- 



35- 
36- 



megabytes 



37- 
38- 

39- 
40- 



Where is (are) the IBM Personal Computer(s) you are reporting? 

41-D Home 

42-D School or College 
43-D Small Business 
44-0 Medium Business 
45-D Fortune 1000 Business 



What will the system be used lor (check all thai apply, bin circle 
primary one.) 

46-D Entertainment 

47-D Education 

48-D Financial Analysis 

49-D Accounting 

50-D Word Processing 

51-D Data Base Filing 

52-D Personal Accounting and Finance 

53-D Laboratory 

54-D Software Development 

55-D Video Terminal 

56-D Other: 

What operating system do you use? 

57-0 IBM DOS (or MS DOS or SB-86) 

58d IBM CP M-86 

59-D CompuView CP M-86 

60-0 IBM UCSD P-svstem 

6I-OOASIS-I6 

62-0 Other: 

What IBM-supplied software is used on this system? 

63-D VisiCalc 

64-D EasyWritcr 

65-D Pcachtrec Accounts Receivable 

66-D Pcachtrec Accounts Payable 

67-D Peachtrec General Ledger 

68-D Inventory Control 

69-D BPI General Accounting 

70-D BPI Accounts Receivable 

71-D BPI Inventory Control 

72-D Time Manager 

73-D Dow Jones Reporter 

74-D Asynchronous Communications Support 

75-D Pascal Compiler 

76-D Fortran Compiler 

77-D Cobol Compiler 

78-D Macro Assembler 

79-D Basic Compiler 

80-O Adventure 

8 1 -0 Fact Track 

82-D Arithmetic Games set I or 2 

83-D Typing Tutor 

84-D Advanced Diagnostics 



List non- 

85- 
86- 
87- 
88- 
89- 



BM software you are currently using. 



Did you own a small computer prior to the IBM Personal? 

90-0 Yes Which one? 91- 

92-D No 

What (actors inlluenced your decision to purchase the IBM Personal 
Computer? (check all that apply) 

93-D Price 
94-D Performance 
95-D Functionality 
96-D Hardware Design 
97-D IBM Brand Name Recognition 
98-a Software 
99-0 Reliability 
100-D Expandability 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



205 






IBM PC Survey, continued... 

Overall, how would you rate the "goodness of fit" of the IBM Personal 
Computer to your requirements? 

10 1 -D Perfect Match 

I02-O rxcellcnt 

103-D Good 

104-a Poor Match 

105-D Complete Mismatch 

Overall, how would you rate your satislaction with the IBM hardware? 

I06-O Completely salislied 
I07-O Very salislied 
108-D Salislied 
109-O Somewhat dissatisfied 
1 10-D Completely dissatisfied 

Overall, how would you rate your satisfaction with the IBM software? 

1 1 l-O Completely satistied 

II2-D Ver\ salislied 

I 1 3-D Salislied 

II4-D Somewhat dissatislicd 

1 15-0 Completely dissatisfied 



What do you think is the greatest strength of the IBM Personal Computer? 



Overall, how would you rate your satisfaction with the IBM documen- 
tation'' 

1 16-0 Completely satisfied 
II7-G Very satisfied 
II8-D Satisfied 
1 19-0 Somewhat dissatisfied 
120-D Completely dissatisfied 

What service arrangements have you made? 

121-0 None 

122-d IBM Product Center 

123d Computer land 

124-DSears 

125-D Other Retailer 

126-G Other Service Organization 

127-Q In-house 



What do you think is the greatest weakness ol the IBM Personal Computer? 



Return to: W.H. Fastic, 71 10 Sheffield Rd., Baltimore, MD 21212 



206 



September 1982 - Creative Computing 



Tired Of y cur 

GENERAL LEDGER? 



VERSA 
LEDGER III 



• THE ULTIMATE PERSONAL CHECK REGISTER 

• A PROFESSIONAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

• A PERSONAL FINANCIAL MANAGER 

• A SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 

• A COMPLETE GENERAL LEDGER 



HP 



siTMian* 



m mm m-s®* mm. o 9 oo, ooo w m • wm& oo° • i®m° • 
ssbmp • sm vmmm mm® wwmm 

'TRS 80 ts a trademark of Tandy Corp - 'APPLE >» a trademark of Appl« Corp -'IBM ■* a trademark of I B M Corp - 'XEROX >% a trademark of Xero« Corp 
'ATARI it a trademark of Alan Inc - 'OSBORNE is a trademark ol Ostxxne Corp 

HCW IT WORKS 

VERSALEDGER II is a complete accounting system that grows as you or your business grows. To start, your VERSA- 
LEDGER II acts as a simple method of keeping track of your checkbook. Just enter your check number, date and 

whom the check is made out to. As you or your business grows, you may add more details to your transactions 

account number, detailed account explanations, etc. 

VERSALEDGER II 

• VERSALEDGER II is an expanded and enhanced version of our original VERSALEDGER 

• VERSALEDGER II gives you an instant cash balance at anytime (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSALEDGER II can be used as a small personal checkbook 
register (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSALEDGER Mean run your million dollar corporation (IFYOU 
WANT IT TO) 

• VERSALEDGER II prints checks (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSALEDGER II stores all check Information forever (IF YOU 
WANT IT TO) 

• VERSALEDGER II can distribute one check to multiple expense 
accounts (IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSALEDGER II can handle more than one checkbook (IF YOU 
WANT IT TO) 

• VERSALEDGER II can be used to replace a general ledger (IF 
YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSALEDGER II prints balance sheets and income statements 
(IF YOU WANT IT TO) 

• VERSALEDGER II can interact with any of the other four modules 
of the VERSABUSINESS SYSTEM 

• VERSALEDGER II comes with a professionally written manual (created for the first-time computer user), which includes sample report print- 
outs 




SPECIAL 

INTRODUCTORY 

PRICE 

$9995 

($199.95 after Dec. 31, 1982) 



VERSALEDGER II HAS AN ALMOST UNLIMITED CAPACITY 

( 300 checks per month on single density 5 V disk drives such as the TRS-80 Model I) 

( 500 checks per month on the Apple II) 

(2400 checks per month on the TRS-80 Model III) 



(6000 checks per month on the TRS-80 Model II) 
(3000 checks per month on single density 8" CP/M) 
(almost unlimited capacity on hard disk drive) 



• VERSALEDGER II OUTPERFORMS ALL OTHER COMPETITIVE SYSTEMS NOW AVAILABLE TO MICROCOMPUTER USERS. AT A FRAC- 
TION OF THE COST (AND WE OFFER A 30-DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE TO BACK UP OUR CLAIM') 

— CAN BE USED WITH 1 or MORE DISK DRIVES with 48K — 



ALSO AVAILABLE: VERSARECEIVABLES, VERSAPAYABLES. VERSAPAYROLL. and VERSAINVENTORY 



•CQMPUTRQNICS: 

■^A'»*»-^ - l -A. *H'I*III J -• » ( 



SO N PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY. NEW YORK 10977 

' ADD S3 00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 
l ADO $4.00 FOR COD. OR NON-UPS AREAS 

ADD $5.00 TO CANADA AND MEXICO 

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HOUR 
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ALL PRICES 4 SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 
DELIVERY SUBJECT TO AVAILABILITY 



CIRCLE 145 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




At the forty-third serve from this side 
of the TRS-80 court, we listen to the 
Micromouth speech sythesizer. look at 
some special features of the Model III, 
check out the Microproof spelling check- 
er, visit a Tandy Computer Center in 
London, and examine a short program 
involving prime numbers. 

Micromouth 

Connect ribbon cable on Micromouth 
to your TRS-80 Model I or III, run an 
audio cable from the output jack to a hi-fi 
amplifier or receiver, and then all you 
have to do is key in 

OUT 127,17 
and you'll hear a male voice saying 
"seventeen," very clearly. 

If you use a small speaker, such as the 
two-incher in Radio Shack's "mini ampli- 
fier/speaker," the voice will sound a trifle 
gravelly. For best results, try a larger 
speaker, at least 5 or 6 inches in 
diameter. 

Micromouth is available from Micro- 
mint Inc. (917 Midway. Woodmere. NY 
11598) for the Model I ($150 kit. $175 
assembled) and III ($200 assembled). You 
get a plastic box containing the circuit 
board, plus a connecting cable, separate 
power supply, and manual. 

The Micromouth speech synthesizer is 
built around the Digitalker DTI 050 inte- 
grated-circuit set from National Semicon- 
ductor, which has a stored vocabulary of 
144 expressions. It can be connected to 
any computer that has an 8-bit parallel 
input/output port. Connected to the TRS- 
80. it requires only the simple Basic 
statement, OUT 127. plus a number from 
to 143. to make it talk. 

Digitalker synthesizes the human voice 
by waveform digitization, using pulse- 
code modulation (PCM) to create digital- 
ly-encoded speech, and storing the expres- 



Stephen B. Gray 



sions in two 64K speech ROMs. 

The vocabulary is limited, but synthe- 
sizers that store their vocabularies totally 
in ROM are generally less expensive than 
those which assemble phonemes to create 
any word of your choice. Also, they use a 
minimum of software. 

The vocabulary of the standard Digi- 
talker is best suited to monitoring instru- 
ments, to calculators, and to games, 
consisting as it does of the spoken num- 
bers one through twenty, thirty through 
hundred, thousand, million, zero, letters 
A through Z, and words such as ampere, 
comma, control, danger, error, flow, 
gallon, higher, kilo, minute, percent, 
please, pulses, etc. Also included are 80- 
Hz and 400-Hz tones, plus sounds such as 
ss (to make plurals out of words on the 
list) and re as a prefix. 

With this vocabulary you can easily 
create phrases such as "The time is 6:40 
PM" or "Danger: a star is on the left at 
1,000 meters." Simply put the digital 
addresses of the desired words in DATA 
lines, and use a timing loop to allow 
enough time for a word to be spoken 
before loading the next one. Without the 
pause between words, the whole phrase 
becomes a short, unintelligible bleep. For 
example, to program that first phrase, 
which gives the time, try 

100 READ N 

110 OUT 127.N 

120 FOR X=l TO 150 

130 NEXT X 

140 GOTO 100 

150 DATA 138.139.96 

160 DATA 6.22,47,44 



Using a much shorter timing loop will 
shorten forty to four. However, although 
the longer loop provides enough time for 
forty, there's a little too much time 
between the shorter words. The preferred 
method of allowing time between words 
is to check the busy line before loading 
the next word. This way, speech can 
sound continuous no matter how long the 
individual words are. Simply replace lines 
120 and 130 with 

120GOSUB200 
and add 

200 IF INP(127)=254 THEN 200 ELSE 
RETURN 
which will space the words just right. 

The vocabulary can be extended by 
using a timing loop too short to allow all 
of a word to be spoken, and thus shorten 
number to numb, meter to meet, etc. 
Also, new words can be formed by com- 
bining shorter expressions, such as 
extenuate from X. ten. U. eight. 

The first Micromouth expression called 
up by OUT 127,0 is "This is Digitalker," 
spoken by a female voice, which comes 
across clearer than the male voice used 
on the other expressions. Perhaps future 
ROMs will use that female voice; how- 
ever, the only other speech ROMs avail- 
able now are a pair (made by National 
Semiconductor) available from Netronics 
(333 Litchfield Road. New Milford. CT 
06776) for $39.95 plus $1 for postage. The 
135 word-vocabulary is also instrumen- 
tation-oriented, with words such as adjust, 
caution, change, failure, fahrenheit, temp- 
erature, yellow, evaluate, pressure, win- 
dow, water. 

Talking Hangman 

A game using Micromouth is Talking 
Hangman; Micromint may have a few 
left, at $411 each. After you make your 
first mistake, a head appears in the noose 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



208 



UNLEASH 





IN YOUR 




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^TRS-80, continued... 

and says, "Try again please." The talking 
head announces each letter you choose, 
and either says "Right on" if you get a 
correct one, or "Error-error-error" if not. 
If you lose, the word is spelled out vocally, 
letter by letter, as it is displayed on the 
screen. Hardly a major application of 
synthesized speech, but fun for the kids. 

Model III Special Features 

Several readers have asked for addi- 
tional information on "the last six items 
on your list of special features" of the 
Model III (March 1982. p. 202). One 
reader thought that "apparently Radio 
Shack forgot to include this in their 
manual, and most owners don't know they 
can renumber lines, use hex constants, 
and so forth." 

Well, I was wrong; actually, those six 
features are available only in Model III 
Disk Basic. They are among 25 "enhance- 
ments to Model III Basic" listed on page 
93 of the Disk Basic manual, which says, 
"Disk Basic adds many features which 
are not disk-related." Once again, those 
six features are: 

• Hex or octal constants can be used 
(in the form &H7FFF and &777) instead 
of their decimal counterparts in your 
programs. 

• REM lines or spaces can be automat- 
ically deleted from your programs, using 
the compression routine CMD"C",R to 
delete REMs, and CMD"C",S to delete 
the spaces. Using CMD"C" alone will do 
both. 

• Arrays can be sorted; one-dimension- 
al string arrays only, that is, using 
CMD"0" to sort ("order") them, specify- 
ing the number of items to be sorted and 
the subscript of the first element to be 
sorted. 



• Program lines can be cross-referenced 
using CMS"X", which searches lines for 
occurrences of a reserved word or other 
string literal, and lists the "finds" on the 
display as five-digit line numbers. 

• A string can be searched to see if it 
contains another string, using INSTR 
(which can be done in Level-II Basic using 
MID$ and LENS; see this column for May 
1982, p. 204, for an example). 

• Program lines can be automatically 
renumbered in RAM, using NAME 
600,500,10, for example, to renumber all 
lines from 500 up; the first renumbered 
line will become 600, and the following 
lines will be incremented by 10. 

INSTRING 

Somebody in Fort Worth forgot to 
include in the Model III manual the 
INSTRING subroutine that's in the Level- 
II manual, perhaps because there's the 
single-command equivalent (INSTR) in 
Disk Basic. But that's no help to those 
who have a Model III without disk. 

The string-handling subroutine, IN- 
STRING, tests to see if a substring is 
contained in a larger string. It consists of 
three lines that use LENS and MIDS. 

First assign the larger or "target" string 
to XS, and the substring to YS. 

The first subroutine line 

1000 FOR 1=1 TO LEN(XS)- 
LEN(Y$)+1 
searches string XS from its first character 
to the last character that still allows the 
substring to fit within the larger string. 
That is, if the substring is three characters 
long, and the target string is eight long, 
the search ends at the sixth character, 
because beyond that, there is no room in 
the longer string for all of the three- 
character substring. 




Pnsk— 



"One person's trash is another person's spare parts. 



The second subroutine line 

1010 IF Y$=MID(X$.I,LENS(Y$)) 
RETURN 
returns a value of I that gives the starting 
position of YS in target string XS, or a 
zero value for I if YS is not a substring of 
XS. 

A third line is needed to end the sub- 
routine: 

1020 NEXT: 1=0: RETURN 

As the Level-II manual notes, a pro- 
tective end-block is needed so that the 
subroutine is entered only by GOSUB: 

999 END 

The Level-II manual includes a sample 
program using the INSTRING subrou- 
tine: 

5 CLEAR 1000: CLS 
10 INPUT ENTER LONGER 

STRING'; XS 
20 INPUT ENTER SHORTER 

STRING': YS 
30 GOSUB 1000 
40 IF 1=0 THEN 70 
50 PRINT YS; IS A SUBSTRING OF'; 

XS 
55 PRINT STARTING POSITION:'; 

I, 
60 PRINT ENDING POSITION:'; 

I+LEN(YS)-1 
65 PRINT: PRINT: GOTO 10 
70 PRINT YS; IS NOT CONTAINED 

IN'; XS 
80 GOTO 10 

Electric Webster 

Cornucopia Software (Box 5028, Wal- 
nut Creek, CA 94596) has a new version 
of Microproof (See "Hte Proofreader Por- 
grams," March 1982), called Electric 
Webster, which adds several features. It 
can display the dictionary for locating 
correct spellings. It has a "new precise 
symbolic dictionary that will not miss an 
error." It is "even faster than Microproof 
(formerly the fastest available)." And it 
has two additional options: simple gram- 
matical checking, and automatic hyphen- 
ation. Electric Webster is S89.50 for the 
TRS-80 Model I or III, $149.50 for the 
Model II. The two options are S35 each; 
the correction option is still S60. 

Cornucopia claims Electric Webster, 
using its 50,000-word dictionary, can 
proofread a several-page letter in 20 
seconds. 

TRS-80 In London 

A recent visit to the Tandy Computer 
Center on Buckingham Palace Road in 
London brought out some interesting 
facts. For one, it's not called a Radio 
Shack Computer Center (nor a Centre, 
either). For another, it sells the Model I 
TRS-80. 

Although the Model I could not be 
sold in the USA after the end of 1981 
because of FCC rules on radio-frequency 



210 



September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



TRS-80, continued... 

radiation, there are apparently no such 
rules in England. So Tandy continues to 
manufacture the Model I for the British 
and similar markets. "We'll keep on selling 
the Model I for at least five years." a 
salesman said. "We have no plans to 
discontinue it; the keyboard is such a 
good seller. We'll keep up with the Model 
I disk drives and expansion interface and 
monitors and so on, for those who want 
to upgrade." The TRS-80 runs on 240- 
volt, 50-cycle current in the UK, by the 
way. 

The best-selling software packages in 
this center are Scripsit, Profile II, 
VisiCalc, and accounting packages. The 
accounting software is not the American 
versions, "because we use different tax 
rates, account structures, and so many 
other details that are different," said the 
salesman, adding, "Our accounts pack- 
ages are written in the UK." They carry 
names such as Sales Ledger, Stock Con- 
trol Purchase Ledger, Nominal Ledger, 
and Corplan. That last one is a simulation 
for management decision-making. 

The Last One sells for £300 (about 
$540) in Tandy Computer Centers; it's a 
menu-driven program generator, which 
asks many questions about what kind of 
program you want, and turns out a pro- 
gram written in Model II Basic. "The 
story is," a salesman told me, "the group 
that wrote it went looking for somebody 
to support them during the early days, 
and Tandy UK loaned them several 
Model II TRS-80s." 

There are about 16 Tandy Computer 
Centers, some 200 "ordinary stores," and 
only about 30 franchised dealers in the 
UK, meaning England. Scotland, 
Northern Ireland and Wales. 

The Color Computer is sold with a 
different TV set, because of the totally 
different PAL system, which uses 625 lines 
on the screen; the US NSCT system uses 
525 lines. 

The RSC-6 catalog available in the UK 
looks almost exactly like the US version, 
with a few differences; the prices are in 
pounds, the accounting programs are 
different, the Model I is included, and the 
Videotex systems are omitted. 

Although several years ago the TRS- 
80s were just about double the US prices, 
prices are now coming down. In catalog 
RSC-6, UK hardware prices are 24 to 54 
percent above US prices. 

Prestel in the UK is similar to Compu- 
Serve in the US, but because it has a 
different format, Prestel can't be accessed 
by a TRS-80. Prestel is run by the post 
office, and has "about 10,000 pages of 
games, databases, etc." 

Commenting on customers, a salesman 
said, "Half the time, the average man 
who walks in has too much information. 
He's spoken to somebody in a pub. who 



told him to get this or that. Or he may 
have been told by a friend that he really 
needs CP/M, and it takes quite a while to 
tell him it's not quite so. Re-education is 
the first step in many cases. Many come 
in, though, wanting VisiCalc or a word 
processor, and they ask for it straight- 
out." 

Two London branches have classrooms 
with 16 Model III TRS-80s in each, for 
courses in Basic appreciation, Scripsit. 
VisiCalc, etc., which cost $50 to $300. 
Scripsit for the Model III is a three-day 
course, for $250. 

Tandy has two repair services in 
London. They'll send a service engineer 
to your location, if you have a service 
contract. Otherwise you take your TRS- 
80 to the nearest Tandy store, and "a 
bloke comes around twice a week to pick 
them up." 

Tandy UK has a high-resolution display 
for the Model I, from a Bristol-based 
company, providing 384 by 192 pixels. 
However, it's character-addressable, 
rather than by individual pixels. For £180 
(about $325) you get 128 user-defined 
characters. High resolution for the Model 
III is also available from the same Bristol 
company, Microware Computing 
Services, but Tandy UK isn't marketing 
it, "because there seems to be a Model III 
version of hi-res supported by Fort 
Worth," which should be available later 
this year. 

An Applications Software Sourcebook 
is one of the few UK-generated books at 
the Tandy Computer Centers. This one 
provides "Over 500 UK Program Listings," 
mostly for business-accounts programs, 
and all with UK addresses as program 
sources. 

According to the London Financial 
Times, sales figures for June 1981 show 
that Tandy was leading the personal 
computer market with an installed base 
worth $385 million, Apple was second 
with $290 million, and PET third with 
$140 million. "But IBM could take second 
place by the middle of 1983." More recent 
figures show Apple ahead of Tandy. 



Short Program #32: Prime Numbers 

From Cavan, Ontario, Canada, R.W. 
Crawford sent this: 

"Just a little while ago I was browsing 
through my past issues of Creative 
Computing and came across 'Short Pro- 
gram 1 P in the July 1980 issue (p. 162). 

"The program was submitted by Jim 
Raden and was described by him as not 
being ...useful at all, except maybe for 
some type of game.' Perhaps there was 
some hastiness on his part in saying this. 

"I have modified the program to read 
as follows: 



10 


dim pnx<2oo> : cls 


zo 


FOR AX*10Z3 TO 2 STTP -1 


30 


FOR BX»15359+AX*2 TO 16383 




STEP AX 


35 


IF BX 16383 THEN 60 


40 


POKE 62,170 


50 


NEXT BX 


60 


NEXT AX 


70 


CXM 


B0 


FOR AX = 1 TO 1023 


90 


IF PEEKU3359+AX) : ASC<CHR« 




(170)) THEN PNX<CX)-AX: CX=CX+1 


100 


NEXT AX 


110 


cls: dx=cx 


120 


FOR CX=1 TO DX: 




PRTNT PNXCCXX: NEXT 


130 


GOTO 130 



"I realized that his program started off 
by plotting the points that were multiples 
of 155 and continued to plot the multiples 
of each integer in ever-decreasing values 
from the initial value. It took only a short 
time to realize that if the screen wasn't 
cleared, the open points after the run of 
the program would be prime numbers. 

"I haven't read the latest articles about 
finding prime numbers, but perhaps this 
item would lead to the development of 
another way to search for them up to a 
certain value." 

For those without that 1980 issue of 
Creative, Jim Raden's original program 
was: 

10 FOR AX=155 TC 1 STEP -1 

20 FOR BX=15360 TO 16383 STEP AX 

3C POKF BX. 191 

40 NEXT ex 

SI CLS 

60 NFXT AX 

70 GOTO 10 




I POKEd where I should have PEEKed' 



211 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



Personal 

Electronic 

Transactions 





I am happy to hear from you, and encourage 
your correspondence. 1 will try to acknowledge 
all correspondence, and a SASE makes things 
easier for both of us. Please send your letters 
to "Personal Electronic Transactions" c/o PO 
Box .1.S4. Palo Alto. CA 94301. 



Greg Yob 




Two Little Programs For A Printer 

Every time I get a new toy (peripheral, 
that is), there is a new set of commands to 
learn. My latest is the Epson MX-80 with 
the Graftrax ROMs. After thumbing 
through the manual for the tenth time, I 
gave up and wrote Program 1. This dumps 
a short summary of the Epson CHRS 
codes which can be taped onto the cover 
of the printer. Now my CHRS codes are 
only a glance away. (If you have a non- 
Graftrax Epson, most of the commands 
listed are still valid. Cross out the ones 
you don't use. or change the program.) 

When I was writing the benchmark for 
Petspeed (see below) I had the minor 
problem of some sixteen items like: 

Integer arrays processing 432 Jiffies 
with each line separated by over a screen- 
ful of code. Naturally when the report 
was printed. I didn't get the Jiffies column 
correctly aligned each time. To find out 
how many spaces to add or delete, I wrote 
Program 3 which makes a sort of "ruler" 
for measuring the number of spaces 
between points. Run the program and 
fold the output where the exclamation 
points are printed to get a nice set of 
space markers for measuring your reports 
and forms. 

If you prefer that the first column begin 
with 1. just change the FOR-NEXT limits 
to 1 TO 80 and 1 TO 132. Note the use of 
DEF FN to generate the right, middle and 
left digits in a number. The 48 is used to 
generate the ASCII code directly — that 
is. CHR$(48) = "0 ". 



Benchmark Programs 

I often see articles in other magazines 
which describe tests of the several vari- 
eties of Basic on several machines. This is 



called "benchmark testing" and the speed 
of execution is considered a valuable 
yardstick for measuring the performance 
of a system. 



Program I. Epson Printer Commands Summary. 

If RER EPSON PRINTER COMMMS SIMMY 

2* prtmT'TNis psi ma dump jumnarys until rou press a key* 

31 OPEN 4,4 

4* PRINT84sPRINT»4 

51 PRINTI4,CHRII1S) 

61 PRINTI4/R0DE CHR4ITURN ONI CHR«( TURN OFF)'; 

71 PRINTR4,' RODE 

88 PRINTI4 

Y8 PRINTI4. -CONDENSED CHARS IS 

IH PRINTI4,' 48* DOT GRAPHICS 

111 PRINTI4, 'DOUBLE NIDTH 14 

I2DPRWTI4,' 968 DOT GRAPHICS 

151 PAJNTI4, 'EMPHASIZED 27 

141 PRINTI4,' LINEFEED HEIGHT 

IS* PRINTI4, 'DOUBLE STRIKE 27 

16* PRINTI4,' LINES PER PAGE 

171 PRINTI4, -ITALICS 27 

IB* PRINTI4,- RESET PRINTER 

191 PRlNTt4:PRINTI4 

2M PRINTB4,CHR«(27ICHR«(M) 

211 CLOSE 4 

22« 6ETAI: IFM>"THEN RUN 



CHMtTURN ONI 




CHR4 (PARAMETERS)' 




18 


I 


27 75 




<L0«> (HIGH) 




28 


t, 
1 


> 27 74 




<L0N> (HIGH) 


AY 


27 


7* *| 


27 65 




<4 OF DOTS) 


71 


27 


72 •; 


27 67 




(I OF LINES) 


M 


27 


« '1 


27 64 




N'A 



NODE 

CONDENSED CHARS 
DOUBLE NIDTH 
EHPHASI7E0 
DOUBLE STRIKE 
ITALICS 



CHRIITURN ON) 



CHRt'TURN OFF) 



15 
14 

27 

V 
27 



II 
28 

27 
27 
27 



NODE 

488 DOT 6RAPHICS 
Y68 DOT GRAPHICS 
LINEFEED HEIGHT 
LINES PER PAGE 
RESET PRINTER 



CHRKTURN ONI CHRI (PARAMETERS) 



27 

27 
27 
27 
27 



<L0N> (HIGH) 
(LON) (HIGH) 
(8 OF DOTS) 
(8 OF LINES' 
N/A 



212 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



DISCOUNT 




^3^ 



\ TRS-80 MODEL III 






$ 1950 $ 819 



48-K 26-1066 



16-K 26-1062 



TRS-80 MODEL II 



$ 3000 



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$> 



64-K 26-4002 %*■%*■**■** I 128-K 26-6002 ' 

TRS-80 8 4 MEGABYTE HARD DISKS (PRIMARY UNIT) 



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TRS-80 COLOR $ 309 $ 425 $ 525 

16-K 26 3004 16-K 26-3002 32-K 26-3003 

WE HAVE COLOR DISK DRIVES - $ 475 1-2-3 -*31 5 



I 



WE ALSO CARRY EPSON AND OKIDATA PRINTERS. 
XEROX 820 AND ALTOS COMPUTERS 
NO OUT-OF-STATE TAXES T M TANDY CORP 

Sold with the manufacturer s limited warranty Copies ot such war- 
ranty may be obtained for review from Perry Oil and Gas Co 



PERRY OIL & GAS INC. 

Oept No -18 137NORTH MAIN ST . PERRY. M CHIGAN 48872 
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PET, continued... 

As with any method of evaluation, 
benchmark tests can be carried to excess, 
obscuring other features of a system. For 
example, the time required to write and 
debug a program must be compared to 
the time used by the program during its 
service life— saving five seconds on a 
program that is used once or twice usually 
isn't worth the effort. The "ease of use" is 
very important for us humans, and as far 
as I know, there is no known "benchmark 
test" for it. 

We can use benchmark tests in two 
ways. First, a benchmark can be applied 
to several systems to compare how they 
perform the same task. Second, a bench- 
mark can be modified repeatedly and run 
on the same system. This provides an 
idea of the time required for different 
tasks on the same machine. 

Here is a sample program for bench- 
marking: 

10T1=TI 

20 FORJ= lTO30000:X=X+ 1:NEXT 

30T2=TI 

40PRINT(T2-Tl)/60 
I ran this on several different computers 
and came up with: 



4032 
8032 
VIC 20 



131.77 seconds 
134.07 seconds 
1 19.95 seconds 



Rejoice, VIC owners, your machine runs 
the fastest of them all. 



Program 3. Epson Spacing Counter. 

Ill PHNT'EPSON FORKS COUNTER' 
111 OPEN 4,1 

121 PRINTM,CMRt<27>CMMM) 

131 PRINTI4, 'EPSON FORKS COUNTER* 

141 PR1NTI4 

1M KF FMm-I-IOI WT(X/IB)»4B 

It* KF FNIIIfFMUNTd/ltll 

171 KF FNCH)»I«T(J/1MI»4B 

181 F0RJ'«T079:PRINTI4,OrMIFNI()))|lNEIT 

I 'I F0RJ*IT07fiPRlNTM,CHRI(FM(J))liKIT 

2M F0RJ>lT0M:PRINTI4, a "iiNEIT 

211 FH1NTI4:PRINTM:PR1NTM,CHR«(IS) 

221 FORJ*fTOI31:PRINTI4,CHRt(FNC(J))|iNEIT 

251 F0RJ*ITO13l:PRINTI4,CMRIIFMIJ));iKIT 

241 FORJ*fT0131:PRINTt4,CMRt(FIM<')>;tKIT 

2» F0RJ'lT0132:PRlNTB4,V'jiNElT 

261 PRINTI4,CHRII1BI:PRINT«:PRINTI4 



A more complete test would check the 
various Basic statements and the input/ 
output functions as well. Since PET Basic 
is nearly identical in all machines, espe- 
cially with statements which have never 
seen any bugs (FOR-NEXT may have 
some unusual properties, but Commodore 
has never seen a bug in FOR-NEXT.) 
there is no real reason to look further 
into Basic in this simple comparison. 
Checking the input/output would be 
worthwhile, but I leave that as a project 
for you to do. 

The structure of a benchmark test is 
obvious from the little program above. It 
goes: 

1. Check the time. 

2. Do something many times. 

3. Check the time. 

4. Report the time used. 

Suppose we want to check Basic for 
the differences in the SIN and the TAN 
functions. This might look like: 

10T1=TI 

20FORJ=lTO2000 

30X=SINU) 

40 NEXT 

50T2=TI 

60 PRINT T2-T1 

There are two flaws in this program. 
(Can you find them before I tell you?) 
First, the time taken to just do the FOR- 
NEXT loop is not subtracted from the 
measured time. Second, the time required 
to do the X= part isn't accounted for. 
While we are at it, let's compute the time 
of the function in microseconds. (See 
Program 4.) 



10 


PRINTLINE BENCHMARK" 


20 


REM FIND LOOP OVERHEA0 


30 


TA-TI 


NO 


FOR J-1 TO 2000 


50 


X-X 


60 


NEXT 


70 


TB-TI 


80 


TC-TB-TA:REM TC-L00P OVERHEAD 


90 


TA-TI 


100 


FOR J-1 TO 2000 


110 


X-SIN(J) 


120 


NEXT 


130 


TB-TI 


1<tC 


TD-TB-TC-TA 


15C 


T F-T D/60/2000 * 1 000000 


16C 


PRINT'MI CR0SEC0NDS :" ;TF 



EPSON FORMS COUNTER 



0000000000 111111 
0123456789012? 



Program 4. 



11111111111222222222 
#123434 7BM1234347BW234547B' 




I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



16666667777777777 

"4567890 1 23456789 

i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 



liiiiimimnimii 

1111111111222222222233 

123454784BI234547BW 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 



On my 4032 I get 27116.6667 micro- 
seconds for the evaluation of the SINO 
function. Changing Line 1 10 to 
X=TAN(J) lets me look at the tangent 
which results in 52200— almost twice as 
long. I suspect that the PET computes 
TAN by using the trig formula tan x = sin 
x/cos x. 

This kind of test does have its pitfalls. 
Add these lines to our program: 

15INPUT"SINEOF:";0 

110X=SIN(O) 
Instead of checking for many different 
arguments for the SIN function, the same 
argument is computed each time. Table 1 
shows the results of several evilly selected 
values. 

Table I. 






Time 


3 


26416.6667 


3.1 


27216.6667 


3.141 


2770K.3333 


3.14159265 


25408.3333 


31 


27366.6667 


3141 


27375.(XXM) 


314159 


25091.6667 


31415926.5 


25425.00CX) 



214 



Other functions vary even more than 
this. When I tried SQR(Q) I got 24375 for 
0=1 and 53650 for 1.11111111. 

The internal search methods of Basic 
will also influence a benchmark test. 
Make these changes: 
15 (delete) 

50 REM 

51 REM 

52 REM 
110GOTO 111 

111 GOTO 112 

112 GOTO 120 

RUN this program and take note of the 
time. Then make the following changes: 

110 GOTO 112 

111 GOTO 120 
112GOTO 111 

The theory in this one is that Basic looks 
ahead if the GOTO is larger than the 
current line number and looks from the 
start of the program if the GOTO is to a 
line less than the current line. You will 
have to try the example to see if this one 
is true. 

As a challenge, there is an easy modifi- 
cation to our program that will tell you 
how long it takes Basic to scan one line 
while doing a GOTO. The figure is 216 
microseconds, and it is up to you to verify 
this. (By the way, if you have a 300 line 
program, a GOTO to a line near the end 
will take .065 seconds, or you can do 
about 16 GOTOs per second— a notice- 
able delay.) 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



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PET, continued... 

The Petspeed Compiler 

Yummy! Hooray! A Basic compiler! I 
am sure you have a few long Basic pro- 
grams that do useful things, but take a 
rather long time to do them. A data base 
program that sorts records and a scientific 
model which performs a few hundred 
thousand arithmetic operations are suit- 
able candidates. If you use this kind of 
program every day. the delays become 
excuses to take coffee breaks and you 
waste a great deal of time waiting for the 
computer. 

A compiler converts the program you 
have written into a form that will operate 
more rapidly in the PET. Basic does this 
in a minor way by using tokens for the 
keywords. Basic, however does not do 
anything about variables, GOTO or 
GOSUB. In Basic, each time a variable 
appears, the variables table must be 
scanned and the variable located. 
Similarly, the line referred to by GOTO 
or GOSUB must be converted into a 16- 
bit integer and then searched for. 

There is a good reason for this ineffi- 
ciency: most Basic programs are being 
changed or debugged and if the searches 
were eliminated the RUN command 
would have to scan the program for all 
variables, allocate space for them and 
also scan for the line numbers and make 
a jumps table or modify the line numbers 
after GOTO or GOSUB to become 
addresses (good for the PET but unread- 
able for humans). If this were done, you 
would have to wait a while before the 
program actually started operating. 

When your program is finally debugged 
and you have no more changes to be 
made, it makes sense to scan for the 
variables, line numbers and so on and 
then generate a program with these values 
fixed inside the program. The time to do 
this is used only once, and in return you 
get a faster program, which cannot be 
changed once it is compiled. Software 
authors will certainly like this. 

However, a Basic compiler should be 
able to read your Basic program just as it 
is, without any modifications, funny limi- 
tations or strange little commands. Most 
compilers have odd limitations — one I 
know of will not accept arrays of more 
than 126 elements. If the compiler needs 
some message to go, you must modify 
your program so it will compile, which is 
slow and difficult for the expert and 
impossible for the novice. 

Pelspeed, by Oxford Computer Systems 
(7 & 8 Park End St.. Oxford. 0X1 1HH. 
England. £240; USA source: Small 
Systems Engineering. 222B View St.. 
Mountain View, CA 94041. $325) is a 
Basic compiler which does it right. 
Pelspeed will read any correctly running 
Basic program and produce a compiled 




Figure 2. This example of printer graphics took 133 minutes in Basic and 48 minutes in 
Petspeed. 



version that you can LOAD and RUN 
from the disk. No funny commands are 
required, just the name of your Basic pro- 
gram. 

To use Petspeed you need the 8032 
PET and preferably the 8050 disk drives. 
My copy of Petspeed came in a binder 
with clear and concise instructions. 

Along with the disk there was a 
"dongle" which is an encased plastic thing- 
a-majig which plugs into the first Tape 
Port. (Be sure your dongle has both parts: 
I received only the lower half and had to 
get the remaining part before my 
Petspeed would work.) The dongle is used 
as a security device. You need the dongle 
to use Petspeed, though you can make as 
many copies as you like of the master 
diskette. 

Operation is about as simple as you can 
make it. Put the master disk in Drive 0, 
your program disk in Drive 1 and press 
Shift/RUN. In a few moments, Petspeed 
appears on the screen and asks for the 
name of your program. Petspeed then 
goes through four passes, with line 
numbers appearing on the screen in a 
window. In about two minutes, the pro- 
gram is done and a SYS appears on the 
screen. Your program disk will now have 
the file PROGRAM.GT-the name of 
your program with the .GT appended. 
Home the cursor and press Return. 

That's all. Your program is compiled 
and running. No fuss, no muss. 

I timed the operation of the compiler: 
it took about one second per line of code 
to do a 200-line benchmark program. 
Since few programs exceed 500 lines in 
length most will be compiled in under 
five minutes. 



Petspeed offers a few extensions to 
Basic as well, in particular the ability to 
use long variable names, the extension of 
DEF FN to handle strings and enable/ 
disable of the STOP key. There are some 
tradeoffs as well: your program must be 
about 16K before the compiled version 
becomes smaller than the original; RUN 
nnn is not possible; dynamic array dimen- 
sioning (i.e. DIM X(N)) is not possible; 
PEEKs and POKEs which are used to 
modify the text area of a Basic program 
will not work in a predictable way 
(crashes are the usual result) nor will the 
CHARGET routine. 

Petspeed will check the syntax and will 
complain if you inadvertently leave exten- 
sion ROM commands in your program. I 
consider these limitations to be minor. 

The most interesting thing is the speed 
of the compiled program, right? I wrote 
an extensive program to test the speed of 
many Basic features which was run both 
in Basic and Pelspeed. The results are 
shown in Table 2. The various functions 
seem to fall into the following categories: 

1. About the same as Basic— This is for 
input/output and the mathematical func- 
tions, both of which use the PET ROMs 
and so changes aren't expected. 

2. About twice as fast as Basic. 1 think 
these benefit from immediate access to 
variables but are limited by the ROM 
routines that do the actual work. For 
example, X=l/Y will benefit from not 
having to search for X and Y, but will still 
require the ROM routine for division. 

3. About four times as fast as Basic. 
These are probably done almost directly 
by Petspeed so the ROM routines don't 
get in the way. 



216 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



c 



Table 2. Comparison of Basic and Petspeed. 



Benchmark Test For Timing Of Basic Execution Speeds 



Test is for: 



FOR-NEXT loops (nested) 

Integer arithmetic 

Floating point arithmetic 

Transcendental functions 

String manipulations 

Array operations with integer pointers 

Array operations with floating point pointers 

Screen output with long text line 

Screen output with short text line 

Writing to sequential disk file 

Reading sequential file via INPUT number 

Reading sequential file via GET number 

Using defined functions 

Subroutine calls 

GOTO NNNN 

PEEK and POKE 



PET Basic 


Petspeed 






in jiffies 


in jiffies 


Ratio 


Percent 


945 


195 


4.85 


384.62 


1281 


561 


2.28 


128.34 


2418 


1156 


2.09 


109.17 


2370 


2289 


1.04 


3.54 


3625 


811 


4.47 


346.98 


1444 


128 


11.28 


1028.13 


Jointers 1618 


376 


4.30 


330.32 


2228 


1928 


1.16 


15.56 


1535 


722 


2.13 


112.60 


1224 


1284 


.95 


-4.67 


:r 1105 


808 


1.37 


36.76 


6105 


2434 


2.51 


150.82 


1580 


991 


1.59 


59.43 


1156 


16 


72.25 


7125.00 


1658 


9 


184.22 


•••• •• 


1344 


358 


3.75 


275.42 



4. Ten or more times faster. These 
operations replace searches, as in GOTO, 
with direct addresses in the compiled 
code. 

If I "average" these numbers I get a 
figure of merit of about 2.2 times faster 
than Basic. This is not the 40 times 
claimed in the advertisement, but is a 
worthwhile amount. Figure 1 shows a 
printer graphic that took 133 minutes in 
Basic and 48 minutes in Petspeed. This is 
a speed ratio of 2.77. 

The speed improvement that you get 
depends on the emphasis of your pro- 
gram. I/O-bound programs, like data 
bases which talk to the disk a great deal, 
will probably run only twice as fast. 
Number crunchers which use arrays 
extensively might go as much as five or 
six times faster. 

Petspeed is my first choice for a Basic 
compiler. If you spend time waiting for 
your PET to do things, consider compiling 
your programs. By the way, the compiled 
programs don't need the dongle to run. 

A Quick And Dirty Program 

Table 2 is actually a paste up of the 
values provided by three programs. Two 
of these are the Basic and Petspeed 
versions of a benchmark program (Sorry, 
there is no room to list the benchmark 
program), which printed the test items 
and jiffy values. 

To compute the ratios and percentages 
I wrote Program 2 which let me enter the 
jiffy values and printed the results on my 
printer. Lines 80 and 90 require the use of 



Disk-O-Pro or Command-0 which provide 
a PRINT USING which is used in line 
150. (Disk-O-Pro and Command-O pro- 
vide some interesting additions to Basic 
3.0 and Basic 4.0, respectively, which are 
well worth the price (about $80 and $50, 
respectively) and can be purchased from 
Skyles Electric Works.) 

The moral of this is that short and used 
only once programs can be very useful 
and sometimes even save some time, or 
at least make it pass with less drudgery. 

PET/CBM Basic 

Prentice-Hall has a new book -titled 
PET/CBM Basic by Richard Haskell 
($12.95, 154 pp.) which is essentially a 
beginner's book for the PET. This is the 
kind of book that a teacher can use for an 



II 0PEM,4:PRIIITM:PRIIIT|4 

2* PRINTI4, 'SPEED RATIOS, ETC 

J# INPUT'I)ENWK';R« 

4* PRINTMiPRINTM.RI 

51 PRINTI4 

6f PNINTM, 'RATIO PERCENT 

7f PRINTI4 

81 SYS 9I4H6 

n it-'iiti.it mm it- 
ip* FOR hi TO 16 

III INPUT'OLD,NE«'iNl,IU 
121 r-mi/m; 

UP RVR-I 

14* RVRVI1M 

IS* PRINT USINH4,H,R t RV 

161 NEIT 



Program 2. Quick And Dirty Ratios Pro- 
gram. 



September 1 982 e Creative Computing 



elementary programming class if the 
school uses PETs. Due to the delays 
involved in publication and distribution, 
PET/CBM Basic covers the old 8K PETs 
and the 2032 Basic 3.0 machines. 

One of the problems facing a teacher 
of elementary computing is how to organ- 
ize the material. The personal computer 
is the most complex product ever offered 
for an individual's use, and the mass of 
details can be overwhelming. PET/CBM 
Basic uses an alternating approach, a bit 
about Basic, then something that uses the 
screen graphically, then back to Basic 
and so on. This is a nice way to learn an 
idea: first with serious examples and then 
some play. 

I do have some nits to pick on 
PET/CBM Basic. The photographs of the 
screen were often overexposed, losing 
important details. The exclusive use of 
photos of the screen for program listings 
I found tedious and hard to read. Except 
for small examples, I prefer to see hard- 
copy program listings. 

The examples involving math were the 
usual dull "sides of a triangle." "interest 
rates" and so on, but the graphics exam- 
ples were much better, so some care in 
the math examples would have been 
worthwhile. Appendix D on Hexadecimal 
Numbers is irrelevant. Hex numbers aren't 
used anywhere in the main text. 

If you need a beginning book on the 
PET, PET/CBM Basic will get you started 
—and leave you with many questions for 
further exploration. I rate the book about 
6 on a scale of 10, or about B-. □ 



217 



ucts . . . new products . . . oev 



COMPUTERS 



16-BIT PERSONAL COMPUTER 




Olivetti Corporation has introduced the 
M20 Personal Computer. The M20 is 
based on a 16-bit microprocessor and uses 
a 16-bit bus. 

Features include: functional keyboard, 
high resolution graphics display (512 x 
256 >. memory expansion to 512K RAM. 
disk storage expansion from 320K mini- 
floppy disk to 11 MB hard disk (5 1/4"), 
variety of printers, interface expansion 
capability, multiple operating systems 
(PCOS. CP/M) to support a wide variety 
of application software, and self diag- 
nostics. 

The base price of the M20 is $2965 
which includes the central unit with 128K 
memory, a 12" display, alphanumeric 
keyboard and a single floppy disk drive 
with a capacity of 320K bytes. 

Olivetti Corporation. 155 White Plains 
Rd.. Tarrytown. NY 10591. (800) 431- 
1366; in NY (914) 631-8100. 

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DESKTOP MICROCOMPUTER 

R & B Computer Systems. Inc. has 
introduced the Model 10 all-in-one desk- 
top computer which includes keyboard, 
video display, microprocessor, memory, 
disk drives, and graphics capabilities. 




The single board computer contains a 
Z80A processor. 64K of RAM. an addi- 
tional 20K of RAM to drive the bit- 
mapped display, a self-diagnostic boot 
PROM, an auxiliary 8035 microprocessor 
to control the keyboard and two 5 1/4" 
double-sided, double-density floppy disk 
drives. 

The 12" green screen video display can 
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characters) character display or as a bit- 
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each pixel is controlled by one bit in the 
20K display RAM. 

R & B Computer Systems. Inc.. 648 
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MAGAZINES, 
NEWSLETTERS 

APPLE III USER'S NEWSLETTER 

The Apple Three newsletter is a quar- 
terly publication that serves those who 
share a common interest in the Apple III 
computer and its software. 

This newsletter features news, infor- 
mation and reviews of ancillary equip- 
ment and applications software. It also 
includes a program exchange contributed 
by readers; a question and answer forum; 
bug reports and fixes, etc. A subscription 
costs $10 per year and includes the access 
fee to a planned computer bulletin board. 

Media Works. P.O. Box 174. San Fran- 
cisco. CA 94101. 



COMPUTER GAMES MAGAZINE 

Computer Games Review is a UK- 
based bi-monthly magazine devoted to 
reviewing new and established computer 
games software. All types of games are 
covered— arcade, adventure, strategy, 
educational, etc. Reviews involve in-depth 
assessments and evaluations of each 
game, and incorporate detailed ratings 
covering all aspects of the game, together 
with an overall rating. 

Computer Games Review is available 
only by subscription from Computer 
Publications Ltd.. 10 Star Lane. St. Mary 
Cray. Kent BR5 3U. England. Subscrip- 
tion rates (6 issues) are $26) or $38 (air 
mail). 

VENDOR 
LITERATURE 



SOFTWARE CATALOG 

A new product catalog has been pub- 
lished by SouthWest EdPsych Services. 
Inc. The Apple II software catalog 
includes educational, medical, dental, 
veterinary'- and business programs. 

Also listed are hardware accessories 
for the Apple II including Slot Swappers 
and the Cassette Interface. 

The catalog is available at no charge 
from SouthWest EdPsych Services. Inc.. 
Box 1870. Phoenix. AZ 85001. (602) 253- 
6528. 

CATALOG OF EDUCATIONAL 
SOFTWARE 

Opportunities for Learning. Inc. an- 
nounces the spring 1982 edition of Selected 
Microcomputer Software. The free 48- 
page catalog features software in the areas 
of mathematics, science, language arts, 
computer programming and literacy, logic 
and simulations, social studies, foreign 
language, business education, school busi- 
ness management, games, music, and art 
for the Apple II. TRS-80 Model I & III, 
PET/CBM. and Atari 400 and 800 micro- 
computers. 

Opportunities for Learning. Dept. L10. 
8950 Lurline Ave., Chatsworth. CA 
91311. 



J 



218 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



wmmmm 




tippkz 



PRO FOOTDALL FANS! 

INTRODUCING 

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TRS-80 I & III 
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1981 SEASON: 
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55% 


AWAY 

80% 
67% 

73% 


HOME 

63% 
70% 

66% 




AWAY 

70% 
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61% 

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154 
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t- new friends 



for your child.. 

JIL Katie and the Computer 




Fred D'lgnazio and Stan Gilliam have 
created a delightful picture book adven- 
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to a child. Katie "falls" into the imaginary 
land of Cybernia inside her Daddy's home 
computer. Her journey parallels the path 
of a simple command through the stages 
of processing in a computer, thus 
explaining the fundamentals of computer 
operation to 4 to 10 year olds. Supple- 
mental explanatory information on com- 
puters, bytes, hardware and software is 
contained in the front and back end 
papers. 




Thrill with your chidren as they join the 
Flower Bytes on a bobsled race to the 
CPU. Share Katie's excitement as she 
encounters the multi-legged and mean 
Bug who lassoes her plane and spins her 
into a terrifying loop. Laugh at the 
madcap race she takes with the Flower 
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"Towards a higher goal, the book 
teaches the rewards of absorbing the 
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lesson about how computers work. It 
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'N.J. Residents add 5% tax 



creative 
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39 E Hanover Avenue 
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New Products, continued... 

APPLE SOFTWARE CATALOG 

Strictly Software has released its 
summer Apple catalog containing more 
than 500 varied offerings. 

The free Catalog and software ordering 
information may be obtained by calling 
(800) 848-5253. 

SOFTWARE CATALOG 

Wall Street Software announces the 1982 
edition of the Wall Street Software Catalog. 
The latest edition includes over 100 
investment analysis software packages for 
personal computers. 

Software packages listed cover option 
analysis, portfolio management, stock price 
trend forecasting, stock and option graphs, 
performance analysis, on-balance volume 
analysis of firms and market conditions, 
technical analysis, commodity analysis 
programs, charting and more. S3. 

Wall Street Software, 71 Murray St., 
New York. NY 10007. (503) 342-8507. 



TERMINALS & I/O 



LOW-COST DIGITIZER 




Numonics has developed a lightweight, 
self-contained digitizer, called Digibit. 
Digibit fits into any system, converting 
graphic images into numerical values for 
the processor/computer. 

It has a working area of 1 1" x 17" with 
0.01" resolution and 0.02" accuracy. It 
digitizes in either point-to-point or stream 
mode on any surface, at any angle, in- 
cluding a CRT screen. $520. 

Numonics Corporation, 418 Pierce St., 
Lansdale. PA 19446. 

CIRCLE 307 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

ELECTRONIC TYPEWRITER 
EXTENSION 

Olympia USA introduces the Olympia 
EX 100, an electronic typewriter extension 
with word processing system capabilities. 

Consisting of an Olympia electronic 
typewriter, a 12" diagonal video display 




screen and a file storage device, the EX 100 
electronic typewriter extension performs 
all word processing functions, including 
automatic letter writing. 

The Olympia EX 100 electronic type- 
writer is priced under $3500 for the system, 
including the video display and file storage 
device, but without an electronic type- 
writer. 

For further information contact: Olympia 
USA, Inc.. Box 22, Somerville, NJ 08876. 
(201)722-7000. 

CIRCLE 306 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

CROMEMCO PARALLEL 
PRINTER 




Commodore Business Machines, Inc.. 
681 Moore Rd.. King of Prussia, PA 19406. 
(215)337-7100. 

CIRCLE 310 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

TWO CARDS FOR APPLE II 



Cromemco announces a parallel printer 
for use with Cromemco systems. The 
microprocessor-controlled impact parallel 
printer (Model 3715) prints 9x7 dot matrix 
characters at a rate of 150 characters per 
second. 

The printer can print both upper-case 
and lower-case characters as well as 
character sets for both English and French. 
$1295. 

Cromemco, Inc., 280 Bernardo Ave., 
Mountain View. CA 94043. (415) 964- 
7400. 

CIRCLE 309 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

PRINTER FOR COMMODORE 
MACHINES 

Commodore Business Machines has 
introduced the CBM 8023P, a bi-direc- 
tional, 136-column printer with both tractor 
and friction feed. The 8023P is dot-matrix, 
and prints 150 characters-per-second. 

It is designed to operate through software 
control, prints upper and lower case 
alphabetic characters, and all graphic 
characters available with a Commodore 
computer, as well as user-defined charac- 
ters. 

The 8023P conforms to IEEE interface 
requirements and connects directly to a 
Commodore computer. It is designed to 
be used with the CBM floppy disk drives, 
and may be daisy-chained with other IEEE- 
488 devices. $995. 




Bit 3 Computer Corporation has intro- 
duced a two-port serial I/O card and a 
16K RAM memory card for the Apple II. 

The Dual-Comm Plus adds two inde- 
pendent serial I/O interfaces to the Apple. 
It combines the features of the Apple 
High Speed Serial Card and the Apple 
Communications Card in one card with 
handshaking. Thumbwheel switches select 
the Apple slot locations. $239. 

The Memory Plus 16K RAM expansion 
card adds another 16K memory to a 48K 
Apple. The product works with Pascal. 
DOS. CP/M, Fortran, Cobol. Pilot. Visicalc. 
Integer and Applesoft Basic. A three- 
position toggle switch is used to shut the 
card off or to select between the standard 
Apple Monitor ROM or the on-board 
firmware socket. $149. 

Bit 3 Computer Corporation, 8120 Penn 
Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN 55431. (612) 
881-6955. 

CIRCLE 311 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

PSIO BOARD FOR APPLE 




220 



The Intra PSIO. programmable serial 
I/O board, is compatible with current Apple 
Software including Pascal 1.1. Applesoft, 
and Integer Basic. 

It provides a full EIA RS-232 DTE 
interface to most modems, printers and 
CRT terminals as well as an opto-isolated 
current loop interface strappable for full 
or half duplex, active or passive, two-wire 
or four-wire, 20mA or 60mA operation 
up to 200V. 

On board IK ROM software enables 
user programmable printer width control, 
delay after carriage return, automatic line- 
feed generation, and video display. 
$199.95. 

Intra Computer, 101 W. 31st St.. New 
York. NY 10001. (212) 947-5533. 

CIRCLE 312 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

September 1982 ■ Creative Computing 



HiH 



MEMORY 



S-100 MEMORY SYSTEM 

Teleram Communications Corporation 
has introduced its S100B Bubble Memory 
System which is fully IEEE compatible. 

The S100B MBMS is a self contained 
magnetic bubble memory system using 
the Intel 7110 1 megabit bubble device. 
Each board has a capacity of 128K to 
256K bytes of non-volatile storage and 
takes up one slot in any S-100 system. 

Driver software is included to interface 
the bubble system into any 8080/Z80 CP/M 
system (version 2.0). 

Prices start at $2295 for 128K bytes 
and $3495 for 256K bytes. 

Teleram Communications Corporation. 
2 Corporate Park Dr., White Plains, NY 
10604. (914) 694-9270. 

CIRCLE 313 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



DISK SYSTEMS 



DISK DRIVE SYSTEMS 




Columbia microSystems, Inc. announces 
the 1600 series 8" Disk Drive Subsystems. 

The Subsystems use the Tandon Thinline 
DS/DD 8" drives. Storage capacity for 
two-drive units is 2.4 MBytes and 4.8 
MBytes for the four-drive unit. The drives 
are one-half the thickness of standard 
drives, so two drives can be housed in a 
standard single-drive cabinet, while four 
drives fit into a standard two-drive cabi- 
net. 

Introductory prices are $1695 for the 



two-drive horizontal or vertical subsystems, 
$1750 for the two-drive low-profile unit 
and $2995 for the four-drive unit. 

Columbia microSystems, Inc., 905 E. 
Broadway, Columbia, MO 65201. (314) 
875-8900. 

CIRCLE 314 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

INTELLIGENT DISK SYSTEM 
FOR HEATH /ZENITH 




Data Compass has announced an intel- 
ligent 8" floppy disk system for use with 
Heath/Zenith computers. 

The company has also announced a 
standard, non-intelligent 8" drive subsystem 
for a variety of popular microcomputers, . 



AFRAID OF HIGH SOFTWARE PRICES? 

TRS-80 6 to 8 programs on CASSETTE every MONTH 

__ for (shudder) about 75 cents per program! TRS-80 



TRS-80 



Wntr tion And typing 

, listing is • [mare 1 Brn 

•ubscripti ■ ( HROMASf TIF Magazine 

IAD and C MROMASt IK Mag. vines are monthly cassettes 
g 6 to 8 ready ' |rams tri.it take 

aiK fl |C LOAD for 

'ROMASt IFF foi tt - 
tt'at even ext- your computer beyond its 

iual s dark id utility pi 

rams I s Mail each mi 

: Get a subscription to CLOAD or C HROMASF TTF 
Magazine Or just enjoy a lit t - d sink your fangs into a back 

issue It von t take a bite out ol your vallet 




Tt» Fln« Print 

All issues from Oct 78 on available 
- dak to* list 124 Lewi l sues alsol 
Programs are for I6K Level ll <6K 
Model ill and occasionally for dels 
rm-M is a tradema* of landy Corp 



P.O. Box 1448 



The Bottom Unmt 

I year |I2 issues) 
6 months |6 issues) 
Single copies Back issues 

Good Games # I 
Adventures # I 



$50 00 
S30 00 
S 600 
$1200 
SI300 



California residents add 6% to 
single copies North America — 
First Class Postage included.Ovei 
seas — add sio to subscriptions, 
and s l to single copies 
Sent AO rate 




Santa Barbara. CA 93102 18051 962-6271 
CIRCLE 128 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Bottom Line: 

I year |I2 issues) S45 00 

6 months |6 issues) S25 00 

Single copies S 5 00 

Calif residents add 6% to single 
copies 

North America — First Class Post- 
age Included 

Overseas — add S 10 to subscrip- 
tions, and SI to single copies 

Sent AOrate „_ _ .„„, 
P.O Box I087. 

Santa Barbara. CA 93 1 02 

MasterCard/ Visa [805)963-1066 

CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE 



8 - 

i 5 

!! 

58 

iS 

H 
i| 

is! 

! 

£ARD 






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September 1982 e Creative Computing 



221 







New Products, continued... 

including the Apple II and TRS-80 Model 
II. Called the 1-48, this 8" double-density, 
double-sided drive provides up to 1.6 
megabytes of unformatted storage per 
drive. 

The 1-47 disk system consists of two 
intelligent 8" double-density, double-sided 
drives with a formatted capacity of 1.25 
megabytes per drive. The drives, which 
are in a master/slave relationship, are built 
into a cabinet 13 1/2" wide. 

A 6800 microprocessor on the master 
drive handles all the control and formatting 
functions, as well as giving direct access 
to signal status. $2795. 

Peripherals Products Division. Data 
Compass. 2730 Regal Park Dr.. Anaheim. 
CA 92806. (714) 630-7450 

CIRCLE 315 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SYSTEMS 
SOFTWARE 



LANGUAGES 

Cavri Systems has released the Ghost- 
writer authoring system that allows non- 
programmers to create, modify and up- 
date interactive video of CAI programs. 
The Ghostwriter provides graphics capa- 
bility, a comprehensive word processor/ 
text editor, unlimited branching, and 
scoring of responses. Programs created 
can be used in training, education, point- 
of -purchase, and other information man- 
agement applications. Cavri Systems, Inc., 
26 Trumbull St.. New Haven, CT 06511. 
(203) 562-4979. 

CIRCLE 316 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




STOKOTCSTRKORD 



FT/ 



FROM THE EXPERTS AT STEREO REVIEW 

Improve your stereo's performance 
with this easy-to-use record! 

You don't have to be on electronics whiz to improve your stereo's 
performance. With the Stereo Test Record, our step-by-step instruction 
booklet (included) and your own ears, you can adjust your stereo to 
extract the utmost from the recordings you en|oy. 

The Stereo Test Record, designed by the editors of Stereo Review for 
amateurs and professionals alike, provides all these important tests: 

• Cartridge tracking, high and low frequency 

• Frequency response, 20 kHz to 25 Hz 

• Separation left-to-right and 
nght-to-left 

• Broad-band noise for channel 
balance 

• Cartridge and speaker phasing 

• Low-frequency noise 

• Turntable flutter 

• Frequency-response sweeps, 
500-20,000 Hz, left and right 
channels 

• Tone-bursts 

• Intermodulation distortion 

• Anti skating adjustment 

• 1,000-Hz reference tones 

• 3,150-Hz tone for flutter and 
speed accuracy 

• Stereo spread 

• Standard "A", 440 Hz 

• Chromatic octave 

• Guitar tuning tones 

Test Record 

Dept 30013 • PO. Bo« 278 • Pratt Station • Brooklyn, NY 11205 

YES! Pleose send me the Stereo lest Record SRTM-A tor only $9.95, including postage. ($11.95 

outside USA) 

D 





Payment •nxloMd. Residents of CA, CO, DC, D Charge my: 

Fl.ll. MA, Ml, MO, NJ, NY Stole. OH, SC, TN, Q American Expr 
ond VT odd applicable soles tan. q y l$a 



□ MasterCord 
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only 800-662-2444) 



222 



Radio Shack now has the TRS-80 
MicroPILOT, a command-oriented 
authoring language which allows teachers 
with no previous computer experience to 
create their own computer assisted 
instruction materials. Lessons, quizzes, 
student drills and exercises, as well as 
student record handling and graphics 
generation capabilities can be created. 
The program requires a TRS-80 Model I 
or III disk system with a minimum of 32K 
of memory. $79.95. Tandy Corporation/ 
Radio Shack, 1800 One Tandy Center, 
Fort Worth, TX 76102. (817) 390-3300. 

CIRCLE 317 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Color Forth, a high-level language for 
the Radio Shack Color Computer, is said 
to be a highly interactive language like 
Basic, with the structure of Pascal and 
execution speed close to that of Assembly 
language. It consists of the standard Forth 
Interest Group implementation of the 
language plus most of Forth-79, a super 
screen display, and a decompiler. Mass 
storage is via cassette interface. It auto- 
configures to 4K, 16K or 32K models and 
contains 10K of RAM. S109.95. Micro 
Works, P.O. Box 1110, Del Mar, CA 
92014. (714) 942-2400. 

CIRCLE 318 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

MicroMotion announces Forth-79 Ver- 
sion 2 for Apple II/II + , Z-80 CP/M 2.x, 
and NorthStar DOS users. Floating point 
and Hi-Res graphics are also available. 
The base system includes a screen editor, 
macro-assembler, string package, 32-bit 
integer arithmetic, and a 200+ page 
tutorial and reference manual. The retail 
base price is $99.95; with enhancements 
it is $139.95 (NorthStar Advantage users 
add $49.95 to include Hi-Res). Micro- 
Motion. 12077 Wilshire Blvd. #50, Los 
Angeles, CA 90025. (213) 821-4340. 

CIRCLE 319 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Organized as a dictionary of words, 
OmniForth is a high-level computer lan- 
guage based on fig-Forth and the 79 
Standard which runs on the TRS-80 
Model III. OmniForth contains an inter- 
active compiler, Z80 assembler, file sys- 
tem and full screen video editor. It 
requires 32K memory and one disk drive. 
The package comes on disk complete 
with the 150 page OmniForth user's man- 
ual for $130 postpaid. Interactive Com- 
puter Systems, Inc., 6403 DiMarco Rd., 
Tampa, FL 33614. (813) 884-5270. 

CIRCLE 320 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Nevada Pilot for CP/M-based systems 
is a string-oriented language designed for 
interactive applications such as data 
entry, programmed instruction and 
testing. It is a companion language for 
Basic, Cobol and Pascal and meets all of 
the Pilot-73 standards. Nevada Pilot 
requires 32K RAM, one disk drive and 
CRT or video display and keyboard. It 
can be used with Apple (softcard needed). 
TRS-80, NorthStar, Superbrain, Micro- 
V polis, Vector and other CP/M-based j 

September 1982 • Creative Computing 



computer systems. $149.95. Ellis Com- 
puting. 600 41st Ave.. San Francisco, CA 
94121.(415)751-1522. 

CIRCLE 321 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Commodore Business Machines offers 
Pascal Version IV. O for its CBM micro- 
computers. All sections of code including 
main programs and sections of the oper- 
ating system are treated as segments and 
move in and out of memory as needed. 
The IV.O runs on Commodore micros 
that use a 64K RAM card. It is compatible 
with other USCD users such as Texas 
Instruments, IBM, Phillips, and Zenith, 
and also has a multi-tasking capability 
and a debugger. It is available through 
Commodore's dealer network for $175. 
Commodore Business Machines, Inc., 681 
Moore Rd.. King of Prussia. PA 19406. 
(215)337-7100. 

CIRCLE 322 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

SYSTEMS 

Alcor Pascal is a Pascal compiler that 
runs on the TRS-80 Model I/III and Z80 
equipped systems. It generates re-entrant 
ROMable code and can compile large 
programs with limited memory. Programs 
may be compiled into native code, or 
compiled into interpreted p-code, or a 
mixture of the two. The compiler package 
retails for $199, and the Advanced Devel- 
opment Package that contains the p-code 
optimizer and native code generator is 
$125. Alcor Systems. 13534 Preston Rd.. 
Dallas, TX 75240. (214) 226-4476. 

CIRCLE 323 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

K-Dos for the Atari 800 is a machine 
language monitor which allows examina- 
tion and alteration of memory in hexa- 
decimal, and displays ATASCII repre- 
sentation. It also has commands that will 
reserve and erase memory and may be 



executed when the Basic or Assembler 
cartridge is in control. K-Dos also sup- 
ports the Atari 850 handler which allows 
the use of printers and modems. E.A. 
Robinson, Inc.. 2850 Rochester Rd., Troy, 
Michigan 48084. (313) 689-7000. 

CIRCLE 324 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Edit is a full-screen Basic editor for 
TRS-80 Model I/III. The program has a 
full-floating cursor with autorepeat and 
over 30 commands for editing Basic text. 
It also has a Scripsit-like control structure. 
$40. Allen Gelder Software, Box 11721 
Main Post Office, San Francisco, CA 
94101. 

CIRCLE 325 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Accetf is a basic compiler for the TRS- 
80 Model I/III. It handles unstructured 
FOR-NEXT loops and arrays, a 10% to 
35% larger compact compiled code than 



Basic source, and multi-dimensioned 
arrays. $99.95. Algorix Software. Box 
11721. San Francisco, CA 94101. (415) 
387-3131. 

CIRCLE 326 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Basic 'is a completely structured exten- 
sion of the Basic language that is written 
via Editor'. Blocks of code are indicated 
without statements such as BEGIN and 
END, and debugging is automatic. It is 
available for the Apple. IBM Personal 
Computer, and the TRS-80. $129. Delta 
Micro Systems. P.O. Box 15952, New 
Orleans. LA 70175. (8(K)i 535-1814. 

CIRCLE 327 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

DATA BASE MANAGEMENT 
SYSTEMS 

Pegasus is a user-oriented data base 
management system written in Pascal for 
the Apple II. Pegasus can define a data 



Scotch' Diskettes 

Rely on Scotch* diskettes to keep your valu- 
able data sale. Dependable Scotch diskettes 
are tested and guaranteed error-tree. The low 
abrasivity saves your read/write heads 
The/ re compatible with most diskette drives 




(800)235-4137 



DMIer InquinM 
Invited 




CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

September 1982 c Creative Computing 



Peripherals 



FANTASTIC PRICES! 



Unil ITHteCI... OUR FAST SERVICE. PRODUCT 

SELECTION AND OUR CUSTOMERS' 
SATISFACTION MAKE US *1. 



ZENITH 



Z8948K 
Z-90-64K 00 
Z-19 Terminal 
Z 121 Monitor 12 



S2299 

S2S88 

S777 

S149 



ATARI COMPUTERS 




Atari 800 16K 


$669 


Atari 400 


S318 


Atari Interlace Module 


S174 


Atari 810 Single Disk 


$444 


Atari 815 Dual Disk 


TBA 


Atari 830 Modem 


S166 


Programmer 


SS9 


Entertainer 


S84 


Star Raiders 


S34 


16K Mem Exp lor Atari 


S74 


32K Mem Exp. lor Atari 


S114 



EPSON PRINTERS 




MX 70 

MX 80 W/Graphics 

MX 80 FT (Friction + Tractor) 

MX 100(15 Carriage) 


CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 


Call lor prices on 
Ribbons. Cables and Inter! 


ices 



NEC PC 8000 
Series Microcomputer 

PC 8001 A Computer w)32K 
PC8012Aw/32K + Exp Slots 
PC 8031A Dual Mini Disk 
PC 8032A Add on Mini Disk 

Call lor Soltware Prices 



S888 
S588 
$888 
$777 



NEC PRINTERS 




7710/30 Spinwriter R/O 
7720 Spinwriter KSR 
3510/30 Spinwriter R/O 
3500 Serial Spinwriter 


$2279 
$2649 
$1699 
$1599 


NEC DOT MATRIX 
PC8023 


$474 


Call tor prices on ribbons 


etc 



MORE PRINTERS 




Anadex 9500/9501 


$1295 


Anadex DP 9000 


$1049 


Okidata Microtine 80A 


CALL 


Okidata Microtine 82A 


CALL 


Okidata Microtine 83A 


CALL 


Tractor (OKI 80 t 82 only) 


$60 


Diablo 630 


$2044 



MONITORS 

Sanyo 12 GRN Phosphor 
Sanyo 12 Black + White 
Amdek 12 300 GRN Phosphor 
Amdek 12 Color 
NEC 12 GRN Phosphor 
NEC 12 Color 


$266 
$239 
$149 
$319 
$164 
$344 



FOR THE LOWEST 
PRICE CALL 

TOLL FREE 

1-800-343-4114 

ORDERING INFORMATION 

Our order lines are open 9AM to 6PM 
EST Monday thru Friday Phone 
orders are welcome: same day ship 
men! on orders placed belore 10AM 
Free use of Mastercard and VISA. Per- 
sonal checks require 2 weeks 
clearance. Manufacturer s warranty 
included on all equipment. Prices sub- 
ject to revision. C O.D.'s accepted. 

For service, quality and delivery call: 

PERIPHERALS UNLIMITED 

(617)655-7400 

62 N. Main St. • Natick. MA 01 760 



223 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Maxell Floppy Disks 

The Mini-Disks 
with maximum quality. 



1 if 1 

if fl 





Dealer inquiries 
invited C.O.D's 
accepted. Call 
FREE (800) 235-4 137 



PACIFIC EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blvd. San Luis 
San Luis Obispo. CA 93401 
In Cal call (800) 592-5935 or 
(805)5431037 



CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



YOU CAN PAY MORE 
BUT YOU CANT i. 
CET MORE! 




Model III 16K 
$799 

Model III 48K 
2 disk & RS232 c 

$1949 



E 



Color Computer 16K 

$305 

w/l6KExt Basic 

$399 

w/32KExt Basic 

$499 

BUY DIRECT These ire just a It* ol our great 
oilers which include Printers Modems Com- 
puters. Peripherals. Disc Drives. Software and 
more caeTOUHKE 1BOO-341 B124 

we nan the lowest COmDUTBT 

possiDIl fully ^^— « nil HT 

warranto prices Write lor your i>*W*» 

»nd a lull complemeni t'ee cdlaloq 

01 BMio Snat» Sort.au — 24SA Steal Bood 

illusion ma 01460 , 
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CIRCLE 140 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




A ATARI' 



«« 88 00 Alan Me 1M 73500 

W* 56 00 Atefl4M1M 359 00 

«» 345 00 Atari 41* Cassette 8000 

7200 AtaritlOOisk 48000 

ALL ATARI SOFTWARE 20% OFF 

Plus Loads of 3rd Party Software! 

VOTRAX TYPE-NTALK: 340 00 

ALSO EPSON A CENTRONICS PRINTERS 

ZENITH « TELEVIOEO TERMINALS 

BBI Mail Order is a company made up ol com 
puter professionals We are able to provide 
low prices as well as technical support Give 
us a call and find out why we consider the 
Atari the best home computer on the market 
today You won't be disapomted 

III Mall Ordor 

Specializing m Atari Home Computers 
P Boi 365 

Newton Highlands. MA 02161 
(61 7) 964 3080 







New Products, continued... 

base, modify records, format and print 
reports, or perform global editing func- 
tions. It requires an Apple II computer 
with 64K memory, the Apple Pascal 
operating system, two disk drives (5 1/4" 
floppy for the program disk and 5 1/4". 8" 
or hard disk for data), and a printer. 
$199.95. Powersoft, Inc., P.O. Box 157. 
Pitman. NJ 0K071. (609) 589-5500. 
CIRCLE 328 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

File-Fax is a data base management 
system that offers quick access to files 
and records. Only a single disk drive is 
required, but it can accomodate up to 
eight disk drives. It will run on Apple 
II/II+ computers, with versions available 
for the NEC PC-8001 . Atari, and Commo- 
dore computers. TMQ Software Inc.. 390 
N. East River Rd., Des Plaines, IL 60016. 
(312)299-5671. 

CIRCLE 329 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

APPLICATIONS 
SOFTWARE 

GAMES AND RECREATION 

An expanded version of the Original 
Adventure game in which the adventurer 
explores the dangers, seeks the treasures 
and solves the puzzles of Colossal cave is 
available. A free Certificate of Wizardness 
is available to players achieving the maxi- 
mum score. Original Adventure is avail- 
able for $19.95 on 5" Heath/Zenith or 
Osborne 1 disk or 8" CP/M disk. Software 
Toolworks, 14478 Glorietta Dr.. Sherman 
Oaks, CA 91423. (213) 986-4885. 

CIRCLE 330 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

A deadly German U-Boat, of a size and 
sophistication unsuspected by the Allies, 



and a between-wars international espion- 
age race for survival are the themes of 
Fathoms 40 and Cloak & Dagger for play 
on Apple II or Atari 800 and 400 com- 
puters. 48K with disk drive as well as 
joysticks are needed. Fathoms 40 is $39.95 
and Cloak & Dagger retails for $29.95. 
Horizon Simulations. 7561 Crater Lake 
Highway. White City, OR 97503. (503) 
826-4640. 

CIRCLE 331 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Radio Shack offers a collection of eight 
game programs for the TRS-80 Pocket 
Computer that challenge deductive rea- 
soning, marksmanship and gambling tal- 
ents. The eight games are Missile Marks- 
man, Baccarat. Blackjack, Aceydeucey. 
One-Armed Bandit, Pokerslot, Numguess 
and Craps. $14.95. Tandy Corporation/ 
Radio Shack. 1800 One Tandy Center. 
Fort Worth, TX 76102. (817) 390-3300. 

CIRCLE 332 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Muse Software has released Firebug, a 
game for the Apple computer written by 
Silas Warner. The scenario puts you, the 
Firebug, at the top of a five-story maze, 
complete with burning fuse, gasoline cans, 
and the dare to burn the floors down one 
at a time. Firebug for the Apple II/II + 
computer with 48K and disk drive retails 
for $29.95. Muse Software, 347 N. Charles 
St.. Baltimore, MD 21201. (301) 659-7212. 

CIRCLE 333 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

M.A.C. Software has released five 
classic adventure programs in which you 
try to outwit your adversaries to obtain 
your goals. Jack and the Beanstalk 
Adventure introduces the series, followed 
by The Three Pigs and the Wolf Adven- 
ture, The Thief of Baghdad Adventure, 
Little Red Riding Hood Adventure, and 
Robin Hood Adventure on disks one and 
two. Programs require a 48K Apple 11 + 



CIRCLE 116 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 
For the ATARI 400/800 Computers 

WORD SEARCH PUZZLE MAKER - Make word 
search puzzles with your words or ours and an 80- 
cokamn printer 24K Cassette: $24.95 24K Disk: 
$24.95 

MATHFAKS - Reviews simple math facts in the tour 
arithmetic operations Uses color and sound Connects 
to an optional printer or Votran Type-N-Talk 1 6/24K 
Cassette: $24.95 24/32K Disk: $24.95 
ELECTRONIC GRADE BOOK - Version 2 — The 
teacher s aid tor grade reporting Includes weighted 
scores, letter and number grades, and several meth- 
ods of reporting grades Disk version has more 
advanced routines 
Disk 40K. Cassette 32K. $64.95 each 

All programs come with a manual Disk versions 
come with AUTORUN SYS file 
Please add $2 postage and handling per order 
Michigan residents add 4% sales tax 

Computer's Voice 

2370 Ella Or - Depl 130 
Flint Ml 4B504 
(3131-238-5585 



CIRCLE 143 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NEW 
INVITATION TO ELECTRONICS! j 

Gel Popular Electronics' all-new guide ' 
to understanding and having fun with I 
electronics! Covers I V computers, I 
audio gear, wiring, testing and much ■ 
more! 

TO ORDER: 

Send $3.93 (SZ95* plus SI m postage 

and handling) to: 

INVITATION TO ELECTRONICS 

P.O. Boa 640, Holmes, PA 19043 
($5.00 outside U.S.A.) 



I 



'KiMjcnlMilUIIHIIM II II SI \ Ml Mil SJ SI 
Slalc III! SI IS and \ I pka.c add applicable cak% lac 



September 1982 ' Creative Computing 



or Apple II with Applesoft in ROM. Disks 
one and two are $24.95 each (the first 
adventure is free). M.A.C.. P.O. Box 27, 
Chillicothe. OH 45601. 

CIRCLE 334 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Hypergate Centurion and Hypergate 
Patrol are two science fiction games for 
the TRS-80. In Hypergate Centurion you 
are the guardian of the gateway to the 
galaxies and you have sworn to protect 
the friendly spaceships as they transit the 
hypergate. In Hypergate Patrol, you com- 
mand a hypergate patrol ship and contend 
with most of the same situations that 
Hypergate Centurion does. Synergistic 
Solar Inc.. P.O. Box 560595. Miami. FL 
33156. 

CIRCLE 335 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Cuban Fantasy is a simulation of 
Rubik's Cube for Apple computers. A 
six-color graphic display, random mixing 
to create a puzzle, consecutive moves 
(over 100 at once), and the ability to save 
the current cube for later recall are 
featured. It requires 48K, DOS 3.3 and 
Applesoft. $14.95. Yukon Computer Pro- 
ducts. Inc., P.O. Box 37088, Minneapolis, 
MN 55431-0088. 

CIRCLE 336 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Mazerace is a board game made by 
Computerware. It is a playing field filled 
with obstacles for one person against the 
computer or two people to play. It 
requires joysticks, extended Basic, and 
costs $17.95 on cassette or $22.95 on disk. 
Computerware also has Storm, an arcade 
game that has 135 levels of play, fast 
action, graphics, and sound. Also avail- 
able is a 3D Drawing Board for the Radio 
Shack Color Computer. It draws in three 
dimensions for education, entertainment, 
or serious projects. Both Storm and the 
3D Drawing Board are $24.95 on cassette 
or $29.95 on disk. Computerware, Box 
668, 1512 Encinitas Blvd., Encinitas, CA 
92024. (714) 436-0282. 

CIRCLE 337 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Color Berserk is a hi-res graphics game 
on cassette for 16K Radio Shack Color 
Computers. It features arcade game style 
with angry robots and Evil Orville chal- 
lenging each other. Cave Hunter is a game 
for the 16K TRS-80 Color Computer in 
which you maneuver your way to the 
bottom of a spooky old cave to retrieve 
the treasures. Joysticks are required for 
both games, which are $24.95 each. Mark 
Data Products. 23802 Barquilla. Mission 
Viejo, CA 92691. (714) 768-1551. 

CIRCLE 33S ON READER SERVICE CARD 

"An educated man stands, as it were, in 
the midst of a boundless arsenal and 
magazine, filled with all the weapons and 
engines which man's skill has been able 
to devise from the earliest time. " 

Thomas Carlyle 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



Two Epyx games have been released 
for the Atari 400/800: Crypt of the 
Undead, in which the player only has 12 
hours to set himself free from the ceme- 
tery; and Escape From Vulcan's Isle, in 
which the player is shipwrecked on a sea 
voyage and must get off the island some- 
how. It requires 32K with a joystick 
controller. $29.95. Epyx, P.O. Box 4247, 
Mountain View. CA 94040. (415) 964- 
8021. 

CIRCLE 339 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Creative Software has released a variety 
of software packages. VIC Games that 
require the 5K VIC and cassette unit 
include Seawolf. Bounceout. and VIC 
Trap. All three for $24.95. Household 
Finance Package does basic accounting 
of your family's finances. $34.95. Home 
Inventory catalogs your possessions. 



$14.95. The Logic Games Package 
includes Code Maker and Code Breaker 
which are based on Mastermind. $14.95. 
Math Hurdler and Monster Maze are in 
the Recreational/Educational Package II. 
Both retail for $14.95. Car Costs helps 
you keep track of your automobile 
expenses in five categories. $14.95. To 
help analyze all types of loans, the Loan 
Analyzer does the calculations for $9.95. 
Hangman (try to guess the letters of a 
word) and Hangmath (try to guess the 
digits of a multiplication problem) are 
part of Recreational /Educational Pack- 
age I for $14.95. Atari Software includes 
Household Finance (32K) for $34.95 and 
Home Inventory and Car Costs for $19.95 
each. Creative Software. 201 San Antonio 
Circle. #207, Mountain View, CA 94040. 
(415)948-9595. 

CIRCLE 340 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



computer store cf the month 




V- 



Computerland of Tampa, Florida 



Numerous stores carry Creative Computing magazines and software. This 
month we would like to recognize Computerland of Tampa, FL. 

A visit to the Tampa Bay area would not be complete without stopping by 
Computerland of Tampa, one of the area's most popular computer stores. Since 
the store was opened in September of 79 by Sam and Don Watson, former 
Digital Equipment employees, it has earned a reputation for dedication and 
service to the community. The store, managed by Arnie Stanger. maintains a 
policy of customer satisfaction through excellent product knowledge and customer 
support. A friendly staff and atmosphere encourage computer enthusiasts to 
stop in. 

There is always something for everyone at Computerland. The store carries a 
broad range of products including Creative Computing magazine, books, supplies, 
software and peripherals. Computer lines include Apple. IBM, Osborne. 
Commodore and Atari. A full in-store service department stands behind every 
product sold. The store is staffed by Jim Holloway. Paul Sumberg, Brenda 
McBrayer, Halina Jaskiel, John Parker and Beverly Stanger. 

Following the success of the Tampa store, two sister stores were opened in 
Clearwater and Seminole to serve the growing needs of the Bay area. 

Stop in to see Computerland at 1520 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa. FL 33612. (813) 
971-1680. 



225 



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entrepreneurs 

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consultant or starting your own 
manufacturing or service business 
Volume II: Growth, Survival and Succisi includes: 

• When to incorporate, when to avoid it 

• Developing sound cash management 
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CIRCLE 254 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Steve Gray, et al. 



History of Programming Languages, edited by Richard L. 
Wexelblat. Academic Press, a subsidiary of Harcourt Brace 
Jovanovich. New York. 782 pages, hardcover $45. 1981. 

This hefty book is the final proceedings of the 1978 ACM 
SIGPLAN History of Programming Languages Conference. 
It provides a fascinating and highly readable record of the 
early history of 13 major languages that, according to the 
book's jacket, "set the tone of most of today's programming." 

The book describes the factors that influenced the develop- 
ment of these languages, covering their early development 
with emphasis on the technical aspects of the language design 
and creation. 

Each paper and talk was prepared by one or two of the key 
technical people directly involved in the early development 
of the language: John Backus (Fortran). Alan Perlis (Algol). 
Jean Sammet (Cobol). Jules Schwartz (Jovial). Charles Baker 
(Joss), Thomas Kurtz (Basic), George Radin (PL/1). Adin 
Falkoff and Kenneth Iverson (APL), etc. Also included are 
Lisp, APT, GPSS, SIMULA and Snobol. 

Included are the papers, transcripts of the presentations 
and the question-and-answer sessions, biographies of the 
speakers, and appendixes that provide summaries of each 
language, and photographs from the conference. 

For anyone interested in how any of these languages got 
their start, this has got to be the definitive work on their 
origins. In the Basic session, for example, we learn why it was 
developed, what other languages influenced it. how it grew 
through six editions, and what Dr. Kurtz thinks of it now. 

The book is fascinating, partly due to the great wealth of 
historical information, and to the many personal observations 
of those who were there at the beginnings. Kurtz says, at one 
point, "Our goal was to provide our user community with 
friendly access to the computer," and at another, "I think it's 
fair to say that more persons in the world know how to write 
simple programs in Basic than in any other language. It is true 
that most of them are probably still unable to vote or buy a 
drink. And if Fortran is the lingua franca, then certainly it 
must be true that Basic is the lingua playpen." 



67 Ready-To-Run Programs in Basic: graphics, home & busi- 
ness, education, games, by William Scott Watson. Tab Books 
Inc.. Blue Ridge Summit. PA. 182 pages, paperback $6.95. 
1981. 

Publishing several dozen programs in Basic is a problem; 
the main question is what to include. Tab Bonks has put out 
several collections before, including a couple of good ones 
and one of all-too-simple subroutines. Ken Tracton wrote all 
three. 

All the programs in Watson's book were written using 
Radio Shack's TRS-80 Level-I Basic. Although Radio Shack 
stopped marketing the Model-I Level-I TRS-80 last year, the 
language is current on the smaller Model III TRS-80. 

Watson offers some introductory chapters (language, 
program size, tips) and four chapters of programs: games 

226 September 1982 • Creative Computing 



■■ 



■■ 



(craps. Robot War. Labyrinth, and 26 more), graphics (electric 
crayon, sinewave manipulation, Supermaze, and 10 more), 
home and business (decision-maker, straight-line depreciation, 
breakeven analysis, and 13 more you'll never use either), and 
educational (math teacher, word quiz, permutations and 
combinations, and nine more). The index is curiously padded 
out by giving page numbers for each program, as well as for 
each listing, run. suggested variations, and list of variables, 
which makes the index five times as long as necessary. 

The space, and a lot more of it, should have been used to 
explain how the programs work. However, most are so simple 
that most people with a year or two of Basic could write them 
all without working up much of a sweat. 

So the main value of the book is for beginners and those 
too lazy to write simple programs. The author should have 
turned the book around by removing all programs and offering 
the rest as "Suggestions For Programs to Write." 

The back cover says. "Here's your source of all the 
programs you've been wanting." If so, you're much too easily 
satisfied. 



Software Psychology: Human Factors in Computer and 
Information Systems, by Ben Shneiderman. Winthrop Pub- 
lishers Inc.. Cambridge. MA. 335 pages, hardcover $24.95. 
1980. 

One of a couple of dozen books in the Winthrop Computer 
System Series, this is "designed for professional system 
designers, managers, and programmers, as well as for 
students." according to the back cover, which adds that "in 
the interest of improving programmer productivity, terminal 
user effectiveness, and system quality. Dr. Shneiderman 
describes current research techniques and supplies practical 
guidelines for programming and systems design." 

The twelve chapters are on Motivation for a Psychological 
Approach. Research Methods. Programming as Human 
Performance, Programming Style, Software Quality Evalua- 
tion, Team Organization and Group Processes, Database 
Systems and Data Models/Database Query and Manipulation 
Languages. Natural Languages, Interactive Interface Issues, 
Designing Interactive Systems, and Computer Power To, Of, 
and By the People. The book ends with a 23-page biblio- 
graphy, and Suggested Projects and Exercises. 

The chapter on Programming Style offers stylistic guidelines 
on commenting, variable names, and indentation, and 
comments on programming language features such as condi- 
tional statements, iteration and recursion, flowcharting, etc. 
Each chapter ends with a Practitioner's Summary; this one 
says, in part, "Indentation is frequently advocated but its 
efficacy has not been demonstrated experimentally" and 
"Detailed standard flowcharts do not seem to improve 
programming performance." The rest of the book is equally 
forthright, and is written in as simple a style as possible for 
such a text. 

However, the University of Maryland's document process- 
ing system, used to phototypeset the book, apparently has 
too long an exposure time, so some letters are too heavy, and 
thus most pages look as though set by hand in a Vietnamese 
village. 

September 1982 e Creative Computing 227 



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Basic Programs for Home Financial Management, by W.B. 
Goldsmith Jr., Prentice-Hall Inc.. Englewood Cliffs. NJ. 320 
pages, hardcover $18.95, paperback $12.95. 1981. 

Subtitled "A system of complete programs and asset 
management, and investment analysis." this big book (8 by 
11, over an inch thick) provides 33 programs written on an 
unspecified computer in what looks like a version of Microsoft 
Basic. However, the dust-cover flap says the listings are "easily 
adaptable for use with TRS-80, Apple II. and other common 
home Basic computers." Some programs use LEFT$, LEN, 
MID$ or STR$; there are "no fancy graphics, sound effects, 
or other hardware-dependent features to confuse the issue," 
as the introduction puts it. 

The programs fall into five categories: money management 
(checkbook reconciliation, bookkeeping worksheet, budget 
analysis, etc.), credit control (net worth statement, auto-loan 
analysis, real-estate loan status, etc.), major-asset management 
(life-cycle costing, lease/buy, home-insurance inventory, etc.), 
investment factors (retirement fund, net present value, stock 
plotter, etc.), and a file manager. Three appendixes offer a 
summary of Basic, three pages on hardware, and four pages 
on Mathematical Manipulations (interest approximation, 
number of payments, etc.). 

For anybody who might just need to computerize his entire 
home finances, this book provides a lengthy description of 
each program that includes background information, detailed 
documentation and "operating notes." The writing is informal 
and simple enough for the near-beginner, who can run the 
programs without understanding how they work, after keying 
in 50 to 200 lines per program. The text is typewritten on five- 
inch lines to make them easier to read. 



Video/Computers: How lo Select, Mix, and Operate Personal 
Computers and Home Video Systems, by Charles J. Sippl & 
FredDahl. Prentice-Hall Inc.. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 254 pages, 
hardcover $15.95, paperback $7.95. 1981. 

This is a guide to making your own integrated video 
terminal, or IVT, which combines a home computer and 
video hardware. 

Six chapters cover the Integrated Video Terminal, The 
Video Enthusiast's Point of View (TV basics, VTRs. video 
disks, mixers, projection TV). The Computerist's Point of 
View (video games, home computers, monitors, color-graphics 
monitors, graphics), A/D/D/A (analog-to-digital and digital- 
to-analog converters, speech recognition, digital audio and 
video recording, analog systems). The Communicator's Point 
of View (data transmission, computer networks, video data 
transmission, facsimile. EFT, computer and video conferenc- 
ing, fiber optics, satellites), and Conclusion. 

The authors cover the material very well, writing clearly 
and with a minimum of technicalese. to provide a book that is 
probably unique and is well worth the reading for both 
amateurs and experts. 



Beyond Games: Systems Software for Your 6502 Personal 
Computer by Ken Skier. Byte Books. Byte McGraw-Hill Book 
Division. 70 Main Street. Peterborough. NH 03458. 433 pages, 
$14.95. 



228 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 



For the average personal computer owner who is used to 
programming in Basic, learning assembly language can seem 
an awesome task. Thai most assembly hooks are written with 
the experienced programmer in mind doesn't help. Well, 
owners of 6502-based systems can take heart because Ken 
Skier has written a book that will do much to ease the 
transition from Basic to 5502 assembler, and provide them 
with some useful software to boot. 

Skiers goal is to teach r.502 assembly language not by just 
explaining all the instructions individually, but by showing 
you each one in its natural habitat: a program. 

The program he uses is the Visible Monitor, a screen- 
oriented machine language monitor that is developed in steps. 
You start off by being introduced to the ideas of registers, 
hexadecimal notation, assemblers anil the all-important 
concept of subroutines. Next, routines for handling screen 
I ( ). displaying data in ASCII and hex. cursor positioning and 
clearing Ihe screen are discussed and written. These routines 
are then brought together to form the nucleus of the Visible 
Monitor. 

While the monitor is being developed, the reader is learning 
new programming concepts like stack and pointer usage, new 
6502 instructions, and perhaps best of all, good structured 
design techniques. Once the basic monitor is complete, we 
continue on, adding more tools and enhancements: two 
different hexdump programs, a disassembler, a block memory 
move utility and a simple in-memory text editor. The last 
chapter in Beyond Games explains how the monitor can be 
loaded into your 6502-based computer. 

Following the last chapter is almost 250 pages of appendices 
containing listings of the Visible Monitor and its extensions in 
three forms: fully commented assembly listings, hexdumps 
and Basic DATA statements for use with a Basic machine 
language loader program. There is also an appendix for each 
f>>()2-based system on which the monitor can run that explains 
the features (read "peculiarities"! of each machine and how 
one can program around them. The Apple II. PKT/CBM. 
Atari -MX) and WX) and Ohio Scientific Challenger IP are 
covered. 

There is much to like about this book. It is written in a 
nice, relaxed, almost conversational style without sounding 
cutesy or forced. It shows the process of designing ami writing 
a non-trivial, useful piece of software in a clear ami entertain- 
ing way. I am also impressed by the way in which differences 
between the various systems are kept isolated by use of a 
System Data Block, although there were some minor inaccu- 
racies in both the PET CBM and Atari appendices that could 
have been avoided without much effort. 

One of the best ways of improving your programming skills 
is to be exposed to other, better programmers and the code 
that they write. Beyond Games lets the reader do just that: 
you get the feeling that you are looking over Ken Skier's 
shoulder as he writes the Visible Monitor, explaining every 
step as he goes. 

1 heartily recommend Beyond Games to the beginning 
6502 programmer as a prelude to a more advanced b.S<)2 book 
(like Leo Scanlon's 6502 Software Design) and to the more 
advanced programmer as a source of good code to study and 
emulate. — Sieve l.eth □ 



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2395 


Star trek 3 5 


24 95 


19 95 


Ghost Hunter 


34 95 


2795 


lots more 






TRS-80 Model I/nr 


Man Manager 


9996 


79 95 


Adventure 10 11 12 


3995 


3195 


. • 


20 95 


16 95 


Galactic Trilogy 


39 95 


3195 


Scartman 


1995 


1595 


Olympic Decathlon 


2995 


2395 


Many more 







To order, call us. toll tree, at 

1-800-845-5147 

Hours: Mon. thru Sat., 9-9 
Our Guarantee: if It doesnl boot, 
we will replace It free... 

■xe^e^e^e We accept 

•^•^™5^^™ Visa ot MasterCard 

VISA Mon U i CfJ Checks (allow 2 week*) 

Money Olden 
COD 
Add $2 00 lor shipping ft handling and S3 00 
extra UCODSC residents add 4\ sales tax 

Apple u a trademark ol Apple Computer Co 

TRS80 is a trademark of Radio Shack 

Alan it a trademark ol Atan 

Prices subiecl to change and 

Subiecl to availability 

Apple TVS m Pet Vtc 30 Atan 

■T m BMsolhstiieoeatkAt* 




*4 y 



CIRCLE 231 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



1? 



September 1982 e Creative Computing 



229 



creative computing RETAIL ROSTER 

A DIRECTORY OF STORES AND THE PRODUCTS THEY CARRY 
TO PLACE A LISTING CALL COLLECT: LOIS PRICE (212) 725-7226 



ALABAMA 



VILLAGE COMPUTERS. 1720 28th Avenue South. 
Homewood. 35209 (205) 870-8943 Apple. Vector. Graphics. 
Peripherals. Software. Training and Service. 



ARIZONA 



PHOENIX - HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 2727 W. 
Indian School Rd (602) 279-6247. Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals. 

TUCSON — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 7109 E. 
Broadway (602) 885-6773. Heath Zenith Computers. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals. 

SIMUTEK COMPUTER PROOUCTS. 4897 East Speedway. 
9881 East Skyview. Tucson. Apple. TRS-80. Xerox. Corvus. 
Tons of Software. Disk Drive and Printers 



ARKANSAS 



ABACUS - 248 Oak St.. Conway 72032. (501) 329-9050 
Atari. Commodore. Hewlett-Packard. Business Personal Soft- 
ware. Magazines. Supplies Free Consultation 



CAUFORNIA 



D.E.S. DATA EQUIPMENT SUPPLY - 831 5 Firestone. Dow- 
ney 90241 (213) 923-9361 . VICVILLE: (714) 778-5455. Com- 
modore PET. Vic 20 specialists Latest Software. Hardware. 
Books. Supplies. Peripherals in stock In House Maintenance 

OMNI UNLIMITED: 105 S. Los Robles; Pasadena: 91101: 
213 - 795-6664; Commodore. Zenith. Otrona. Victor. Sup- 
plies. Peripherals. 

ANAHEIM— HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 330 E. Ball 
Rd. (714) 776-9420 Heath Zenith Computers. Software. Peri- 



CAMPBELL — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 2350 S. 
Bascom Ave.. (408) 377-8920. Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals 

EL CERRITO — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 6000 
Potrero Ave.. (415) 236-8870 Heath Zenith Computers. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals 

LA MESA- HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 8363 Cen- 
ter Dr.. (714) 461-0110. Heath Zenith Computers. Software. 



LOS ANGELES— HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER, 2309 
S Flower St.. (213) 749-0261 . Heath Zenith Computers. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals. 

POMONA— HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 1555 N. 
Orange Grove Ave.. (714) 623-3543. Heath Zenith Comput- 
ers. Software. Peripherals. 

REDWOOD CITY — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 
2001 Middle)**) Rd.. (415) 365-8155. Heath Zenith Comput- 
ers. Software. Peripherals. 

SACRAMENTO— HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 1860 
Fulton Ave., (916) 486-1575. Heath Zenith Computers. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals. 

WOODLAND HILLS — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 
22504 Ventura Blvd.. (213) 883-0531. Heath Zenith Comput- 
ers. Software. Peripherals. 

VANGUARD DATA SYSTEMS. 8696 South Atlantic Avenue. 
South Gate. 90280. 213-564-6402. Mon-Sat. North Star. Te- 
levideo. AtanCPM Software 

COASTAL COMPUTERS. 986 Monterey. San Luis Obispo 
93401 . (805) 543-9339. Apple. Osborne. Alpha Micro. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals. Supplies. Full Service Center. 



PC. COMPUTERS. 10166 San Pablo Ave , El Cerrrto 94530 
(415) 527-6044. Commodore Pet. Vic 20 Specialists. In 
House Maintenance. 

LOTUS CENTURY. Westlake Shopping Center (Inside Mini 
Mail). Daly City. 94015. 415-992-5230. All Mapr Computer 
lines discounted. 

BEST COMPUTER STORES. INC. 1122 B Street. Hayward 
94541. (415) 537-2983. Apple. Compupro. Gimix. Osborne. 
Otrona. Panasonic. 

BYTE SHOP OF HAYWARD. 1 122 B Street. Hayward 94541 . 
(415) 537-2983. Apple. Compupro. Gimix, Osborne. Otrona. 
Panasonic. 

COLORADO 

DENVER — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 5940 W 
38fh Ave.. (303) 422-3408. Heath Zenith Computers. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals. 



CONNECTICUT 



COMPUTERWORKS- 1439 Post Rd East. Westport 06880; 
(203) 255-9096. 12-6 Tues -Fri.. 12-8 Thu.. 10-5 Sat. 



CONNECTICUT INFORMATION SYSTEMS — 218 Hunting- 
ton Road. Bridgeport 06608: (203) 579-0472 Mon-Sat. 10am- 
6pm Apple and CP M-related products. 



THE COMPUTER STORE. 21 Atlantic St.. Stamtord. 06901 
(203) 356-1920. Apple. Zenith. Sanyo. Diablo. Epson. 



THE COMPUTER STORE. 683 Silas Deane Hwy. Wethers- 
field. 01609 (203) 563-9000 Apple. Zenith. Sanyo. Diablo. 
Epson. 

AVON— HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 395 W. Main 
St (Rt. 44). (203) 678-0323 Heath Zenith Computers. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals. 

DELAWARE 

THE COMPUTER STORE. 4010 Concord Pike. Rt. 202 
North. Wilmington. 19803. (302) 478-7772. Apple. Zenith. 
Sanyo. Diablo. Epson. 

MICRO PRODUCTS. 401 Philadelphia Pike. Wilmington. 
19809. (302) 762-0227. Maior brands ol Hardware. Peripher- 
als and over 75 Software lines represented 



FLORIDA 



COMPUTERS 101 - 101 Hollywood Fashion Center. Holly- 
wood. FL. 33023. (305) 961-1011 Atari. Zenith. TRS-80. 
NEC. Xerox. Centronics. Epson, All Printers: Sales and Ser- 
vice SPANISH SOFTWARE 

HIALEAH HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 4705 W. 
16th Ave . (305) 823-2280 Heath Zenith Computers. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals. 

JACKSONVILLE — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 
8262 Arlington Expressway. (904) 725-4554 Heath Zenith 
Computers. Software. Peripherals. 



VIDEO ETC.. 465 Lake Cook Plaza. Deertield. 60015. (312) 
498-9669 Other locations: SKOKIE (312) 675-3655. Ortand 
Park (312) 460-8980. Buffalo Grove. (312) 459-6677. strong 
Hard Software support tor Apple. Atan. 

DATA DOMAIN OF SCHAUMBURG. 1612 E Algonquin Rd.. 
Schaumburg. 60195. (312) 397-8700 12-9 Mon - Fn.. 10-5 
Sat. Apple. Alpha Micro. Osborne. Hewlett-Packard calcula- 
tors. Largest book and Magazine selection in the Midwest. 

COMPUTERS ETC. 2515 West 147th Place. Posen 60469. 
(South Suburbs ol Chicago). Apple. Zenith Hardware Soft- 
ware Service. Complete Learning Center. 

IOWA 

BEACON MICRO CENTER, 213 Lincoln Way. Ames 50010. 
(515) 233-4807 Apple. Atan. Nee Computers. Peripherals. 
Software. Service. 

MARYLAND 

COMPUTERS. ETC. . . 13A Allegheny Ave.. Towson, 21204. 
(301) 296-0520; 9330 Georgia Ave . Silver Spnng. 20910. 
(301) 588-3748. 257 West St.. Annapolis 21401. (301) 268- 
6505. Apple. Cromemco. Osborne. Northstar. Seequa. Sales 
Service Training. 

BASIK COMPUTERS INC. 307 North Frederick Avenue. 
Gaithersburg. 20877. (301 ) 840-0412. all Hardware Software 
compatible with Apple, at discounts 

BALTIMORE— HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER, 1713 E. 
Joppa Rd.. (301) 661-4446 Heath Zenith Computers. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals. 

ROCKVILLE — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 5542 
Nicholson Lane. (301) 881-5420 Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals. 

BETHESDA COMPUTERS -8020 Norfolk Ave.. Bethesda 
20814. (301) 657-1992. Apple Hardware Software — Sales 
Service Peripherals and Accessories. 



PLANTATION — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 7173 
W Broward Blvd., (305) 791-7300. Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Penpherals 

TAMPA— HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 4109 W. 
Hillsborough Ave.. (813) 886-2541. Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals. 

PROGRAMS UNLIMITED. 2550 Okeechobee Blvd . West 
Palm Beach 33409. 305-689-1200. Hardware. Software. Pen- 
pherals. Magazines. Books. Talk to the pros today. 

MICRO COMPUTER SYSTEMS. 144 South Dale Mabry 
Highway. Tampa 33609. (813) 875-0406. (813) 879-4301 
Authorized level 1 Apple Dealer. 



NEW WORLD COMPUTERS. De Solo Square. Bradenton. 
33505. (813) 748-6494 Sell Lease, in stock - XEROX. AP- 
PLE. COMMODORE. SHARP. ATARI, VECTOR GRAPHICS. 
OSBORNE. PANASONIC, over 1.000 pieces ol software, 
custom programming, in house repair. HANDS ON EXPERI- 
ENCE 

SOUTHERN MICRO COMPUTER. 15945 NW 57th Avenue, 
Miami Lakes 33014. (305) 621-4137. Discount prices on Ap- 
ple Sanyo. Miami area s oldest dealer 

GEORGIA 

ATLANTA COMPUTER MART— 5091 Butord Hwy.. Atlanta 
30340; (404) 455-0647 10 6 Mon-Sat 

ATLANTA— HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 5285 Ros- 
well Rd.. (404) 252-4341 . Heath Zenith Computers. Software. 
Peripherals 



ILLINOIS 



COMPUTERLAND DOWNERS GROVE — 136 Ogden Ave.. 
Downers Plaza 60515; (312) 964-7762. 10-6 Mon-Sat, 10-8 
Tue.. Thurs. Apple. Atari. Osborne. Xerox. IBM Personal 

Computer. Fortune. 

FARNSWORTH COMPUTER CENTER — 1891 N. Farns- 
worth Ave., Aurora 60505: (312) 851-3888 10-8 Mon.-Fn.. 
10-5 Sat Apple. Hewlett-Packard series 80 systems. HP Cal- 
culators, IDS Pnnters 



LIBERTYVILLE VIDEO AND COMPUTER CENTER; 872 So 
Milwaukee Ave; LIBERTYVILLE; 312-367-8660; open 7 days; 
Atan Computers. Hardware Software. 



THE COMPUTER ROOM. 638 North Michigan. Chicago. IL 
6061 1 (312) 337-6744 Apple. Televideo. Osborne Business 

Program Specialists. 

COMPUTER JUNCTION— 543 S. York Rd.. Eknhurst 60126. 
(312) 530-1 125. Strong support on Apple. Atari. Xerox. NEC. 
Software Hardware. 



MASSACHUSETTS 



SCIENCE FANTASY BOOKSTORE — 18 Eliot St.. Harvard 
Sq.. Cambridge 02138: (617) 547-5917 11-6 Monday-Satur- 
day till Thursday. Apple. Atari TRS-80 games. 

THE COMPUTER STORE, 120 Cambridge St., Burlington. 
01803 (617) 272-8770 Apple. Zenith. Sanyo. Diablo. Epson 

THE COMPUTER STORE. 1678 Mass Ave. Cambridge. 
02138. (617) 354-4599. Apple. Zenith. Sanyo. Diablo. Epson 



THE COMPUTER STORE. 680 Worcester Rd. Frammgham. 
Massachusetts 01 701 (617) 879-3720 Apple. Zenith. Sanyo. 
Diablo. Epson. 

THE COMPUTER STORE. 103 Devonshire St.. Boston. 
02109. (617) 426-4385 Apple. Zenith. Sanyo. Diablo. Epson. 



PEABODY - HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 242 An- 
dover St. (61 7) 531 -9330. Heath Zenith Computers. Software. 
Penpherals. 



WELLESLEY — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 165 
Worchester Ave. (617) 237-1510. Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals. 

MICHIGAN 

COMPUTER CENTER — Garden City; (313) 425-2470 A 
West Bloomfmid: (313) 855-4220: Hewlett-Packard Comput- 
ers' Calculators. Apple. North Star. Large Selection ol Soft- 
ware Hardware. 

MINNESOTA 

ABS DATASYSTEMS CORP — 905 St. Germain. St. Cloud 
56301. (612) 253-8734 Ohio Scientific. MA COM O.S.I.. Au- 
thorized Distributor. 



MISSISSIPPI 



MISSISSIPPI MICROS. Mart 51. 1700 Terry Road. Jackson. 
39204. (601) 948-7846. Apple. Commodore. Atari. Cro- 
menco. Sales and Service. 



NEVADA 



HOME COMPUTERS — 1775 E. Tropicana #6. Las Vegas 
89109: (702) 798-1022 Mon-Sat. 10-7 Apple. Atan. Hard- 
ware Software. Books A Service. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

COMPUTER MART OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 170 Main St.. 
Nashua. 03060. (603) 883-2386. THE Apple Specialists Full 
line Hardware' Software. Training Service. 



wmmm 






NEW JERSEY 



SOFTWARE ASYLUM. INC.. 626 Roosevelt Ave.. Carteret. 
07006. (201) 969-1900 M Sal 10AM-9PM: Sun: 11AM-6PM 
Huge selection lor Alan — over 200 programs in stock. 

THE COMPUTER UNIVERSE — 155 Route 17S.. Paramus 
07652: (201 ) 262-0960 Mon; Wed: Fn . and Sal . 10-6 Tues.. 
and Thurs: 12-9. 23 Rt. 206. Stanhope 07874 (201) 347-7892 
Tues. & Thurs. 12-9: Wed.. Fn. & Sat. 10-6. Specializing in 
Apple Computers. 

SOFTWARE CITY. PINE BROOK— 101 Rt. 46 East. 07058: 
(201) 575-4574 Bus Rec- Utility Home programs lor most mi- 
crocomputers Up to 20% of) list. 

STONEHENGE COMPUTER CORP.. 89 Summit Ave.. Sum- 
mii 07901 (201)277-1020 10-6 M F. 10-5 Sat. Apple. Can- 
on. Wicat. Authorized Dealer. Sales and Service. 

COMPUTERLAND. 35 Plaza. Rt. 4 West. Paramus. 07652. 
(201) 845-9303. Apple. IBM. Vector Graphic, etc. We know 
small computers. 

COMPUTERS . ETC. . Plaza 38 Center. Rt. 38. Cherry Hi*. 
08002. (609) 7790023. Apple. Cromemeo, Osborne. North- 
star. Seequa Sales Service Training 

SOFTWARE CITY. TEANECK — 161 Cedar Lane. 07666. 
(201) 692-8298 Bus/Rec Utility Home programs lor most mi- 
crocomputers. Up to 20% off lot 

SOFTWARE CITY. GREENBROOK — 60 Route 22 West. 
08812. (201) 966-7224. Bus Rec Utility Home programs lor 
most microcomputers. Up to 20% off list. 

ASBURY PARK— HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER, 1013 
State Hwy 35: (201) 775-1231 Healh Zenith Computers. 
Software, Peripherals 

FAIR LAWN — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 35-07 
Broadway (Rt. 4). (201) 791-6935 Heath/Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals 

COMPUTERLAND OF CHERRY HILL - Pine Tree Plaza. 
1442 E. Rt. 70. Cherry Hill 08034. (609) 795-5900. Apple. 
IBM. Fortune. 

SOFTWARE MART - 352 Bloomfield Avenue. Caldwell 
07006. 201 -228-4949 Software lor Apple. Atari. TRS-80. Pet. 
10-20% off list 

SOFTWARE CITY SUMMIT - 3 Beechwood Rd.. 07901 . Bus/ 
Rec Utility Home programs for most microcomputers. Up to 
20% off List. 



NEW MEXICO 



OMEGA COMPUTER CONNECTION. 8244 Menaul N.E . 
Hoffmantown Shopping Center, Albuquerque. 87110. (505) 
296-5400. Commodore Vic 20 and Victor 9000. 



NEW YORK 



SOFTWARE CITY. ARMONK — 146 Bedford Rd. 10504 
(914) 273-3677. Bus Rec Utility Home programs tor most mi- 
crocomputers. Up to 20% off list. 

UPSTATE COMPUTER SHOP— RO 1. Box 17A. Whitesboro 
13492: (315) 768-8151. 10-6 Mon.-Fri.. 11-5 Sat. Apple - 
Commodore — Data General. 

UPSTATE COMPUTER SHOP. 1823 Western Avenue. Atoa- 
ny 12203: (518) 456-3019. Commodore VIC 20 Specialists 

ADVANCED COMPUTER SYSTEMS. 18 Market St., Pota- 
dam. 13676. (315) 265-5620. Apple. Commodore. O.S.I, and 
Novell Data Systems. 

CASTLE COMPUTERS. 720 New Loudon Rd.. Latham. 
12110. (518) 783-9405. M-F: 10-6. Sat: 12-5. Apple. Atari 
Hardware Software. 

COMPUTER WORLD - 4254 N. Buffalo Rd.. Orchard Park. 
14127. (716) 662-4141. M-F: 9-9. Sat: 9-5 Atari Hardware 
Sof*are 

FUTURE VISIONS COMPUTER STORE. 70 Broad Hollow 
Rd. Rt. 1 10. Long Island. 1 1 747. (516) 423-7820. Apple. Os- 
borne. Northstar. Ithaca Intersystems. 

THE COMPUTER STORE. 221 East Post Rd.. White Plains. 
10601. (914) 428-1661. Apple. Zenith. Sanyo. Diablo. Epson. 

THE COMPUTER STORE. 40 East 52nd St. NYC. 10022. 
(212) 832-2180 Apple. Zenith. Sanyo. Diablo. Epson 

VIDEO VILLAGE. LONG ISLAND. 5060 A Sunrise Highway. 
Massapequa Park. New York 11762. (516) 799-1616. Long 

Island s largest Atari dealer. Great Software Service 

SOFTWARE CITY. PEARL RIVER— 147 Kinderkamack Rd.. 
Montvale 07645. (201) 391-0931 Bus Rec Utility Home pro- 
grams for most microcomputers Up to 20% off list. 

AMHERST — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 3476 
Sheridan Drive.. (716) 835-3090 Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals. 

JERICHO. L.I. — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 15 
Jericho Turnpike. (516) 334-8181. Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals 



ROCHESTER — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 937 
Jefferson Rd.. (716) 424-2560. Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals. 

N. WHITE PLAINS— HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 7 
Reservoir Rd.. (914) 761-7690 Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals. 

ADS OFFICE SYSTEMS. BOX 3210. Rt. 55. Poughkeepete 
12603 (914) 473-9400 User support: Apple. Hewlett-Pack- 
ard. IBM-PC. 

PROGRAMS UNLIMITED. 20A Jericho Turnpike. Jericho. 
Long Island 11753. (516) 333-2266 Hardware. Software. 
Peripherals. Magazines. Books Talk lo the pros today. 

PROGRAMS UNLIMITED. Smith Haven Plaza. (Routs 347) 
Smith Haven. Long Island 1 1755 (516) 724-4490 Hardware. 
Software. Peripherals, Magazines. Books. Talk to the pros to- 
day. 

PROGRAMS UNLIMITED. 131 Mamaroneck Avenue. White 
Rams 10601. (914) 761-9283 Hardware. Software. Peripher- 
als. Magazines, Books Talk to the pros today 

NORTH CAROLINA 

GREENSBORO — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 
4620 W Market Street. (919) 299-5390. Heath/Zenith Com- 
puters. Software. Peripherals 

PERSONAL COMPUTER CENTER. 2605 Chapel Hid Boule- 
vard. Durham 27707. 919-493-5466. Raleigh 919-833-2240 
Full Line ol Apple Hardware Software for Business. Educa- 
tion. Home use. 

COMPUTER & VIDEO CENTER - 1902 Clarendon Blvd.. 
New Bern 28560. (919) 638-5030. Atari. Northstar. Altos. 
Specializing m Small Business Systems. 

OHIO 

ABACUS II— 1417 Bernath Pkwy., Toledo 43615; (419) 865- 
1009. 10-6. 10-7 Thurs. Apple. Osborne. Adds. NEC. Atan. 
Epson 4 IDS Pnnters. 

NORTH COAST COMPUTERS— 626 Dover Center. Bay VH- 
lage 44140: (216) 835-4345. 10-6 Mon -Set . 10-8 Tue., Thur. 
Apple Alan Vector Graphic/Data General. 

PROGRAMS UNLIMITED. Soon to open in Cleveland. 

MICRO CONCEPTS, 1655 Bnttain Road. Akron. 44310. (216) 
633-7740 Commodore. Atan. Onyx. Northstar Full Service 
dealer. Classes. Custom Programming. 

MICRO LOGIC. 2322 Bethel-Maple Road, Hammersville. 
45130. (513) 735-3047. Commodore specialist with Business 
Models and APF Computers. 

BARNHART STORES - 548 N. Main. Urbana 43078. (513) 
653-7257 8AM-5PM. Atan'Commodore at discount prices. 



OKLAHOMA 



OKLAHOMA CITY — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 
2727 Northwest Expressway (405) 848-7593 Heath-Zenith 
Computers. Software. Peripherals. 



PENNSYLVANIA 



CALDWELL COMPUTER CORP . 6720 Rising Sun Ave 
Philadelphia 19111. (215) 742-8900. Apple. Commodore. 
Percom. Northstar Sales/Service 

COMPUTERLAND/HARRISBURG. 4644 Carlisle Pike, Me- 
chanicsburg. 17055. (717) 763-1116. Apple. IBM. Xerox. Ze- 
nith. Sales, support and training. 

ERIE COMPUTER CO.. 2131 W. 8th St.. Erie. 16505. (614) 
454-7652 Apple. Commodore. OSI. Xerox. Atan. Huge inven- 
tory ol Software. 

MARKETLINE SYSTEMS INC.. 2337 Philmont Avenue. Hun- 
tmgton Valley. 19006. (215) 947-6670. We sen and service 
Microcomputers and Peripherals tor small business and in- 
dustry. 

STARGATE ENTERPRISES. 1111 Fifth Avenue. McKees- 
port. 15132, (412) 664-1111, hours: 10-6VMonday-Saturday 
Authorized Atan dealer with Atari information Center. 

INTEGRATED MICRO COMPUTER SERVICE, 168 Madison, 
Rochester 15074. (412) 728-6331. authorized dealer of Atan. 
also selling Televweo. Quasar. Cask). 

THE COMPUTER STORE. THE Philadelphia Center Hotel. 
Philadelphia. PA. 19103. (215) 567-6475. Apple. Zenith. 
Sanyo. Diablo. Epson. 

20*20 COMPUTER. 2020 Hamilton Street. Alientown. 18104, 
(215) 439-1800. Atari. Apple. Durango. Hewlett Packard. 
Data General. Zenith. Televideo Hardware Software and 
Peripherals. 

NEWSY-AT THE CHATHAM. 139 South Twentieth Street 
Philadelphia. 19103 - (215) 563-1219. Domestic/Foreign pe- 
riodicals including wide range ol computer publications 

PHILADELPHIA — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 
6318 Roosevelt Blvd. (215) 286-0180. Heath/Zenith Comput- 
ers. Software. Peripherals. 



FRAZER - HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 630 Lan- 
caster Pike. (Rt. 30) (215) 647-5555. HeathZenith Comput- 
ers. Software. Peripherals 

PITTSBURGH — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 3482 
Wm Penn. Hwy (412) 824-3564 Heath-Zenith Computers. 

Software. Peripherals 

COMPUTER FORUM - 490 Lancaster Pike. Frazer. 19355. 
(215) 296-3474. Commodore/Altos/Atan — Hardware'Soft- 
ware: Epson. Service/Training 

TOYSTORE. 1717 Cochrane Road. Pittsburgh. 15220. 412- 
343-8809. Whatever is available tor the Atari 400 800. Hard- 
ware Software, is here! 

CAMERART. The Court at King of Prussia. King ol Prussia 
19406. (215) 337-2020 CAMERART. opening August 1962! 
Willow Grove Center. 2500 MoreLand Road, Willow Grove. 
19090. (215) 657-7272. Apple/Texas Instruments. Sales-Ser- 
vice For Business Systems Call (215) 544-8700. 

RHODE ISLAND 



THE COMPUTER STORE. 740 North Main. Providence 
02904 (401) 331-0220. Apple. Zenith. Sanyo. Diablo. Epson. 

WARWICK - HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 558 
Greenwich Ave. (401) 738-5150. 

UTAH 



MIDVALE - HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 58 East 
7200 South (801) 566-4626 HeathZenith Computers. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals. 

VIRGINIA 

COMPUTERS. ETC. . . 6671 Backlick Rd... Springfield. 
22150. (703) 644-5500 Apple. Cromemeo, Osborne. North- 
star. Seequa. Sale&ServiceTraining, 

THE COMPUTER STORE. 6858 Old Dominion Drive. 
McLean. 22101. (703) 821-8333. Apple. Zenith. Sanyo. Dia- 
blo. Epson. 



ALEXANDRIA — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 6201 
Richmond Hwy.. (703) 765-5515. Heath-Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals. 

VIRGINIA BEACH - HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 
1055 Independence Blvd. (804) 460-0997 Heath Zenith 
Computers. Software. Peripherals. 

SMALL BUSINESS COMPUTER CENTER. 2929 Virginia 
Beach Boulevard. Virginia Beach. 23452. 804-340-1977. Ap- 
ple. Vectorgraphics. Alpha Micro. Commodore VIC 20. 

WASHINGTON, DC 



STARWAREV Suite 551. 1629 K Street Northwest 20006; 
(202) 337-5300; everything for the IBM-Software. Hard Discs. 
Color Printers, Modems, etc. . . 



THE COMPUTER STORE. 1990 K Street N.W.. Washington 
DC. 20006. (202) 466-3367. Apple. Zenith, Sanyo. Diablo. 
Epson. 

WASHINGTON 



SEATTLE — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 505 801 
Ave.. N. (206) 682-2172. HaattvZenith Computers. Software. 
Peripherals 

TUKWILA - HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 15439 
S3rd Ave.. S (206) 246-5358 Heath/Zenith Computers. Soft- 
ware. Peripherals 

VANCOUVER — HEATHKIT ELECTRONIC CENTER. 516 
S.E. Chaklov Dr.. (206) 254-4441. Heath Zenith Computers. 
Software. Peripherals 

WEST VIRGINIA 

COMPUTERS PLUS. INC.. 300 D Street. South Charleston 
25303 (304) 744-2321 Atan. Intertec Superhra.n - Hardware/ 
Software-Service Training. 

WISCONSIN 



COMPUTERLAND MADISON - 6625 Odana Rd 53719 
(608) 273-2020; 3205 E. Washington, 53704 (608) 241-2100 
Apple. Osborne, IBM-PC, Xerox, Hew lett - Packard, Fortune 

COLORTRON COMPUTERS. 2111 Lathrop Ave.. Racine 
53405 (414) 637-2003 Apple. Hardware and Software. C 
ITOH Pnnters. Service Training. 

RETAIL ROSTER growth rate is phenomenal because a list 
ing m these columns produces results way out of proportion to 
coat If more of your competitors are in here now. doesn t it 
make sense that your computer store should be too' Call now 
— make the next issue. 



the creative coiwpafcer mart 



SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SHOPPERS GUIDE 

PIMM OHM hqurtw «> JHI Be**. (212) 7254218 



Sinclair 



Software 

on 
cassette. 

MULTIF K. E Data St of at 




fit** may be craatad. 
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wcwfty loch Output lo 2X ptwtiat * prondad MULT* he * 

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K and packed •«• an tiHKM p»<w»w»wt * lor age t aft* 



•mage *f 
SwppMd • 



«SMMaxh*n*&>t»»0»am 

ZX CMOS) VOW CfMMCO of 7 leweta ot play. < 
up any poxinn to be anatynd. change ken*** erf plan during a 
own*, swap a»daa. and mora Mtftl tMM 

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STMiTMKTfe»*c«oaii*egelawy M«ft) mm 

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IK PtXHHttM PACK. ■ compact, en«afla*n.ng program* MM 
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io cxcithog mi waoomajt i«m 



aanaMy i 
E SOFTWi 



• I'M 

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GLSDSTOnE 



TAKE A BYTE 
OUT OF YOUR 
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Item Qty 10 Qty50 


MD-5 $2500 


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C-10 $ 7.50 
C-20 9.00 
C-60 1150 
C-90 15.00 


$ 32 50 
39.00 
50.00 
70.00 



UPS SHIPPING INCLUDED 

In Continental USA 

CA Customers add taxes 



MICROSETTE 

475 I His St., Mt View, 
C A 94043 (4 1 5) 968 1 604 



IBM — XEROX — TRS-80 — i BM 
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DEC - HEATH - ZE NITH - PMC 
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(415) 820-1256 227-2148 



•MICROCOMPUTER* 

BUSINESS 
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MEDICAL MGMT... 
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Floppy Drive Power Connector Kil $2.00* 

Tandon Manual and Schematic $3.00* 

12" Green Phosphor Zenith Monitor $119.95* 
We also stock TM-100-2S. the TM 602S. 603S 
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CALL NOW - TOLL FREE 

800-824-7888 all states except CA 
800-852-7777 tor CA residents 
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or money order Kansas residents add 
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For into call 316-683-9225 

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923 Longfellow Street 
Wichita. KS 67207 



^UNIPROM - 



THE VERSATILE EPROM HANDLING SYSTEM 

• Reads programs 2704, 2708. 27$8, 230b .'SI6 !7lf 
tnate supply). 2Si2 27V IWI I s 



i and 
th-f^MA HNTEL \F() with no personaVtTmodnles 
required' All power is dented from the S 100 Oms all 
sianats art S 100 compatible Port mapping occupies 
\0 memory space. 

• Ait on board wait Matt generator allows use with but 
clock rates exceeding fmh: , nth no loss in perform 

ance 

•All software is 8000 8085 Z80 compatible and is fully 
CDOS and (P M compatible Software include* "menu' 
command " Intelligent" EPROM read write and dntk 
I commands, and functions usually 'found mIv in 
' ' monitors ' ' and ' ' debuggers ' ' 
UNIPROM board (A & T) with extensive documanta* 

tion. including sourca listings — $199.00 
UNIPROM duh based software with sourca on disk 
and listing (specify 525* or 8" COOS or 
CPfM, or NORTHSTAR 525' CPiMl - 
$38 00 
UNIPROM EPROMbasad software (2532) $55.00 
COO$ •■ ■ r->g,it->.-Ki tretMmsrti o» CROMECO iNC 
CP*I •• * •vpster**) lfM»m*yh oi DKJITAL RESEARCH 




1982 VERSION IFR SIMULATOR 




APPLE II PLUS 48K DOS 3.3 

A real IFR Simulator with 

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you used to pay $10,000 for. 

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store, or direct from 

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2110 N 2nd St 

Cabot AR 72023 

(501) 843-2988. 



GPeative corapafciisg CLASSIFIED 

CLASSIFIED RATES: Per Word, 15 Word Minimum REGULAR: $1.50. EXPAND-AD': $2.25 Ads set in all bold type >» 20% premium. Ads set with background 
screen m 25% premium GENERAL INFORMATION: Prepayment discounts available Payment must accompany order except credit card — Am Ex.. Diners. MC. 
VISA (include exp date) — or accredited ad agency insertions Copy subject to publisher s approval; must be typewritten or printed First word set in caps. Advertisers 
using P.O. Boxes MUST supply permanent address and telephone number Orders not acknowledged They will appear in next available issue after receipt Closing 
date: 5th of the 3rd month preceding cover date (e.g., April issue closes Jan 5th) Send order & remittance to: Classified Advertising. CREATIVE COMPUTING 
Magazine, 1 Park Avenue. New York, NY. 10016. Direct inquiries to Candi Huggins. (212) 725-3927 



SOFTWARE 



TRS-80 SOFTWARE BOOKS This month s special: IJG oth- 
er mysteries book $21 .95 plus $2 00 shipping handling. Cata- 
log SI 00 Send check money order to: Applied Software. 1 1 
Dickens Ave.. Dixhills. NY 1 1746. (516) 242-7899 



TRS-80, Alan. TI-99 4 Software: Science. Mathematics. As- 
tronomy. Music. Education. Curve Fitting. Fourier Analysis. 
Statistics. Graphics. Finance: Benchmark. P.O B 385. Provi- 
dence. Utah 84332. 



EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE Grades 1 to 8. home or school 
use; 24 different packages for most micro computers. Free 
brochure RESOURCE SOFTWARE INTERNATIONAL. 140 
Sylvan Avenue. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey 07632. 201 • 
947-6104. 



VIC-20 EDUCATIONAL Software designed by teachers, test- 
ed by kids. Free catalog ATHENA SOFTWARE. 727 Swarth- 
more Dr.. Newark. DE 19711. 

GENEALOGY Unlimited system for Apple II. User Friendly 
Systems. Inc 6135 Ross Rd . Fairfield, Ohio 45014 

VIC-20 GAMES: Casino One Arm Bandit Dice Throw or Num- 
ber Quest Word Quest - $1295 Write to D H Enterprises. 
3106-46 St.. Des Moines. Iowa 50310. Iowa residents add 3% 
sales tax. 

26% DISCOUNT on all Apple Software. We carry most major 
brands ol Apple Software - all at incredibly low prices. Can or 
write for tree price list. Bytes & Pieces. P.O. Box 525. Dept 
B1. E. Setauket. NY. 11733. (516) 751-2535. 

COMPUTER CONSULTANT 



METRO NYC COMPUTER CONSULTANT, over 10 years ex- 
> selecting implementing the correct system tor your 
s Mrcronomics 212-619-3286 



COMPUTER EQUIPMENT 



SAVE 90V $150 00 for a Z80A system with 64KB of mem- 
ory and a real front panel or $200.00 tor a 24x80 full function 
CRT' Roll your own Technology and save!. FREE DETAILS. 
Dtgatek Corporation. 2723 West Butler Drive. Suite 33. Phoe- 
nix. AZ 85021 



OPTICAL COMMUNICATOR or Data Link receiver. Trans- 
mitter; all electrical parts, lenses, inatructlona, $9.95 
each. Both $18.50. $1.00 pottage handling Specify digital 
or analog. Peko. Box $476, Sherman Oak*. CA 91413. 

IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER and 8088 boards and plug-ins 
in kit form. Build it yourself and save. Free information. Com- 
patible Computer Corp . Dept. CCS. Box 51 102. Seattle. WA. 
98115. 



PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS quick Also Artwork Supplies. 
Information CIRCUIT WORKS. 1 1 18 7th (CO. Neptune. N J. 
07753 

WORD PROCESSING 

100.000 WORDS— $125 00. 34 megabytes computer media 
dictionary completely alphabitized in ASCII. ANSI tape. CP M. 
RT-11. TRS-80. Apple All media in stock. CPM version is 
directly compatible with SpellStai. and SPELLGUARD VISA 
MC. phone 213-992-0514 write DIGITAL WORDS. DEPT C. 
22713 Ventura Boulevard. Suite F. Woodland Hills, California 
91364. 

SPECIAL SERVICES 

PETER GIAMALIS — LEGAL SERVICES. 2501 Park Blvd.. 
Palo Alto. California 94306. 415-493-2324. Attorney with 
Computer and Electronics background. Reasonable tees. 

BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES 

ATTENTION MICRO AND MINI COMPUTER OWNERS. In- 
ventive new method of monitoring investments with your com- 
puter, will allow you to set up your own office at home, and 
bring in greater income. Complete package $45. includes 
postage/handling. Write tor information or send Check Money 
order to: C B.A.S.. P.O. Box 163. Ontario. Ohio 44862. 



COMPUTER CLUB 



GOLD COAST COMPUTER RENTAL CLUB - Apple TRS-80 
Software. Firmware. Hardware. Publications For Free Bro- 
chure and details write: Route 1 . Bremen. Kentucky. 42325, 
502-754-5313. 

APF USERS CLUB — Send Sett Addressed Stamped Enve- 
lope To: COMPU-SWAP. P.O Box 1373. West Caldwell. N.J. 
07006. 

COMPUTER HARDWARE 

MODEMS - $99 95: Printers - $299.95. Best prices on other 
Hardware Software Computer Discount Services. 448-C W. 
55th St.. New York. NY. 10019. (212) 757-8698; (212) 757- 
9774 

SYNCHRO-SETTE-Sinclair ZD81 Monthly magazine and Bi- 
Monthly Cassettes $39 50 yr - (800) 543-1300: Ohio (800) 
582-1364. OP # 383. or (312) 628-8955. 

COMPUTER PUBLICATIONS 

TRS-80 WEEKLY NEWSLETTER. $1 .00 for sample, write 80 
Newsletter. 3001 Route 27. Franklin Park, N.J. 08823 



COMPUTER SHOWS 



NEW JERSEY COMPUTER SHOW AND FLEA MARKET. 
September 11-12 in Newark. Info Phone (201) 297-2526 



COMPUTER SEMINAR 



PERFORMANCE DESIGNS INC. Announces a series of 
seminars for executives in personal computing. For Dates and 
Locations, write: Performance Designs Inc.. 141 1 North Main 
Street. Box 124. Dept CC. Bluffton. Indiana 46714. (219) 
824-5120. 



FOR SALE 



NORTHSTAR FOR SALE — two double density disk drives. 
56K RAM. and LOADS Of the finest PROFESSIONAL SOFT- 
WARE (business and educational, plus games and utilities!) 
With Hazeltlne 1500 and cable. ALL FOR 3650. including 
shipping, insurance and disk libraries. EVAN KATZ. P.O. Box 
202. Greenvale. NY 11548. (516) 626-0004. 



Advertise for 
$30.00 




YOUR Expand-Ad ■ is more outstanding on a BEN- 
DAY background like this 1 Call (212) 725-3927 for 
more information. 



* index to advertisers * 



Reader 
Service No. 



Advertiser 



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A2D Co 

Aardvark Technical Services 
ABM Products 
Adventure International 
ALF Products 
The Alien Group 
Allenbach Industries 
Alpha Byte Computer Products 
Amdek Corporation 
Apparat 

Apple Computer 
Arcade Plus 
Archive 
Artworx 

Aspen Software 
Automated Simulations 
BBI Mail Orders 

Beagle Brothers Micro Software 
Big Five Software 
The Bottom L«ie 
Broderbund Software 
Budgeco 
C & C Software 
C & S Electronics. Ltd 
CaMornia Accessory 
Calsott 

Charles Mann & Associates 
Chnslm Data 
Classified 
CLOAD Magazine 
CLOAD Magazine 
Commodore Business Machines 
Compumax Assoc Inc 
CompuServe 

The Computer Book Club 
Computer Business 
Computer Exchange 
Computer Mail Order 
Computer Mart 
Computer Plus 
Computer Specialties 
Computer Time Inc 
Computer's Voice 
Computer Warehouse 
Computromcs 
Conceptual Instruments 
Consumer Computers Mail Or- 
der 
Cosmic Corp Unlimited 
Cottage Software 
CPU Shop 
Creative Software 
Data most 
Datamost 
Dickens Data 
Discount Data Products 



Pag* 

142 

137 

228 

76 

81 

125 

39 

122-123 

36 

141 

13 

83 

73 

191 

49 

52 

224 

215 

2 
115 

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204 
157 
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149 
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Cover 3 
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19 
94-95 
158-159 
232 
224 
108 
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224 
116 
207 

35 
201 

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29 

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Reader 
Service No. 



Advertiser 



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2C1 
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Discount Software Group 

Dressetiaus Computer Products 

Dynacomp 

800 Software 

800 Software 

Educational Activities 

Electronic Specialists 

Federal Energy Systems 

Financial Software 

Fourth Dimension 

Frankhn Computer 

Frederick Computer Products 

Happy Hands 

Heath Co 

Howard Sams Co 

Huntington Computing 

BM 

UGlnc 

Interactive Structures Inc 

Jade Computer Products 

John Wiley & Sons 

Kalglo Electronics Co Inc 

Ke»y s Computing 

Krell Software 

Last Electronics 

Leadng Edge 

LNW Research 

LNW Research 

Lyco Computer 

Mark Four Imports 

Micro Business World 

Microcomputer Technology Inc 

Micro Computer Service Center 

Micro D 

Micro Learmngware 

Micro Management 

Micro Mountain 

Micro-Printer Marketing 

Microsoft 

Microsystems 

Microworks 

Muse Software 

Muse Software 

Neeco 

NRl Schools /Electronics Division 

Okidata 

Omega Mcroware 

Omega Mcroware 

Omega Mcroware 

Omega Sales 

On-Lne Systems 

Orange Micro 

Pacific Exchanges 

Pacific Exchanges 

Pacific Exchanges 

Pacific Exchanges 



Page 

77 

136 

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148 

181 

185 

185 

23 

56-57 

197 

152 

42 

11 

139 

24-25 

91 

92 

127-129 

12 

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44 

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Cover 4 

17 

175 

181 

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202 

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Reader 
Service No. 



Advertiser 



Page 

202 Pacific Exchanges 225 

203 Pan American Electronics 178 

204 Peek & Poke Software 177 

205 Peripheral Unltd 223 

206 Perry Oil & Gas 213 
151 Personal Computer Age 153 

207 Philadelphia Computer Discount 167 

208 Practical Peripherals Inc Cover 2- 1 

209 Professional Software 133 

210 Professional Software 135 

211 Programmers Institute 53 

212 Protecto Enterpnzes 142 
200 Quality Software 213 

214 Quark Engineering 45 

215 Qume 55 
264 Radio Shack 46 
217 Realty Software 178 

• Retail Roster 230-231 

219 RH Electronics 197 

221 Royal Software 189 

222 Sandhu Machine Designs 79 

223 Seattle Computer 38 

225 Sheridan College 197 

226 Silicon Valley Systems 61 

227 Smpfy Software 87 
Sincla* Research Ltd 40-4 1 

228 Sinus Software 84 

229 Sir-Tech 75 
231 Software City 229 

233 Software Dimension 119 

234 Software Street 175 

235 Software Tree 202 

236 Southern California Research Group 227 

237 Southern Case 215 

238 Southwestern Data 179 

239 Southwestern Data 187 

240 Southwestern Data 201 
257 Spectra Marketing 30 

241 Spectral Associates 165 

242 Strategic Simulations 62 

243 Street Electronics Corp 187 

244 Stnctry Software 21 

245 Subtogc 26 

246 Synapse Software 68 

247 Syncom 89 
270 Systems Design Lab 219 

248 Systems Plus 183 

249 Tecmar Inc 7 

250 Trans Net Corporation 177 

251 Valpar 15 

252 Videx 51 

253 VR Data 193 

254 Wild Fre Publishing 226 

255 XPS he 87 



'Write Advertiser Directly 



Bit Pit 



Chas Andres 




234 



September 1982 c Creative Computing 




inraRmATinn 

SERVICE 



Learning more about a product 
that's advertised or mentioned in an 
article in this month's issue is as 
simple as 1-2-3. And absolutely free. 

1 Print or type your name and ad- 
dress on the attached card. Use 
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2 Circle the numbers on the card 
that correspond to the numbers 
at the bottom of the advertisements 
or articles for which you want more 
information. (Key numbers for ad- 
vertised products also appear in the 
Advertisers' Index.) 

3 Simply mail the card, and the lit- 
erature will be mailed to you free 
of charge by the manufacturer. 

The addresses on the attached 
cards are only for product informa- 
tion or subscription requests. Edito- 
rial inquiries should be directed to 
CREATIVE COMPUTING, 39 East 
Hanover Avenue, Morris Plains, New 
Jersey 07950. 



FREE 

inFDRmATian 

SERVICE 



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4 [1 Send me one year of Creative Computing for $19.97 and bill me. 






(Full subscription price $24.97.) 


















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Jse only one card per person 










» 
































£ 


































fa 


ADC 

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(Zip 


>RES 

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134 135 136 


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137 


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139 


140 


141 


142 


143 


144 


145 


146 


147 


148 


149 


150 


151 


152 153 154 


155 


156 


157 


158 


159 


160 


161 


162 


163 


164 


165 


166 


167 


168 


169 


170 171 172 


173 


174 


175 


176 


177 


178 


179 


180 


181 


182 


183 


184 


185 


186 


18/ 


188 189 190 




191 


19? 


193 


194 


195 


196 


197 


198 


199 


200 


701 


202 


203 


204 


205 


208 207 208 


49 

S3 


209 


?10 


211 


71? 


713 


214 


715 


216 


217 


218 


219 


720 


221 


222 


223 


224 225 226 


227 


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730 


231 


232 


233 


234 


235 


236 


237 


738 


739 


240 


241 


242 243 244 


245 


?4B 


747 


248 


249 


250 


251 


252 


253 


254 


255 


756 


757 


258 


259 


260 261 262 


& 


263 


M4 


265 


Qflft 


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268 


269 


270 


271 


272 


273 


774 


275 


2/6 


27/ 


278 279 280 


281 


78? 


783 


784 


285 


286 


287 


288 


289 


290 


291 


292 


293 


294 


295 


296 297 296 


fi2 


299 


300 


301 


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303 


304 


305 


306 


307 


308 


309 


310 


311 


312 


313 


314 315 316 


cs 


317 


318 


319 


320 


321 


322 


323 


324 


325 


326 


327 


328 


379 


330 


331 


332 333 334 





335 


336 


337 


338 


339 


340 


341 


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343 


344 


345 


346 


347 


348 


349 


350 351 352 


353 


354 


355 


356 


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359 


360 


361 


362 


363 


364 


365 


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367 


368 369 370 


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371 


372 


373 


374 


375 


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377 


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380 


381 


382 


383 


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385 


386 387 388 


389 


390 


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392 


393 


394 


395 


396 


397 


396 


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400 










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See other side for directions 




COMMODORE 
VS. IBM 

APPLE,TANDY AND ALL THE OTHERS 

"READ THE CHART AND SEE WHICH COMPUTER COSTS LESS 
AND GIVES YOU MORE FOR YOUR MONEY." 




—WILLIAM SHATNER 



COMPARE OUR $995 COMPUTER 






FEATURES 


COMMODORE 
4016 


IBM" 


APPLE 
II* 


TRS-80® 
MODEL III 


Base Price 


$ 995 


$1565 


$1330 


$ 999 


12" Green Screen 


Standard 


345 


299 


NO 


IEEE Interface 


Standard 


NO 


300 


NO 


TOTAL 


$ 995 


$1910 


$1929 


$ 999 


Intelligent Peripherals 
Real Time Clock 


Standard 
Standard 


NO 
NO 


NO 
NO 


NO 
NO 


Upper & Lower Case Letters 

Separate Numeric Key Pad 

Maximum 5%" Disk Capacity Per Drive 


Standard 

Standard 

500K 


Standard 
Standard 
160K 


NO 
NO 
143K 


Standard 

Standard 

178K 


These systems were configured to approximate the capabilities of the 16K PET ■ 4016. Disk drives ; 
vary in their degree of expandability 


nd printers are not included in prices 


Models shown 



WHY COMMODORE 

The idea of a computer in every office and home used to 
be science fiction. But that idea is now becoming reality. 
The question is. with so many to choose from, which 
computer should you buy. When you consider the facts, 
the clear choice isCommodore: 

1 Commodore is the only personal computer company 
with a full line of computers — from our $299.95 
V1C-20 to the economical PET* and CBM™ (see 
chart) to our new SuperPET computer that speaks 5 
computer languages. 

2 Commodore is the only U.S. personal computer com- 
pany that manufactures its own semiconductor micro- 
processors — the "heart "of all personal computers. 
As a result. Commodore* computer system is more 
affordable. 

3 Commodore's proprietary "6502" microprocessor is 
so technologically advanced and reliable that it "s used in 
all Apple and Atari computers, as well as many others 

4 Commodore * CBM provides more storage power — 
1 .000.000 characters on 5 14 " dual disks —than any 
system in its price range . More than IBM. More than 
Apple. More than Tandy. 

5 Commodore computer systems can be expanded to 
meet the needs of a growing business. 

6 With over a quarter of a million computers sold world- 
wide. Commodore is proven for performance and 
reliability. 

7 Sales in excess of $200,000,000 annually 

8 Commodore is listed on the New York 
Stock Exchange. 

USES AND APPLICATIONS 
Word Processing. It 's easy on Commo 



dore — the most versatile, efficient and economical 

computers in their price range. 

Financial Planning and Budgeting. Through the use 

ot 'VisiCalc*" '.the electronic worksheet. It lets you 

explore all your financial alternatives in seconds. 

Dow Jones Portfolio Management System 2 . Gives 

you up-to-the-minute data on over 6,000 securities. 

And more. 

Data Management and Retrieval System. <)//'. 

our information wizard . makes it easy for you . 

Doctors' System. Our Medical Accounting System 

( MAS) 4 offers a fast, flexible billing and accounts 

receivable package 

Legal Time Accounting System ( LTA )'. Automatical 

ly processes activities by client, attorney and action 

Accounting and Bookkeeping Systems. 

• Accounts receivable • Accounts payable • Payroll • 

Inventory control • Job costing • Engineering • Person 

nel recordkeeping • Tax preparation 




WE WROTE THE BOOK ON SOFTWARE 

The Commodore Software Encyclopedia is a compre- 
hensive directory of software programs for: 
• Business • Education • Recreation • Personal Use 
Contains over 1 .000 software applications to choose 
from. Pick up a copy at your local Commodore dealer. 
FULL SERVICE, FULL SUPPORT 
Commodore dealers throughout the country offer 
prompt local stcvio*. And our new national service con- 
tract with TRW provides nationwide support. TRW is the 
largest third-party related computer service organiza- 
tion in the U.S. . with over 2.000 skilled technicians, 
nationwide. 

1 ViiiCak » a Trademark of Personal Softwcar. lac 

2 The Portfolio Management System was created by Micro 
Business Systems. Inc 

i O/Y was created by the Bristol Software Factory. 
4 MAS and LTA were created by Cimarron Coip. 

I Commodore Computer Systems 

• 681 Moore Road. King of Prussia. PA 19406 

I Canadian Residents: Commodore Computer Systems | 

3370 Pharmacy Avenue 

Agincourt. Ontario. Canada Ml W 2K4 

Please send me more information. 



O'mpatls 



_ Title 



-Zip 



City Stan 

Telephone j 

Interest Area 

D Business O Education D Personal CC-9 | 



£ E commodore 

v COMPUTER 

CIRCLE 133 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




"NEVEI 



FORGETS." 



MORE THAN JUST ANOTHER PRETTY FACE 



Says who? Says ANSI. 

Specifically subcommittee X3B8 of the American 
National Standards Institute (ANSI) says so. The fact 
is all Elephant™ floppies meet or exceed the specs 
required to meet or exceed all their standards. 

But just who is "subcommittee X3B8" to issue such 
pronouncements? 

They're a group of people representing a large, 
well-balanced cross section of disciplines— from 
academia, government agencies, and the computer 
industry. People from places like IBM, Hewlett-Packard, 
3M, Lawrence Livermore Labs, The U.S. Department 
of Defense, Honeywell and The Association of Com- 
puter Programmers and Analysts. In short, it's a bunch 
of high-caliber nitpickers whose mission, it seems, in 
order to make better disks for consumers, is also to 



make life miserable for everyone in the disk-making 
business. 

How? By gathering together periodically (often, 
one suspects, under the full moon) to concoct more 
and more rules to increase the quality of flexible 
disks. Their most recent rule book runs over 20 single- 
spaced pages— listing, and insisting upon— hundreds 
t upon hundreds of standards a disk must meet in 
order to be blessed by ANSI. (And thereby be taken 
seriously by people who take disks seriously.) 

In fact, if you'd like a copy of this formidable docu- 
ment, for free, just let us know and we'll send you 
one. Because once you know what it takes to make 
an Elephant for ANSI . . . 

We think you'll want us to make some Elephants 
for you. 



ELEPHANT. HEAVY DUTY DISKS. 

Distributed Exclusively by Leading Edge Products, Inc., 225 Turnpike Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021 
Call: toll-free 1-800-343-6833; or in Massachusetts call collect (617) 828-8150. Telex 951-624. 



CIRCLE 177 ON READER SERVICE CARD